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Chapter 12 Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

2 Erikson’s Theory: Identity vs. Role Confusion Identity  Defining who you are, what you value, and your direction in life  Commitments to vocation, relationships, sexual orientation, ethnic group, ideals  Exploration, resolution of “identity crisis” Role Confusion  Lack of direction and self-definition  Earlier psychosocial conflicts not resolved  Society restricts choices  Unprepared for challenges of adulthood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

3 Self-Concept in Adolescence  Unifies separate traits into more abstract descriptors  May describe contradictory traits  Gradually combines traits into organized system:  qualifiers  integrating principles © Goodluz/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

4 Self-Esteem in Adolescence  Continues to gain new dimensions:  close friendship  romantic appeal  job competence  Generally rises, but drops temporarily at school transitions  Parenting style affects quality and stability of self-esteem © Aleshyn_Andrei/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

5 Identity Statuses Exploration Commitment HighLow High identity achievement identity moratorium Low identity foreclosure identity diffusion Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

6 Identity Status and Cognitive Style Identity-achieved Information-gathering Moratorium Foreclosure Dogmatic, inflexible Diffusion Long-term diffusionDiffuse-avoidant Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

7 Factors That Affect Identity Development  Personality  Child-rearing practices:  attachment  Peers, friends  Schools, communities  Culture  Societal forces © Goodluz/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

8 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Preconventional level Stage 1: Punishment and obedience Stage 2: Instrumental purpose Conventional level Stage 3: “Good boy–good girl” (morality of interpersonal cooperation) Stage 4: Social-order-maintaining Postconventional or principled level Stage 5: Social contract Stage 6: Universal ethical principle Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

9 Research on Kohlberg’s Theory  Few people reach postconventional morality  Stages 3 and 4 reflect morally mature reasoning  In real life, people often reason below actual capacity © arek_malang/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

10 Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning?  Kohlberg: emphasis on rights and justice orientation  Gilligan: emphasis on “ethic of care” orientation  Each sex uses both orientations, but females may stress care more, because of greater involvement in activities involving care and concern for others Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

11 Reasoning About Situations Raising Competing Issues  Moral  Social-conventional  Personal:  personal choice weighed against community obligations  personal rights integrated with ideal reciprocity © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

12 Influences on Moral Reasoning  Child-rearing practices:  caring, supportive  discussions of moral concerns  Schooling: higher education  Peer interaction  Culture © Alan Bailey/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

13 Moral Reasoning and Behavior Factors influencing behavior include  maturity of moral reasoning  emotions: empathy, sympathy, guilt  temperament  cultural experiences and beliefs  moral identity  parenting practices: inductive discipline, moral standards  schooling: just educational environments Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

14 Religious Involvement and Morality  Formal religious involvement declines in adolescence  Religious involvement linked to  responsible academic, social behavior; less misconduct © Gordon Swanson/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

15 Pragmatic Approach to Morality  Claims Kohlberg’s stages inadequately account for behavior in everyday life  Moral judgments are practical tools that  depend on current context and motivation  are frequently directed at self-serving goals  Critics: People often rise above self- interest to defend others’ rights Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

16 Gender Intensification in Adolescence  Increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior  Not universal, more common in girls  Biological, social, and cognitive influences  Declines by late adolescence © Blend Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

17 Parent–Child Relationships in Adolescence  Strives for autonomy  Deidealizes parents  Authoritative parenting:  balancing autonomy-granting with monitoring  extra challenging during adolescence Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

18 Parent–Adolescent Conflict  Facilitates adolescents’ identity and autonomy  Signals parents to adjust parenting style © Golden Pixels LLC/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

19 Family Influences on Adolescents’ Adjustment  Family circumstances that affect appropriate autonomy-granting:  financial security  parental work pressures  stable marriage  Sibling relationships:  less intense, in both positive and negative feelings  attachment remains strong in most cases Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

20 Characteristics of Adolescent Friendships  Fewer “best friends”  Stress intimacy, mutual understanding, loyalty  Friends tend to be similar:  identity status  educational aspirations  political beliefs  deviant behavior © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

21 Sex Differences in Adolescent Friendships Girls  Emotional closeness  Get together to “just talk”  Self-disclosure, support Boys  Shared activities  Achievement, status  Competition, conflict Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

22 Self-Disclosure in Relationships Figure 12.1 (From D. Buhrmester, 1996, “Need Fulfillment, Interpersonal Competence, and the Developmental Contexts of Early Adolescent Friendship,” in W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup [Eds.], The Company They Keep: Friendship in Childhood and Adolescence, New York: Cambridge University Press, p Reprinted with permission of Cambridge University Press.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

23 Friendship Risks  Corumination:  anxiety, depression  Relational aggression:  girls’ closest friendships of shorter duration  Internet communication:  racial and ethnic slurs  sexual obscenity  harassment  reduced quality of face-to-face interaction © wrangler/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

24 U.S. Teenagers’ Daily Use of Social Media Figure 12.2 (Adapted from Lenhart et al., 2010.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

25 Benefits of Adolescent Friendships  Opportunities to explore self  Opportunities to deeply understand another  Foundation for future intimate relationships  Help in managing stress  Improved school attitudes and involvement © oliveromg/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

26 Cliques and Crowds  Cliques:  small groups: 5–7  good friends  similar in family background, attitudes, and values  Crowds:  larger: composed of several cliques  membership based on reputation, stereotype © Robbi/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

27 Changes in Dating During Adolescence  Mixed-sex cliques prepare teenagers for dating  Dating goals change with age:  early adolescence: recreation, peer status  late adolescence: intimacy, compatibility, affection, social support  Relationships with parents and friends contribute to security of romantic ties Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

28 Dating Problems  Too-early dating:  drug use, sex, delinquency  poor academic achievement  dating violence  For gay and lesbian youths:  finding partners  peer harassment, rejection © MJTH/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

29 Depression in Adolescence  Most common psychological problem: 15–20% have had one or more major episodes  Twice as many girls as boys:  early-maturing girls  gender intensification  Influential factors:  heredity  parental depression  gender-typed coping styles © Jochen Schoenfeld/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

30 Adolescent Suicide  Suicide rate jumps sharply at adolescence  Related factors:  gender  ethnicity  family environment, high life stress  sexual orientation  personality:  intelligent, withdrawn  antisocial  triggering negative events Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

31 Preventing Suicide  Attend to warning signs  Provide adult and peer support  Teach coping strategies  Remove access to means: gun control legislation © Lisa F. Young/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

32 Delinquency  Widespread in early and middle adolescence, then declines  Related factors:  gender  SES, ethnicity  difficult temperament  low intelligence, poor school performance  peer rejection, association with antisocial peers  family characteristics  neighborhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

33 Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency  Early-onset: behavior begins in childhood:  biological risks and inept parenting combine  linked to serious antisocial activity  Late-onset: behavior begins around puberty  peer influences © Ardelean Andreea/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

34 Path to Chronic Delinquency Figure 12.3 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

35 Preventing Adolescent Delinquency  Positive family relationships  High-quality teaching  Communities with healthy economic and social conditions  Multisystemic therapy  Zero tolerance policies are inconsistent, ineffective © Alexander Raths/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

36 Readers may view, browse, and/or download material for temporary copying purposes only, provided these uses are for noncommercial personal purposes. Except as provided by law, this material may not be further reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, adapted, performed, displayed, published, or sold in whole or in part, without prior written permission from the publisher. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk


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