Presentation on theme: "Ensuring Progress in the General Education Curriculum"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ensuring Progress in the General Education Curriculum Chapter 2
2 View Heather and Star Video Who do you think will take the MAP test in 2 years?Should Heather be required to take it in just the same way as her peers without disabilities?Should Star?If not, what accommodations are reasonable?Should either of them be exempted and have an alternative assessment?
3 Progress in the General Education Curriculum IDEA - IEP requirementsStandards-based reformNCLB: Academic standards, student achievement standards, and alternate achievement standardsIEP accommodationsRaise standardsProblems in standards-based reformIDEA requires each student’s IEP to state how the student will be involved and progress in the general curriculum, how the student’s progress will be assessed, and how stat and district-wide assessments will be modified for the studentStandards-based reform: a process that identifies the academic content (reading, math) that students must masterNCLB: academic standards are the knowledge, skills and understanding that students should attain in academic subjects. Student achievement standards are the levels of achievement students must meet to demonstrate proficiency. Alternate achievement are for students with the most significant cognitive disabilitiesProblems: materials that focus on middle range students, for students with disabilities the curriculum was based on the IEP not the general curriculum, the needs and anticipated results of students with disabilities was often overlooked, finally students with disabilities were not considered in states assessments
4 Issues of Diversity2003: European American and Asian/Pacific Islander students scored higher on assessments than African American, Latino, and Native American/Alaskan Native studentsAverage reading scores for fourth and eighth grades students on free lunch are lowerLarge gaps between European American, African American and Latino students remain unchanged since 1990
5 Low-wealth children engage in far less academic work By Oct. of first grade, a middle/high-SES child reads 12 words per reading session; a low-SES child reads 0 wordsBy April, the middle/high-SES child reads 81 words; a low-SES child reads 32 wordsBy the end of first grade, middle/high-SES have seen approximately 19,000 words; low-SES about 10,000By the end of the sixth grade, a child of poverty would need to go to school an additional year-and-a-half to have the same academic experience
6 Demographics in Special Education Race General Special Population EducationWhite 66.2% 63.6%Black 14.8% 20.2%Hispanic 14.8% 13.2%Am. Indian 1.0% 1.3%Asian/Pacific 3.8% 1.7%
7 Supplementary Aids and Services Universal design for learningAccessClassroom ecologyEducation and assistive technologyAssessment and task modificationsTeacher, paraprofessional, or peer supportSee Figure 2-1
8 What Universal Design Means In the world of architecture and building, adaptability is subtle, integrated into the design, and benefits everyone.A shift from thinking why we should make changes to accommodate a few people in wheelchairs to an appreciation of how much better things can be for all of us
9 Fundamental shifts in our ideas of teaching and learning Students with disabilities fall along a continuum of learner differences, just as other students do;Teachers should make adjustments for all students, not just those with disabilities;Curriculum materials should be as varied and diverse as the learning styles and needs in the classroom, rather than textbook-centered (currently possible with digital and on-line resources);Rather than trying to adjust the students to learn from a set curriculum, the curriculum should be flexible to accommodate a range of student differences.
10 Principles of Universal Design Principle 1: Equitable UseThe design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities
18 Principles of Universal Design Principle Three: Simple and Intuitive UseUse of the design is easy to understand regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level
19 Principles of Universal Design Principle 4: Perceptible InformationThe design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities.round thermostat
20 Perceptible Information Fire alarm with strobe light
26 Principles of Universal Design Principle Six: Low Physical EffortThe design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue.door handle
27 Principles of Universal Design Principle Seven: Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility.subway gate
28 Student-Placement Trends 50% of students with disabilities in gen. ed. 80% of the time or more28% of student in gen. ed. 40%-79% of the time19% of students in gen. ed.0-39% of the time3% of students in residential facilities0.7% of students in separate facility0.5% of students in home/hospital
29 Characteristics of Inclusion Home-school placementPrinciple of natural proportionsRestructuring teaching and learningAge-and grade-appropriate placementsEliminating the continuum of placementsIncreasing amount of time in general educationPerspectives: parents, teachers, and studentsSee Figure 2-7Home-school placement: attend same school as other neighborhood childrenNatural proportions: to the occurrence of exceptionality within the general population, for example: 10% receive spec.ed. if classroom has 30 students not more than 3 should have a disabilityRestructuring: general ed. and special ed. working in partnership to provide services
30 Inclusion: Refer to Figure 2-7 What are your thoughts on this topic?Get into your discussion group and discussWhat are the pros and cons for inclusion?If you were a parent of a child with a disability, what would you want?Which disability category would you see less likely to be included, and why?Which disability category would you see most likely to be included, and why?
31 Designing an IEP (see Figure 2-8) Determine supplementary aidsDetermine specially designed instructionAddress life-skills contentSpecify related services