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Ensuring Progress in the General Education Curriculum

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Presentation on theme: "Ensuring Progress in the General Education Curriculum"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ensuring Progress in the General Education Curriculum
Chapter 2

2 View Heather and Star Video
Who do you think will take the MAP test in 2 years? Should Heather be required to take it in just the same way as her peers without disabilities? Should Star? If not, what accommodations are reasonable? Should either of them be exempted and have an alternative assessment?

3 Progress in the General Education Curriculum
IDEA - IEP requirements Standards-based reform NCLB: Academic standards, student achievement standards, and alternate achievement standards IEP accommodations Raise standards Problems in standards-based reform IDEA requires each student’s IEP to state how the student will be involved and progress in the general curriculum, how the student’s progress will be assessed, and how stat and district-wide assessments will be modified for the student Standards-based reform: a process that identifies the academic content (reading, math) that students must master NCLB: academic standards are the knowledge, skills and understanding that students should attain in academic subjects. Student achievement standards are the levels of achievement students must meet to demonstrate proficiency. Alternate achievement are for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities Problems: materials that focus on middle range students, for students with disabilities the curriculum was based on the IEP not the general curriculum, the needs and anticipated results of students with disabilities was often overlooked, finally students with disabilities were not considered in states assessments

4 Issues of Diversity 2003: European American and Asian/Pacific Islander students scored higher on assessments than African American, Latino, and Native American/Alaskan Native students Average reading scores for fourth and eighth grades students on free lunch are lower Large gaps between European American, African American and Latino students remain unchanged since 1990

5 Low-wealth children engage in far less academic work
By Oct. of first grade, a middle/high-SES child reads 12 words per reading session; a low-SES child reads 0 words By April, the middle/high-SES child reads 81 words; a low-SES child reads 32 words By the end of first grade, middle/high-SES have seen approximately 19,000 words; low-SES about 10,000 By the end of the sixth grade, a child of poverty would need to go to school an additional year-and-a-half to have the same academic experience

6 Demographics in Special Education
Race General Special Population Education White 66.2% 63.6% Black 14.8% 20.2% Hispanic 14.8% 13.2% Am. Indian 1.0% 1.3% Asian/Pacific 3.8% 1.7%

7 Supplementary Aids and Services
Universal design for learning Access Classroom ecology Education and assistive technology Assessment and task modifications Teacher, paraprofessional, or peer support See Figure 2-1

8 What Universal Design Means
In the world of architecture and building, adaptability is subtle, integrated into the design, and benefits everyone. A shift from thinking why we should make changes to accommodate a few people in wheelchairs to an appreciation of how much better things can be for all of us

9 Fundamental shifts in our ideas of teaching and learning
Students with disabilities fall along a continuum of learner differences, just as other students do; Teachers should make adjustments for all students, not just those with disabilities; Curriculum materials should be as varied and diverse as the learning styles and needs in the classroom, rather than textbook-centered (currently possible with digital and on-line resources); Rather than trying to adjust the students to learn from a set curriculum, the curriculum should be flexible to accommodate a range of student differences.

10 Principles of Universal Design
Principle 1: Equitable Use The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities

11 Equitable Use… Adjustable chairs

12 Inequitable use… Chairs in the room or office

13 Principles of Universal Design
Principle 2: Flexibility in Use The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities

14 Flexible in Use… Latch doorknob

15 Flexible in Use Push opener

16 Inflexible in Use… Round doorknob

17 Accessible for use Push door opener

18 Principles of Universal Design
Principle Three: Simple and Intuitive Use Use of the design is easy to understand regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level

19 Principles of Universal Design
Principle 4: Perceptible Information The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities. round thermostat

20 Perceptible Information
Fire alarm with strobe light

21 Perceptible Information
ATM with large buttons

22 Principles of Universal Design
Principle Five: Tolerance for Error The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions

23 Tolerance for Error…low?
Bathroom entranceway

24 Tolerance for Error…high?
Outside power door button for entry system

25 Tolerance for Error?? Let’s Look

26 Principles of Universal Design
Principle Six: Low Physical Effort The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue. door handle

27 Principles of Universal Design
Principle Seven: Size and Space for Approach and Use Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility. subway gate

28 Student-Placement Trends
50% of students with disabilities in gen. ed. 80% of the time or more 28% of student in gen. ed. 40%-79% of the time 19% of students in gen. ed.0-39% of the time 3% of students in residential facilities 0.7% of students in separate facility 0.5% of students in home/hospital

29 Characteristics of Inclusion
Home-school placement Principle of natural proportions Restructuring teaching and learning Age-and grade-appropriate placements Eliminating the continuum of placements Increasing amount of time in general education Perspectives: parents, teachers, and students See Figure 2-7 Home-school placement: attend same school as other neighborhood children Natural proportions: to the occurrence of exceptionality within the general population, for example: 10% receive spec.ed. if classroom has 30 students not more than 3 should have a disability Restructuring: general ed. and special ed. working in partnership to provide services

30 Inclusion: Refer to Figure 2-7
What are your thoughts on this topic? Get into your discussion group and discuss What are the pros and cons for inclusion? If you were a parent of a child with a disability, what would you want? Which disability category would you see less likely to be included, and why? Which disability category would you see most likely to be included, and why?

31 Designing an IEP (see Figure 2-8)
Determine supplementary aids Determine specially designed instruction Address life-skills content Specify related services

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