Presentation on theme: "Dating violence among adolescents Dr Erica Bowen, Matt Mawer, and Emma Holdsworth."— Presentation transcript:
Dating violence among adolescents Dr Erica Bowen, Matt Mawer, and Emma Holdsworth
Threats Psycho – emotional Sexual Physical Saltzman et al. (2002) Defining violence
Physical violence Intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing death, disability, injury, or harm. Examples: slapping, grabbing, choking, punching, burning, restraining, biting
Intentional, unwanted sexual touching or intentional touching of a person of diminished capacity Sexual violence Examples: groping, pressuring, getting partner drunk/drugged
Psychological trauma to the victim caused by acts, threats of acts, or coercive tactics. Psychological/emotional violence Examples: humiliating, controlling, withholding money, isolating, shaming
Using words, gestures, or weapons to communicate the intent to cause death, disability, injury, or physical harm. Threats of violence Examples: threats of any type of violence (including through social media)
Definition problems 1.Are these standard definitions? 2.How do we separate threats? 3.Sub-hierarchies of violence 4.Who defines behaviour as abuse?
Prevalence The prevention and reduction of youth dating violence has become an issue of national urgency" (Antle et al. 2007; 173) Boys 15% – 44% Girls 14% – 43% Approx. 25% 6 teenagers in a class of 25 students
Parental influence Peer influence General delinquency Substance abuse Psychological adjustment & competencies Attitudes towards violence Nature of relationship & dating behaviour Being a victim of dating violence Risk factors for dating violence
Perception of lesser parental involvement Witnessing inter-parental aggression Being a victim of parental aggression Directing aggression towards parents Perception of parental support for aggressive solutions Parental influence
Perception of lesser parental involvement –Perceived lack of authority OR –Lack of exposure to good relationships models, emotional support & stability –OR BOTH Parental influence
Witnessing inter-parental violence –Modelling the behaviour - social cognitive model of violence –Threat to self and self blame –Ineffective coping Parental influence
Being a victim of parental aggression –Problems controlling behaviour –Problems recognising bad behaviours –Developmental traumatology Childhood abuse = historic risk factor Trauma symptoms = changeable risk factor Parental influence
Friends with experience of dating violence Friends who perpetrate dating violence Friends who use aggression generally Friends who are victims of dating violence Peer influence
Friends with experience of dating violence –Interdependence theory –Parents become less important as social relationships become more important Friends perpetration of dating violence –Socially acceptable dating behaviour norms Peer influence
Friends who use aggression generally –Social groups not too diverse –Group norms unchallenged Friends who are victims of dating violence –Longitudinal predictor (girls only) –Social groups include perpetrators and victims Peer influence
Parental influence –Perception of lesser involvement = less authority & less emotional support –Witnessing inter-parental aggression = modelling behaviour & ineffective coping –Victim of parental aggression = trauma symptoms (proximal risk for violence) Summary
Peer influence –Adolescents susceptible to influences of peer behaviour –Socially acceptable dating norms –Cohesive groups mean norms remains unchallenged –Social groups can include perpetrators AND victims Summary
StudyProgramme evaluated 1 Love U2: Increasing your relationship smarts 2 Love U2: Communication smart 3 Expect Respect Programme Support Group 4 Safe Dates 5 Connections: Relationships and Marriage 6 Interaction curricula and Law and Justice curricula 7 Reaching and Teaching Teens to Stop Violence 8 The Youth relationships project Intervention programmes
Behavioural Attitudinal Personal / skills Results
Other issues 1.Interventions can have negative effects Provoke behaviour Negative peer influence 2.Do group interventions work? Evidence mixed Supportive; but enabling?
Conclusions The prevention and reduction of youth dating violence has become an issue of national urgency" (Antle et al. 2007; 173) 1.Four dimensions of violence 2.6 in a class of 25 students (25%) 3.Main risks factors: parental and peer 4.Interventions: behavioural change 5.But: Lack of European data!