Presentation on theme: "Your Universally Designed Website May Not Be Accessible October 20, 2005 David Klein Law, Health Policy & Disability Center The University of Iowa College."— Presentation transcript:
Your Universally Designed Website May Not Be Accessible October 20, 2005 David Klein Law, Health Policy & Disability Center The University of Iowa College of Law http://disability.law.uiowa.edu/lhpdc/publications/kleinpubs.html
Overview The problem Defining the key terms ® Universal Design ® Accessibility ® Human Factors ® Usability How these terms relate to instructional design Recommendations / suggestions
Design Disconnect X-Plain at MedLine Plus ® http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ Sample ® http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tu torials/angina/htm/lesson.htm http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tu torials/angina/htm/lesson.htm With Screen Reader
Universal Design Design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design ® Ron Mace
Universal Design Principles (from Center for Universal Design) Equitable use ® Useful and appealing to all Flexibility in use ® Wide range of preferences and abilities Simple and intuitive ® Regardless of experience, knowledge, language skills, or concentration level Perceptible information ® Despite ambient conditions or sensory abilities Tolerance for error ® Minimizes hazards and adverse consequences Low physical effort Appropriate size and space for approach and use
Universal Design Assumes only one population with diverse abilities Design philosophy based on inclusion
Universal Design for the Web Information redundancy ® Text ® Graphics ® Sound Color contrast Choice of mouse or keyboard User control Usable controls and achievable tasks
Assistive Technology Personal use device Has a specific function that enhances or maintains a persons ability to do something Usually refers to a device that compensates for a persons deficiency or deviation from the norm
Accessibility Characteristic of being available to be used – possibility for use ® Environmental quality ® Person interacting in the environment Disability perspective ® Environment in which an individual can function independently ® Assumption of a minimal level of functioning
Accessibility Assumes two populations – normal and disabled Design criteria (not a philosophy) that change as norms and technology change Requires standards Use of assistive technology may be required
Accessibility for the Web Access to all information and controls (ALT text) Ability to perform all functions (labeled controls) May be differences in users time and effort
Human Factors Study of how humans fit in to systems (environments, products, or services) Human-machine systems Engineering Standards
Human Factors Products - Cost effectiveness ® Production ® Market ® Warehousing ® Sales Typically target 90% of the market Based on research and standards Human psycho-physical tolerances
Human Factors and the Web Jakob Nielsen Research-based ® Design ® Usage Wait times (download, rendering) Page density and complexity Controls Quality of instructions
Usability Subset of human factors Efficiency ® Time ® Effort Effectiveness ® Task completion
Usability and the Web User needs and tasks vs. Web browser as delivery medium Eliminate superfluous information and activity High level of accessibility User testing
Universal Design Philosophy Based on ideal goal – a product that all users can use Presumes a continuum of knowledge, skills, and abilities that must be accounted for ® Human factors research Relatively unchanging Accessibility a prerequisite?
Accessibility Assumes discrimination Relies on standards ® W3C Web Accessibility Initiative Web Content Accessibility Guidelines ® Section 508 Socially and technologically based Changes as social norms change and technology is developed
Universal Design Relevance Products for widespread use Diverse audience Ill-defined audience
Accessibility Relevance Applicable standards exist ® Section 508 ® WCAG Possible use with assistive technology Defined user group with special needs
Usability Relevance Always?
Instructional Design Issues
Definitions Determine consistent and clear definitions of these terms ® Universal design ® Accessibility ® Usability Teach these terms to ID students
Teaching Instructional Design Incorporate these concepts into the design process. Assign projects that require consideration for universal design and accessibility Provide lists of resources (e.g., link to WCAG -- http://www.w3.org/WAI/).http://www.w3.org/WAI/
Instructional Design Theory Include Universal Design principles early in the ID process Phase in accessibility into the ID process as the relationship between the users and environment is understood
Instructional Design Theory Learner-environment analysis?
Instructional Design Theory User-Centered Design (Information Technology Technical Assistance Center) Analysis Phase ® Personas ® Scenarios ® Demonstrate how a persona interacts with the product/environment within a scenario ® http://www.ittatc.org/technical/access-ucd/analysis.php http://www.ittatc.org/technical/access-ucd/analysis.php Tell stories ® See Imagination and Empathy in Instructional Design (Patrick Parrish, this conference)
Instructional Design Theory Usability/Accessibility testing Include ® Personas ® Scenarios ® Assistive technologies Should be formative as well as summative
Resources – General W3C Web Accessibility Initiative ® http://www.w3c.org/wai/ http://www.w3c.org/wai/ Center for Universal Design ® http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/ http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/ WebAIM (Web Accessibility In Mind) ® http://www.webaim.org/ http://www.webaim.org/
Resources - Education Information Technology Technical Assistance Center ® http://www.ittatc.org/ http://www.ittatc.org/ Jakob Nielsen ® http://www.useit.com/ http://www.useit.com/ Accessible University ® http://www.washington.edu/accessit/AU/index.html http://www.washington.edu/accessit/AU/index.html AccessIT ® http://www.washington.edu/accessit/index.php http://www.washington.edu/accessit/index.php
Resources – Articles Iwarsson & Stahl. (2003). Accessibility, usability, and universal designpositioning and definition of concepts describing person-environment relationships, Disability and Rehabilitation 25(2), 57- 66. Quesenbery. What does usability mean: Looking beyond ease of use. http://www.wqusability.com/articles/more-than-ease- of-use.html http://www.wqusability.com/articles/more-than-ease- of-use.html Henry. Another –ability: Accessibility primer for usability specialists. http://www.uiaccess.com/upa2002a.html http://www.uiaccess.com/upa2002a.html Alexander. What is the relationship between usability and accessibility, and what should it be? http://deyalexander.com/presentations/usability- accessibility/ http://deyalexander.com/presentations/usability- accessibility/
Resources – Books Paciello, Michael. (2000). Web Accessibility for People with Disabilities. Thatcher, Jim, et al. (2002). Beyond Exclusion: Constructing Accessible Websites. Clark, Joe. (2002). Building Accessible Websites. Nielsen, Jakob. (2001). Designing Web Usability: The Practice of Simplicity. Indianapolis: New Riders Publishing.