Isolation Acoustic isolation is the protection of an enclosure against the penetration of sounds that interfere to the wished acoustic signal, these sounds can prevent so much of the exterior or interior of building. In order to find the forms of protection of the enclosures against the noise, the nature of these noises must be clear, and the ways by which penetrate in the enclosure, this can be by: cracks, conduits of ventilation, vibration, etc. The acoustic insulation depends on the physical properties of the material of the walls, and the characteristics of the noise. Also is of great importance knowing the dependency of the acoustic isolation with the frequency, not only because the acoustic transmission of the diverse materials varies with the frequency, also because the auditory perception depends on the frequency.
Isolation Acoustic isolation is also defined like the loss of energy that experiences the acoustic waves when are crossing the wall. When an acoustic wave affects a wall, it will transmit part of the energy of itself, originating a mechanical vibration in the wall, that will be transformed as well into acoustic waves, with a loss of energy due to the reflected waves and the internal absorption of the material. The isolation wall must be most dense while the frequencies of the sound waves are lower. The acoustic isolation of an enclosure is determined by the acoustic isolation of all his limit, and depends on the level of existing noise at the outside of the enclosure, and the level of permissible maximum noise inside the enclosure.
Wall's Isolation A more effective method to increase the isolation is to have a total separation between the structure of the building and the wall of the enclosure that must be protected of the noise, is used when an acoustic isolation is needed, as example can be mentioned the radio studies, television…. It is known like system of floating protection, where the enclosure is totally isolated of the lifting elements of the construction, resting on elastic systems or suspended of them. The walls are done of an opaque material to the sound (like the brick), with an internal treatment of acoustic absorbents. The internal walls cannot be massive, because it is a serious economic problem. Is recommendable the use of walls with relatively small masses. This is made by the use in the constructions of multiple layers and the use of porous materials.
Window's Isolation The windows and the doors offer the worse acoustic isolation of the enclosures, because these elements have less weight and not always they close of hermetic form. The most determining factor for the windows is the thickness of crystals. The double windows have a high acoustic isolation due to the airspace between the leaves. Also is used a filling within the framework that reduces the sound. The filling usually is of porous felt, rubber, materials, etc
Door's Isolation The doors have a value of acoustic isolation determined by its construction, the used material and the presence or not of cracks around the door. This last one reffers to how hermetic is the closing of the door.
A material absorbs the acoustic energy if the surface is transparent to the sound and is able completely to transform the vibratory energy into calorific energy of friction. The transparency is obtained with a highly porous material, or by the light and flexible membranes. The losses of acoustic absorption of a material can know by the acoustic coefficient Isolation materials
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