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The Rise of Sectionalism Meaning of Sectionalism Economic Basis Sectional Issues.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Sectionalism Meaning of Sectionalism Economic Basis Sectional Issues."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Sectionalism Meaning of Sectionalism Economic Basis Sectional Issues

2 Sectionalism Defined Primary loyalty to state or section as opposed to nation Problems are considered from a sectional perspective rather than national perspective. Southern sectionalism predicated on compact theory of government and its states’ rights philosophy Northerners and Westerners argued that what was good for their sections was inherently beneficial for the nation.

3 Economic Basis Industrial Northeast Plantation South Small Farm West

4 Industrial Northeast Samuel Slater, Eli Whitney, Francis Cabot Lowell Major products included textiles, iron implements, utensils and machinery Factors that promoted industrialization in the Northeast –Trade war of early 19 th century freeing up labor and capital –Water power was readily available from swift moving streams and the Appalachians supplied coal for steam power –Easy to recruit factory workers from unsuccessful NE farm families and recent immigrants –Access to investment capital from nation’s banking center in the region –The South and West provided a growing market for manufactured goods

5 Plantation South The South contained many small subsistence farmers but was dominated economically and politically, by a small number of wealthy plantation owners. Cash crop production –Tobacco, rice, sugar, and cotton The Rise of King Cotton –b/w 1796 and 1826 cotton production increased from 2 million to 330 million pounds annually. –Cheap fertile land was plentiful –The development of the cotton gin –Year-round activity that required little expertise –Northern and British textile industries provided a growing market for raw cotton

6 Small-Farm West Consisted of the Central and Northwestern states –Emphasized agriculture on the small- family sized farm Western settlers supplied the food for much of the East –Wheat, rye, corn, and meat Western productivity facilitated by –Fertile lands that were plentiful –The federal government’s sale of the land at reasonable rates $1.25 per acre after 1820 –Willingness of free men to work hard on their own farms in order to improve economic situation –Northern and English cities represented an ever increasing demand for their foodstuffs

7 Sectional Issues Protective Tariff Second Bank of the United States Internal Improvements Federal Land Policy The Expansion of Slavery

8 Sectionalism – The Tariff Issue Protective Tariffs –The Northeast strongly favored the tariff protected factory owners and workers against foreign competition –The South opposed the tariff Artificially increased the price of manufactured goods –The West generally supported the tariff Opposition to higher cost of goods offset by the need for a prosperous Northeastern market for their agricultural products

9 Sectionalism – The Bank Issue The Northeast strongly supported the Bank –Manufacturers and merchants benefited from available investment capital and a stable currency The South and the West opposed the Bank –Farmers and debtors generally preferred state banks more lenient credit requirements & cheaper money  higher prices for agricultural products

10 Sectionalism – The Internal Improvements Issue The central issue was not whether or not internal improvements were important, but who should bear the primary responsibility for funding improvement projects –Federal v. State The West strongly supported internal improvements at the federal expense –Farmers needed roads and canals to send their agricultural products to Northeastern markets and seaports The South opposed this –Planters had satisfactory water routes to Northeastern and English markets and had little need for water routes to the West The Northeast generally supported the West on this issue –Manufacturers desired improved routes to Western markets –Northeasterners preferred cost be borne by private enterprise or states

11 Sectionalism – The Land Policy Issue A “Liberal” land policy is one in which land is made available to people for a minimum cost The West strongly supported cheap land –Farmers wanted to acquire more land –Wanted to attract more settlers  form new states  increase the influence of the West in the federal government The South was divided on this issue –Planters wanted cheap lands in the Southwest –Feared westward would reduce Southern influence in the federal government The Northeast opposed a liberal land policy –Manufacturers feared the loss of factory workers to the West –Feared losing political influence in the federal government

12 Sectionalism – The Slavery Issue Issue: Should slavery be permitted to expand The West & Northeast opposed the expansion of slavery –Moral Argument –Economic Argument Threat slavery posed to free labor The South favored the expansion of slavery into new territories –The southern economy was intimately linked to slavery –Southerners were anxious to increase the number of slave states Increased political influence in the federal government

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