Presentation on theme: "From the Etruscans to the Republic 753-27 BCE Roman Government."— Presentation transcript:
From the Etruscans to the Republic 753-27 BCE Roman Government
Original Rome Where the city of Rome grew and now stands was a village before the Etruscans. We know almost nothing about it, except from archaeological records that suggest that it was a slightly-larger-than-average farming community. The Etruscans, expanding from the North, brought the idea of empire and city-building.
Etruscans The Etruscans used a state system. Each city had their own government, and they were run differently. Some used an oligarchy, some a monarchy, others used magistrates. The 12 Etruscan cities formed a League, not unlike the Greeks. The League was linked by shared religion and similar customs that defined the cities as Etruscan, rather than other tribal groups on the peninsula. Other tribal groups still used a tribal or chiefdom system. This was traditional, but less cohesive and therefore weak to attack. The League met once per year to discuss military and political goals and needs and to choose a head for the year.
Roman Kingdom Rome was one of the Etruscan cities that was ruled by a king. Historians think that at first, Rome was ruled from a nearby city but eventually became large enough to warrant its own Rex. All we know about the Roman kings comes from legend and historians that wrote centuries later, especially Levy. Rome was sacked in 390 BCE by Gauls and records were destroyed. We dont actually know how many kings there were, or if what they did is accurate. Some information can be at least called plausible by comparing sources or dating monuments.
Roman Kingdom The surviving history of the Kingdom has 7 kings ruling from the founding of Rome in 753 to the founding of the Roman Republic in 509. During this time, Rome was ruled by a Rex who was the head of state, head of religion, head lawmaker, head judge and the military commander. He was also the only one allowed to wear purple (and did so). Rome also had a Senate composed of patrician citizens. Before the Republic, the Senate was not powerful and only carried out the Kings wishes. The Senates main function was to elect a new king when the previous one died – Rome was not a dynasty. The people then had to approve of the new King, including a religious ceremony.
Romulus (753-714) Mythical founder of Rome, lends his name to the city. The image of the she-wolf represents the myth and is iconic to Rome. Created army and Senate, but city was solely male. Invaded nearby Sabine tribe and took their women to establish the city. Organized city into tribes. Likely backwards creation.
Numa Pompilius (715-673) Sabine man. Many important institutions attributed to him, especially religious: Temple of Janus, priesthoods including Vestal Virgins. Reformed the calendar to include January and February.
Tullus Hostillus (673-642) Very militaristic; best known for conquering nearby city of Alba Longa where Romulus was from. Military conquest brought in a lot of plunder and slaves. Possibly built the original Senate house. Paid little attention to religion. Legend has it that he was killed by Jupiter himself because of it.
Ancus Marcius (642-617) Descendant of Numa, 2 nd king. Fixed chaotic religious situation immediately. Fought wars against Latins, possibly after they attacked first. In wars with Latins, Sabines and Albans, conquered peoples were forced to resettle in Rome and become citizens. Founded port of Ostia, extending Rome to the sea.
Lucius Tarquinus Priscus (616-579) Etrurian man looking for power. Increased Senate by adding minor families. Began war against Latins, won. Defended from Sabines and 5 Etruscan cities, won. Defended from same Etruscan cities again, won. Gained control of all of the cities and territories, and gained plunder. Built Circus Maximus and Cloaca Maxima Assassinated by his predecessors sons.
Servius Tullius (578-535) Etruscan. Took throne with help from Tarquinus wife Tanaquil. First to be accepted as Rex without election by Senate. Expanded city, built temples, introduced true coinage. Expanded vote to lower classes.
Bad Blood - Assassination Second King in a row to be assassinated. His daughters married Tarquinus sons – Arruns Tarquinus and Lucius Tarquinus Jr. (known as Tarquin and later, Superbus) Tarquin Jr. and his wife Tullia plotted to kill Servius Tullius. Tarquin Jr. approached the Senate before Tullius met with them, displeased that he took the throne from he or his brother as sons of the previous king and that he wasnt elected by the Senate. Tullius had also angered patricians by giving some plebeians the vote. Leaving the Senate, he threw his father-in-law down the Senate steps where he was attacked and killed by Tarquins men. For good measure, his own daughter Tullia then ran his body over with a chariot. Tarquin strong-armed the Senate into electing him Rex.
Lucius Tarquinus Superbus (535-509) Earned nickname Superbus (arrogance) for refusal to bury his father-in-law, the previous king. Executed leading Senators, did not replace them. Judged capital cases with no counsel: a reign of fear. Conspired against and killed a Latin ally by framing him, gained cities by assassinating leaders and alliance through marriage. Used men from these territories to strengthen army to fight Volsci tribe – gained wealth. Expanded Circus and Cloaca, completed Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus.
Rape of Lucretia Tarquin Superbuss son, Sextus Tarquinus, raped a noblewoman from a nearby town who then committed suicide. This led to a revolt, led by Tarquin Superbuss nephews, grandsons of Servius Tullius: Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinus Collatinus. King and his family was exiled, his attempts to regain Rome failed. Kingdom of Rome ended, Republic began in 509 BCE.
The Roman Republic Senatus Populusque Romanus SPQR
Two groups: Patricians and Plebeians Roman society remained split in two groups, but more distinct and official. Patricians: noble families, typically wealthy. Full citizens and allowed to hold offices. Plebeians: not always full citizens, not allowed to hold offices. Over 500 years in the Republic, the plebeians constantly struggled for more rights (and gained some over time)
Magistrate Offices Consul 2 Consuls, voted annually First consuls were the cousins, Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinus Collatinus Consuls have executive power, but each is able to veto the other Praetor Originally 1, but later 4, then 6 then more as Rome expanded. Judicial power, but over time grew less powerful Censor Created 50 years into Republic. Held for 5 years Typically old consuls Job is to collect the census, lists of citizens. Second duty to oversee public morality
Magistrate Offices Curulian Aedile Originally 2, then more. Main job to assist consuls Second job to maintain roads, executions, water and measurement standards. Quaestor Annually elected Originally 2, then more. Job was to administer financial matters
Assemblies Senate Continued to exist, now to advise consuls. Senators held their positions for life and were chosen by consuls as needed. The Senate needed to approve laws from other groups. Comitia Centuriata Assembly of Centuries Made of male citizens, grouped by wealth. Could pass laws presented by magistrates. Elected positions of Consul, Praetor and Censor Comitia Tributa Assembly of Tribes Consisted of all people with the vote and split into the 30 tribal families in Rome. Passed laws and represented the people Elected positions of Aedile and Quaestor
Changes: More Power to the People A couple of decades into the Republic, the Concilium Plebis was founded. This was the Pleebeian Tribal Council. This council consisted of non-aristocrats. They passed Plebiscita or plebiscites that expressed the demands of the people. Later in the Republic, plebiscites became as good as law. The Coucil was presided over by Tribunes, elected leaders of Tribes who were fairly powerful (and became more so over time).
DesperateTimes... A special magistrate was available when necessary. The position of Dictator was reserved for times of crisis. In such an occasion, the consuls would name a dictator for a specified amount of time (usually 6 months to a year). The Dictator had supreme executive power – they could not be vetoed and they did not need approval from anyone.