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Teen Dating Violence: Analysis of Common Theories Used to Explain TDV & Application of the Theory of Triadic Influence Jill C. Hoxmeier H671: Advanced.

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Presentation on theme: "Teen Dating Violence: Analysis of Common Theories Used to Explain TDV & Application of the Theory of Triadic Influence Jill C. Hoxmeier H671: Advanced."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teen Dating Violence: Analysis of Common Theories Used to Explain TDV & Application of the Theory of Triadic Influence Jill C. Hoxmeier H671: Advanced Theory of HB Fall 2012

2 Teen Dating Violence The use or threat of physical force or restraint carried out with the intent of causing pain or injury to another (Sugarman & Hotaling, 1989, p.5) Inclusion of emotional, psychological, and sexual abuse. 1 in 4 teens experience dating aggression (Avery-Leaf, Cascardi, OLeary, & Cano, 1997; Foshee et al., 1996) 9.4% of high school students had been physically abused by partner (CDC, 2011); more than 75% of teens report psychological aggression (Jackson, Cram, & Seymour, 2000) Wide range of negative health outcomes associated with DV Teen experience unique from adult experience Variety of theories used to explain DV but their limitations challenge ability to fully understand, intervene, and prevent

3 Feminist Theory Posits violence against women is rooted in patriarchy; DV is extension of sexist oppression where perpetrators use abusive behaviors to exert P & C over victim Support: Supported by adult DV rates and teen rates of sexual victimization Qualitative studies showing teens endorsing gender role stereotypes (i.e. male aggression as symbol of masculinity) Limitations: Focus on the social/environmental determinants of behavior Much evidence shows girls and boys have similar perpetration and victimization rates Does not explain how teens / adults are able to avoid use of aggression in relationships (de Bouvoir, 1957; Dobash & Dobash, 1979)

4 Attachment Theory Posits the child/parent relationship creates prototype for which future relationships are based (insecure styles increases risk for aggression) Support: Some people with healthy parent relationships have healthy romantic relationships and vice versa (Hazen & Shaver, 1987) Accounts for both cognitive and affective influences Limitations: Overemphasis on interpersonal / social determinants of behavior Parent-blaming through exclusive focus on parenting style Creates gendered roles for victims and perpetrators not supported by the literature (Bowlby, 1969, 1973, 1980)

5 Theory of Intergenerational Transmission of Violence Posits children learn aggression from parents through growing up in DV home and enculturation of patriarchal values Support Children who witness parent violence have more accepting attitudes toward violence (Foshee, Bauman, & Linder, 1999) are increased risk for being violent in their own relationships (Wekerle & Wolfe, 1999) Limitations Exclusive focus on interpersonal / social determinants of behavior Creates gendered / rigid roles for victims and perpetrators Does not account for teens who witness DV in homes and do not use violence (Rosenbaum & OLeary, 1981; Ulbrich, & Huber, 1981)

6 Social Learning Theory Posits children learn aggression through observation and modeling of violence behaviors Support: Expands focus to peers in addition to parents Helps explains female and male perpetration / victimization rates (teens who have DV friends are increased risk for DV) Limitations: Emphasis on interpersonal / social context Does not provide clear causal pathway from modeling to performance if models / observation are incongruent If not all teens act aggressively, there must be determinants that SLT does not account for (Bandura, 1976)

7 Theory of Triadic Influence Posits HRB are determined by influences under three stream and at three different levels, where constructs are interrelated yet assumes no strength of relationship between determinants Improvements on other theories: Personal, Social, and Environmental determinants have all been found to influence teen dating violence Organized in a manner that provides alternative causal pathways that account for variability teens who do and do not perform aggressive behaviors Emphasized the role of reinforcing influences Accounts for similar causal pathways of related behaviors (Flay & Petraitis, 1994)

8 TTI: Personal Stream of Influence Sense of Self / Control: those seeking external validation of self more likely to report DV; teens using aggression to exert control of others = influences self determination of having healthy relationships Social Competence: capacity for gaining perspective of others, from experience, relating to others, building relationships, etc. = influences ability resolve conflict Self-Efficacy / Behavioral Control: lack of self-esteem + inability to resolve conflict effectively = dating violence BIOLOGY/ P ERSONALITY SELF-EFFICACY BEHAVIORAL CONTROL Social Competence Skills: Social+Generalal Sense of Self/Control Self Determination

9 SOCIAL S ITUATION SOCIAL NORMATIVE BELIEFS Perceived Norms Interpersonal Bonding Others Beh & Atts Motivationn to Comply TTI: Social Stream of Influence Interpersonal Bonding: relationships influence motivation to comply; similar to Attachment Theory / TITV Others Behaviors and Attitudes: witnessing violence and exposure to violence accepting attitudes shape perceived norms on use of violence Social Normative Believes: influenced by relational modeling / observation of aggression acceptance and use

10 ATTITUDES TOWARD THE BEHAVIOR CULTURAL E NVIRONMENT Values/ Evaluations Knowledge/ Expectancies Information/ Opportunities Interactions w/ Social Instits TTI: Environmental Stream of Influence Interactions w/ Social Institutions: youth exposed to community violence at increased risk = shapes values on use of aggression Information / Opportunities: media perpetuation of violence and aggression = shape expectancies of the use of violence Attitude Toward the Behavior: exposure to violence and the expectations of its use influence attitude toward using aggression

11 11 DECISIONS/INTENTIONS SOCIAL S ITUATION BIOLOGY/ P ERSONALITY THE THEORY OF TRIADIC INFLUENCE ATTITUDES TOWARD THE BEHAVIOR CULTURAL E NVIRONMENT SOCIAL NORMATIVE BELIEFS Trial Behavior EXPERIENCES: Expectancies -- Social Reinforcements -- Psychological/Physiological SELF-EFFICACY BEHAVIORAL CONTROL Nurture/CulturalBiological/Nature Intrapersonal StreamSocial/Normative StreamCultural/Attitudinal Stream Values/ Evaluations Knowledge/ Expectancies Perceived Norms Information/ Opportunities Interpersonal Bonding Social Competence Interactions w/ Social Instits Others Beh & Atts Motivationn to Comply Skills: Social+Generalal Sense of Self/Control Self Determination Distal Influences Proximal Predictors Levels of Causation Ultimate Causes

12 Contributions of TTI for Dating Violence Moves away from gendered perspective Moves away from rigid perpetrator – victim roles Moves away from victim blaming and parent blaming Understand the dynamic nature of teen dating violence and the fluidity of perpetration – victim role Accounts for behavioral determinants in different contexts and at different levels of influence Illustrates diversity of pathways through interrelated constructs Explains TDV more in line with youth aggression perspective, which is supported by the literature on dating violence Provides interventionists options for program activities


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