Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 Foreign Policy: Setting a Course of Expansionism"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 19 Foreign Policy: Setting a Course of Expansionism Was American foreign policy during the 1800’s motivated more by realism or idealism?FOREIGN POLICY = the set of goals, principles and practices that guide a nation in its relations with other countries
2The Brief History of American Foreign Policy How is Foreign Policy conducted?The State Department (led by the Sec. of State) advises the President and carries out the details of U.S. policyCongress debates and can vote on foreign policy issuesTreaties with other nations do not become legally binding until the Senate approves it by a two-thirds vote“Tools of the Trade”Diplomacy and financial aid and the threat of armed forceRealism versus IdealismRealism: based on our self-interestIf it benefits us, it is good policyIdealism: promote America’s founding ideals to ensure a better world for ALL not just for usDemocracy, liberty, rights
31796 and George Washington’s Farewell Address It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is to have with them as little political connection as possible.This is known as “isolationism” or “unilateralism”The United States will “go it alone”Neutrality protects us from taking sidesGreat Britain vs. France in the early daysRealism (economics) vs. Idealism (principles)
4Defending Neutrality in the War of 1812 Both France and Great Britain seized ships and kidnapped American sailorsNeither respected our neutral rightsJames Madison made progress with France but declared war on BritainIdealism: free trade and our rightsRealism: land (in the West and maybe even Canada)Treaty of Ghent in 1815 ended the warNo territory was ceded or lostIt was a “tie”
5Monroe Doctrine1820’sRussia threatening to expand in North AmericaSpain and Britain were colonizing in South/Central America1823: The Monroe Doctrine states a policy of non-colonization and non- interference in the Western HemisphereThe American continents are closed to future colonization by any European powersMonroe Doctrine
6A History of American Expansion Through Diplomacy 1803: T. Jefferson buys the Louisiana Territory from France for $15,000, (3 cents an acre)1819: We negotiate for Florida from Spain1846: Britain signs a treaty dividing the Oregon Territory at the 49th parallel1867: $7,200,000 for Alaska from Russia
7A History of American Expansion Through War 1821: Moses Austin establishes a “colony” in Texas which was part of Mexico at the timeThe Americans and Mexican government did not get alongAmericans held slaves, official documents were in Spanish1836 Texas declares itself an independent republic, names Sam Houston as commander in chief and revolts against MexicoSanta Anna recognizes the Lone Star RepublicStatehood in 18451846 President Polk goes to war with Mexico over our southern borderMexican War ends in 1848 (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)Mexican CessionRio Grande as the southern border of the U.S.Territory from Texas to CaliforniaRealists: Great new territory, secure bordersIdealists: An unjust land grab with no regard for the rights of Mexico
8The Beginning of Imperialism Empire BuildingExpanding to the West beyond our bordersAcross the Pacific Ocean to China and JapanHawaii and other islands as “coaling stations”Protectorates = nations controlled by stronger nationsMoral not just economic empire buildingJosiah StrongCivilize and ChristianizeEmpire Building through a strong navyAlfred T. MahanWorld powers need world class navies
9Differing Viewpoints: Should the U.S. become an imperialist power? Henry Cabot Lodge (1895)Carl Schurz (1896)Small states are of the past and have no future. The modern movement is all toward the concentration of people and territory into great nations and large dominions. The great nations are rapidly absorbing for their future expansion and their present defense all the waste places of the earth.In its dealings with other nations, the United States should have scrupulous regard, not only for their rights, but also for their self-respect…It should seek to influence mankind, not by heavy artillery, but by good example and wise counsel. It should see its highest glory, not in battles won, but in wars prevented.
10Uncle Sam and People from His Colonies, Postcard, ca. 1900
12Chapter 20 The Spanish-American War Why did the United States go to war against Spain in 1898 and why was the outcome significant?
13Trouble in Cuba One of only two remaining Spanish colonies Much American investment in sugar plantations amid political instabilityTwo previous rebellions for independence had failedValeriano Weyler was sent to put down the rebellionsCreated prison camps (“reconcentration camps”)Thousands die in overcrowded, unsanitary, poorly equipped campsForeign Policy Realism: we must protect our investments and propertyForeign Policy Idealism: we must help the Cubans realize their noble dream of independence and freedomPresident William McKinley hoped to maintain neutrality.
14Imperialism, The Role of the Media and a Call to War with Spain NewspapersJoseph Pulitzer and the New York World versus William Hearst and the New York JournalYellow journalism = sensational exaggerated news stories
15Causes of the Spanish-America War The DeLome LetterEnrique Dupuy DeLome: Spanish ambassador in WashingtonDescribes President McKinley as “weak and catering to the rabble, and, besides, a low politician.”Outrage and indignation in the United States“Remember The Maine!!”February 15, 1898 the American battleship blows upProbably not a mine, probably not sabotage…remember “yellow journalism”?
16Congress Declares War!McKinley hopes for an armistice = cessation of hostilitiesClose the campsGrant Cuba independenceSpain agrees to close the camps, will not grant independenceApril 25, 1898Congress formally declares war on SpainTeller AmendmentWhen Cuba is liberated and peace restored, the United States will “leave the government and control of the Island to its people.”
17A “Splendid Little War” with Spain First, the Philippines (their other colony)Emilio Aguinaldo had been fighting against the Spanish thereCommodore Dewey storms Manila BayAguinaldo with American reinforcements takes ManilaThen CubaThe First U.S. Volunteer CavalryThe Rough-Riders led by Teddy RooseveltAfter taking San Juan Hill the war went quicklyPeace on August 125500 died mostly from disease (malaria and yellow fever)Poorly equipped, poorly supplied troops (wool uniforms in the tropical jungle!) win America’s first overseas war
19America on the World Stage Treaty of Paris 1898Independence to CubaPuerto Rico and Guam ceded to the United StatesPhilippines to the U.S. with a payment to Spain of $20,000,000Ratification DebateAnti-Imperialist LeagueImperialism violates the country’s founding principles of freedom and democracySupporters of the TreatyAn empire is crucial for the future success of the United StatesPlatt AmendmentThe U.S. is allowed to intervene in Cuban affairs and to buy or lease naval bases thereBy 1913, 60% of Cuba’s land was owned and controlled by American business interests
22Three Presidents, Three Foreign Policies: Teddy Roosevelt National Interests- political, economic, military, and cultural goals that a nation considers importantRoosevelt- “Speak softly and carry a big stick: you will go far”Big Stick Policy- Roosevelt’s strong arm approach in working quietly and patiently to achieve goals overseas but using force if necessary.Roosevelt Corollary- a proposition that is a logical extension of the Monroe Doctrine where the United States would act as international police power to preserve peace and order in the western hemisphere and protect American interest.
24Three Presidents, Three Foreign Policies: Taft and Wilson Taft continued Roosevelt’s goals and his Big Stick Policy but also started to focus on the economyDollar Diplomacy- to encourage and protect trade and investment in Latin American and Asia.Woodrow Wilson tried to take a moral approach to foreign affairs.Moral Diplomacy- democratic ideals rather than economic investment or military force.Self-determination- the right of people of other nations to determine their own government, free of outside influence
25PanamaThe US helped Panama overthrow Columbia in and recognized them as an independent nation.Panama Canal- The United States build a 51 mile canal which connected the Atlantic and Pacific oceans over a ten year time period. The canal opened on August 15th 1914.The Canal was an engineering feat of the time. Although recently in 1999 the US returned ownership of the canal back to panama.
26Mexico Revolution in Mexico in 1911- Revolt led by Victoriano Huerta Wilson and Huerta did not get alongWar almost occurred in when Wilson sent troops to Veracruz, a port on the Gulf of Mexico to keep weapons from reaching Huerta’s army. A battle broke out killing 90 Americans and 300 Mexicans. A lot of people opposed Wilson’s actions and the troops were pulled out.Months later Huerta resigned and Carranza gained power.
27Puerto RicoAfter the Spanish American War the U.S. set up a military government, schools, and a postal servicePuerto Ricans grew frustrated with American rule because they were neither U.S. citizens nor IndependentJones Act Wilson made Puerto Rico a U.S. territory but still no rightsPuerto Rico remains a U.S. commonwealth- Puerto Rico has control over their laws and finances but decisions on defense and tariffs are in the U.S. hands
28PhilippinesAfter the Spanish American War Filipino Emilio Aguinaldo called for independence from the U.S.February 1899, fight broke out between U.S. and Philippines and the U.S. sent hundreds of thousands of soldiers to put down the revolt. After battles the Filipino army was defeatedThe U.S. set up a central government and built schools.The U.S. controlled the Philippines until 1946.
29Hawaii Ruled by Queen Liliuokalani as a Monarchy 1893- U.S. military forces overthrew the queen and annexed Hawaii, making it part of the United States as a territory in 1900.Hawaii became a state in 1959, the only one that is not part of North America.
30China China was a huge nation rich in resources Spheres of Influence- areas in which a single nation controlled trading rights, many foreign powers did this in china in the late 1890’sOpen Door Policy- a U.S. policy issued in 1899 stating that foreign nations must allow free trade in China, Issued by Sec. of State John HayBoxer Rebellion a group in China led a insurrection (rising up to expel the foreign devils from China). Boxers killed thousands of foreigners including Christian Missionaries and Chinese Christians, but the U.S., Japan, and European Powers crushed the uprising.China remained open to Trade and influence because of Hay and the Open Door Policy.