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Parental Training Ohad Hershkovitz, Psy.D Director, CBT Institute of Israel.

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Presentation on theme: "Parental Training Ohad Hershkovitz, Psy.D Director, CBT Institute of Israel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parental Training Ohad Hershkovitz, Psy.D Director, CBT Institute of Israel

2 Parental Training What is it? Interventions focusing on the parents (or responsible environment) instead of the child The primary and stated goal is to cause change in the child The secondary and sometimes unstated goal is to cause change in the parents

3 Child Therapy Alone: Is It Enough? Child Therapy without Parental Intervention Environmental factors may continue to influence child and possibly sabotage therapy Childs maturity may limit extent of ability to affect change Changes may be strictly symptom-based (e.g. behavioral), and not schematic (e.g. core beliefs)

4 Parental Training vs. Child Therapy Parameters to consider when deciding who to target? Age of child – take responsibility for therapy Cognitive maturity of child Willingness to undergo therapy Other children in household/environment similarly affected Location of problems (e.g. home/school) Relationship status of parents Receptiveness of parents Emotional maturity of parents Personal beliefs of therapist

5 Comparison of treatment models Parental Training Doesnt require minimum child cognitive/emotional maturity Doesnt require child participation Can address problem at root (schematic level) Can address parents personal issues as well Short interventions can lead to significant schematic changes in child Can improve environment for other children Child Therapy Doesnt require parents to take responsibility (or does it?) Doesnt require parent participation (or does it?) Often symptomatic, not schematic (dependent on age/maturity) Parental inclusion usually superficial Schematic changes usually require significantly longer therapy than Parental Training May not affect general home environment

6 Review of Parenting Styles and their Effects Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Neglectful

7 Parenting Styles Authoritative Warmth – demonstration of love and affection Results in development of social skills and self conception Demandingness – rules and consistent discipline Results in development of self-control and social responsibility Respect for child/adolescents autonomy/opinions Results in development of independence and competence

8 Parenting Styles Authoritarian Lacking in Warmth Detrimental to social skills and self conception Lacking in Respect for Autonomy Detrimental to independence and competence Overuse of Demandingness

9 Parenting Styles Permissive Lacking in Demandingness Detrimental to self control and social responsibility Provides warmth Provides respect for autonomy

10 Parenting Styles Neglectful Lacking in Demandingness Detrimental to self control and social responsibility Lacking in Warmth Detrimental to social skills and self conception Provides Respect for Autonomy Most problematic parenting style Research indicates most behavioral problems: delinquency, sexual promiscuity, drug/alcohol abuse

11 Problematic Parenting Styles

12 Problematic Parenting Style - Pathway

13 Conditioning Behavioral Conditioning Parental Attention due to Noncompliance = Positive Reinforcement for child Angry parent = Increased attention to child Child Compliance = Positive Reinforcement for parents anger Cognitive Conditioning Lingual schema = 90% is not good enough Evolutionary survival instinct = accept parental authority/guidance Rationalization of parental attitudes…

14 Problematic Parenting Style: Rationalization Parental message: We need to protect/correct/punish/neglect/over-empower you Child Rationalization: I have no external proof (or internal confidence) to believe otherwise, so it must be true Child Conclusion: I must be weak/flawed/bad/worthless/overly responsible

15 Problematic Parenting Style - Example Parenting Style: Overprotective Core belief: I must be in danger, Im not strong enough to cope Anxiety, Avoidance, Dependent

16 Problematic Parenting Style - Example Parenting Style: Intrusive/Over-controlling Core belief: I need to rely on them, I cannot rely on myself Dependent, Avoidant, OCD, Eating Disorders

17 Problematic Parenting Style - Example Parenting Style: Critical/Judgmental Core belief: There is something inherently deficient in me Depression, Phobia, Panic Disorder, CD/ODD

18 Problematic Parenting Style - Example Parenting Style: Belittling, Degrading Core belief: I dont deserve love Social Phobia, Jealousy, Personality D/O, CD/ODD

19 Problematic Parenting Style - Example Parenting Style: Histrionic/Repressive Core belief: Emotions are dangerous or proof that something is wrong Avoidant, OCD, Eating Disorders, Phobia, Panic

20 Problematic Parenting Style - Example Parenting Style: Spanking Core belief: Bad behavior must be forcibly punished Anger, IED, Personality D/O

21 Poor Parenting Child therapy without parental training can be a superficial band-aid solution

22 Research on Parenting Styles & Training Poor Parental Style highly correlated with non-organic psychiatric/behavioral problems in children Severe ODD highly correlated with development of CD ODD children 4x more likely to develop psychiatric issues ODD children with comorbid psychiatric issues 25x more likely to exacerbate psychiatric issues later in life Parental Training correlated with significant improvement in behavioral disorders Parental Training sometimes* correlated with significant improvement in psychiatric conditions Limited research in this field makes generalizations difficult Parental Training follow-up (years later) correlated with no significant difference between initially non-compliant children and psychiatrically healthy adults on following measurements: Relationship with parents Delinquency (crime, substance abuse) Emotional Adjustment Academic Achievement

23 Research on Parenting Styles & Training Childhood: Noncompliance, Temper tantrums Adolescence: Aggression, Stealing, Substance abuse Overt: Defiance, Fighting Covert: Lying, Stealing Specific Setting: Home General Setting: School, Broader Community

24 Poor Parenting – Examples of Causes Behavioral Conditioning from parents parents Repeating faulty behaviors Cultural Norms e.g. emotionally intolerant society, expressively anxious society Parents mental health issues and fears Anxiety leads to anxious parenting Inconsistency between parents e.g. strict vs permissive Relationship inequality Delegitimization of partner mimicked by children Conflict between parents Inconsistent structure and rules, manipulation Resistance to change Responsibility for childs health/behavior = blame for problems Fear of making mistakes = perfectionism, over-controlling Fear of rejection by child = permissive Anger at child = neglect, over-demandingness

25 Parental Training vs. Parental Therapy Therapists often make mistake of losing focus or crossing boundary of parental training to parental therapy When should parental training become parental therapy? Parent shows willingness to change but inability due to own personal issues e.g. Parents behavior dictated by anxiety, addiction, depression, etc. Couple preoccupied with marital problems, unable to work together for child e.g. ongoing divorce proceedings, active conflict, etc.

26 Parental Training vs. Parental Therapy Parental Training Brief: 1-3 months Primary Goal: Childs improvement Target: Parental Behavior Scope: Limited focus on parents experience H&N: Highly structured Responsibility: Placed primarily on parent Parental Therapy Longer: 3-6 months Primary Goal: Parents improvement Target: Parental Mental Health Scope: Primary focus on parents experience H&N: Varies by therapy/therapist Responsibility: Shared with therapist

27 Parental Training: Recruiting

28 Overview Inquire Reflect Identify & Reinforce Identify & Challenge

29 Parental Training: Recruiting Inquire (parents experience) Why have you chosen your particular parenting style? Or why do you feel it is the right one? What goals do you hope to achieve in parenting the way you do? How effective is your parenting style in achieving these goals? What would you like to see happen differently? Allow parents to express frustration and hopefully realization that parenting style is ineffective

30 Parental Training: Recruiting Reflect (childs experience) What does child hear/see from parents? How does child interpret these events? How does child feel as a result? Is there an identifiable cycle? What might break the cycle? What might lead the child to interpret events more positively? (Target parenting behavior)… *Use visual aids, e.g. pathways, charts

31 Parental Training: Recruiting Identify + Reinforce (Motivation to change) What might break the cycle? What might lead the child to interpret events more positively? (Target parenting behavior)… Do you think trying (target parenting behavior) might bring about a different interpretation and subsequently reaction from your child? Why or why not? Have you tried? How often? What happened? Do you feel you want to commit the time and energy necessary to helping your child via making certain changes in the structure and discipline that the child experiences? How important is it to help your child feel and behave better? Do you feel it would be acceptable to leave the situation as it is? How do you see your child developing as an adolescent/adult if there is no change or things continue to get worse?

32 Parental Training: Recruiting Identify + Challenge (Resistance to change) Fear of blame Does the fact that we can better match your parenting to your childs needs mean you are to blame for doing something wrong? Fear of mistakes Have parenting mistakes in the past by you or others led to irrevocable damage? Fear of taking responsibility from the child for change Does your contributing to change mean the child will not learn to take responsibility? Fear of giving unconditional love Does expressing love regardless of behavior mean the child will not respond to discipline?

33 Parental Training: Recruiting Use Encouraging Language Focus on child, not on parent e.g. What can we do to help the child feel less shy? instead of Can you stop criticizing your child? Talk in shades of grey, not black and white e.g. What can we try doing to increase the chances of compliance? instead of If you want your child to listen, say X, not Y. Reinforce positive beliefs and behaviors e.g. Sounds like you have good intuition and some really good ideas and reactions. We probably dont need to make too many changes.

34 Parental Training: Challenges Special Circumstances Divorced/In-conflict parents ADHD/Neurological problems School-specific behavioral problems

35 Recruiting: Practice Groups of 3 1 therapist, 2 parents Review Recruiting steps Inquire (parents experience) Reflect (childs experience) Identify & Reinforce (Motivation to change) Identify & Challenge (Resistance to change)

36 Parental Training Techniques

37 Parental Training: Behavioral Techniques PET – Parent Effectiveness Training (Gordon) Child seen as equal Child seen as decision-maker; Parents express needs Parent does not express authority

38 Parental Training: Behavioral Techniques STEP – Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (Dinkmeyer, McKay) Identify and reflect child needs Allow child to choose alternative actions for need

39 Parental Training: Behavioral Techniques Behavioral Methods Reward & Punishment Positive Reinforcement

40 Parental Training: Behavioral Techniques Parenting Skills (Abidin) Combines parental experience with strict behavior changes

41 HNC: Helping the Noncompliant Child (Forehand, McMahon) Primarily used on children aged 3-8 Stages Attending Rewarding Ignoring Effective with CD, ADHD, developmental problems Effective for parents at risk for child abuse/neglect or substance abuse Contraindicated for autism, parental psychosis or other severe mental illness, severe substance abuse

42 Training: Attending

43 Training: Rewarding 3 types Physical Rewards – hug, kiss, pat on the back Unlabeled verbal rewards – Great!, Nice job! Labeled verbal rewards – Thank you for picking up the toys like I asked

44 Training: Rewarding Guidelines for using rewards Be specific Give immediately Focus on Improvement Use consistently

45 Training: Ignoring Attention-seeking behaviors Whining Nagging Temper tantrums Interrupting Behaviors potentially harmful to people/property (e.g. fighting) should NOT be ignored

46 Training: Ignoring Ignoring is an ACTIVE process Decide ahead of time which inappropriate behaviors to ignore When ignoring, actively avoid giving attention to child No eye contact or verbal cues (Dont look!) No verbal contact (Dont talk!) No physical contact (Dont touch!)

47 Training: Ignoring Ignoring starts as soon as inappropriate behavior begins Ignoring stops soon after (10-15 seconds) inappropriate behavior stops Inappropriate behavior must be ignored EVERY time it appears, otherwise it will get worse instead of better.

48 Training: Ignoring Ignoring is never used alone, should always be combined with positive attention (attends, rewards) for the alternate appropriate behavior

49 Training: Reward/Punishment

50 Training: Giving Instructions Get childs attention Move close Say the childs name (maximum of 2 times) Establish eye contact

51 Training: Giving Instructions State the instruction clearly Give ONE instruction at a time Use firm voice Phrase as Do command Use simple language Use gestures as appropriate Rationale (if given) precedes the instruction

52 Training: Giving Instructions Wait 5 seconds Count silently No verbalization to child

53 Training: Instructions for Noncompliance Issue a single clear instruction Please pick up your toys now

54 Training: Instructions for Noncompliance If the child displays compliance to the instruction within 5 seconds, provide positive attention Rewards Attends e.g. Thank you so much for playing quietly, I really appreciate it when you do what I ask

55 Training: Instructions for Noncompliance If the child does not display compliance to the instruction within 5 seconds, give warning If you do not X, you will have to go to time out

56 Training: Instructions for Noncompliance If the child displays compliance to the warning within 5 seconds, give positive attention Rewards Attends

57 Training: Instructions for Noncompliance If the child does not display compliance to the warning within 5 seconds, without lecturing, scolding, or arguing. Tell the child Because you did not X, you have to sit in the chair until I say you can get up.

58 Training: Instructions for Noncompliance Ignore childs shouting, protesting, and promises to comply Leave child in time out for 3 minutes, including being quiet for last 15 seconds

59 Training: Instructions for Noncompliance When time out is completed, return child to situation which resulted in noncompliance Restate original clear instruction Repeat positive attention or warning/time- out as necessary

60 Training: Procedure Procedure and rationale for each skill are explained Underlying social learning principle for each skill are briefly presented

61 Training: Procedure Therapist demonstrates skill via modeling and role playing Parent practices skill with therapist, who role plays as child

62 Training: Procedure If child is included in therapy, teach child skill as well Parent and therapist provide developmentally appropriate explanation Child repeats procedure verbally and role plays relevant situations

63 Training: Procedure If child is included in therapy: Parent practices with child in therapy setting, therapist observes and coaches

64 Training: Procedure Parent is given daily homework Practice specific situations with child (initiated by parent) e.g. Pick up your toys Practice with naturally occurring situations e.g. When child cries

65 Training: Procedure Parent is given handouts with explanations specific to each skill to take home Parent is given data sheets to practice and records interventions at home

66 HNC: Practice Groups of 2 1 parent, 1 therapist Resistant child (e.g. stops doing homework, asks to play instead) Practice HNC steps separately (as with parents) Attending Rewarding Ignoring Giving Instructions Instructions for Noncompliance

67 Self-Esteem A deeper look behind the scenes

68 Rationalization: Review Parental message: We need to protect/correct/punish/neglect/over-empower you Child Rationalization: I have no external proof (or internal confidence) to believe otherwise, so it must be true Child Conclusion: I must be weak/flawed/bad/worthless/overly responsible

69 Rationalization: Development of Mental Health Problems Parental belief: I need to be strong/correct/right/perfect/accepted/in control Child Rationalization: I have no external proof (or internal confidence) to believe otherwise, so it must be true Child Conclusion: The world must be dangerous/punishing/evil/mean/ungratifying/intolerant/lonely

70 Rationalization: Development of Mental Health Problems Parental message: I need to be make sure everything is under control at all times Child Rationalization: Lack of control is dangerous I need to be in control too Child Symptoms: GAD, OCD, Phobia

71 Rationalization: Development of Mental Health Problems Parental message: I need to think about every possible risk otherwise something will go horribly wrong Child Rationalization: Mistakes are catastrophic I cant relax, I must always be vigilant Child Symptoms: GAD, PTSD (post-incident)

72 Rationalization: Development of Mental Health Problems Parental message: The world (Society/Partner) will never accept or elevate fat/ugly individuals Child Rationalization: I must be in control of my body Child Symptoms: OCD, BDD, Eating Disorders

73 Rationalization: Development of Mental Health Problems Parental message: My body must always be in control Child Rationalization: I must not experience (negative) emotion or physical discomfort Child Symptoms: Phobia, Panic Disorder, Hypochondria, Tourettes, Trichotillomania

74 Rationalization: Development of Mental Health Problems Parental message: The world is fair, justice will always prevail, I only have to follow the rules Child Rationalization: If something bad happens, Im at fault or I was completely wrong about the world Child Symptoms: PTSD, Phobia (e.g. Driving), Depression

75 Focus of Change Parental message: We need to protect/correct/punish/neglect/over-empower you Child Rationalization: I have no external proof (or internal confidence) to believe otherwise, so it must be true Child Conclusion: I must be weak/flawed/bad/worthless/overly responsible

76 Focus of Change Address parental fears regarding giving up current strategy Construct exercises to practice more flexible approach Control = Let child make minor decisions even if you dont agree with choices Perfectionism = Reinforce effort regardless of result Over-demandingness/Punishment = Express noncritical dissatisfaction without punishment Neglect = Schedule positive attention independent of behaviors Over-empowering = Limit responsibility given to child, restrict detailed responses to anxious questions (e.g. Mommy, do we have enough money? after loss of parental employment)

77 Focus of Change: Practice Groups of 2 1 therapist, 1 parent Address fears of parental change Construct exercise for practicing positive parenting

78 Training: Active Listening Active Listening Emphasize attentive listening with body, gaze, reflective words No judgment/criticism/correction Acknowledge childs experience Breaks cycle of increasing frustration and therefore increasing problematic behavior

79 Training: Active Listening Listen with all of your senses Look directly at your child when they are speaking to you Don't allow other things going on to distract you from giving the conversation your full attention Observe body language; notice if they are acting "closed" or "open" as they talk Avoid listening with the goal of preparing a response to the initial communication; listen all the way through your child's comments until he or she is done

80 Training: Active Listening Communicate with your whole self Squarely face the person Open your posture Lean toward the person speaking Eye contact throughout the message Relax while listening

81 Training: Active Listening Reflect the message "It sounds to me like you are saying...." "What do you mean when you say...?" "What I am hearing you say is...." "I gather than you felt _____ when...."

82 Training: Active Listening Let the message get all the way out Avoid jumping to conclusions Avoid interrupting the flow of thoughts except to reflect and clarify Avoid passing judgment and then tuning out

83 Training: Active Listening Respond with respect Acknowledge that your children have real feelings Respond to their concerns respectfully even if you disagree Avoid making them feel incapable or discounting their very real feelings

84 Active Listening: Practice Groups of 2 1 parent, 1 child Practice Active Listening skills Listen with all of your senses Communicate with your whole self Reflect the message Let the message get all the way out Respond with respect

85 Training: Role Playing Allows to reenact and practice alternative reactions to actual scenarios Diffuses perceived threat due to theoretical construct Provides simple, concrete responses to everyday situations Allows practical assimilation of new skills during therapy instead of attempting to translate theory into practice at home

86 Training: Role Playing Focus of Change Angry discipline = Have alternate responses ready instead of getting angry Permissive = Provide boundaries regardless of child response Neglectful = Provide positive attention Authoritarian = Engage in healthy discussion with child

87 Role Playing: Practice Groups of 2 1 parent, 1 therapist Practice Role Playing First parent as child Then therapist as child Review Repeat as necessary

88 Training: Modeling Provides child with better coping skills Teaches healthy behavior in both parent and child Results in change in parents without threat of therapy (blame, guilt, etc.) Targets underlying fear of change by observing non-catastrophic results Useful for teaching Healthy expression of emotion (e.g. I feel…) Healthy interpretation of events (e.g. Im frustrated, but I can cope) Healthy discussion of possible reactions (e.g. I should tell them how I feel) Healthy coping with distress (e.g. Ill go for a walk/listen to music/write)

89 Training: Guiding Coping skills: Provides child with healthy options Child learns to choose responsibly instead of automatically Teaches healthy behavior in both parent and child Use with lists for daily practice, refer child to list when upset Relaxation techniques Defusing techniques Verbalization techniques Time/space distancing techniques

90 Training: Behavioral Correction Techniques Positive Reinforcement (immediate) e.g. Good job! Better for small children Reward Systems (cumulative) e.g. points system, stickers Better for older children Time-out and Time-in Time-out – cool off (instead of punishment) Time-in – reward for cooling off Withholding Privileges (or Response Cost) e.g. No TV/computer for an hour Check for accidental secondary punishments: withholding praise, limiting social activities Token Economy (cumulative)

91 Training: General Structure Maintain Routines Set times for meals, chores, homework, breaks, etc. Make rules/punishment clear and consistent Review rules and consequences beforehand with partner and then child Share responsibility with partner for enforcing rules and consequences Stay calm Better to model losing control calmly than regaining control in distress

92 Training: Language Specific, not vague Stop doing X instead of Stop being a bad child Targeted, not general You did X and that is not allowed instead of Youre always doing something wrong Behavioral, not personal You did X and that is not allowed instead of Youre such a bad child

93 Training: Language Clarify, dont justify You can have a cookie after dinner, not before instead of it can ruin your appetite and then you wont finish your dinner Short, dont elaborate Goto your room instead of How many times do I have to tell you not to hit your sister? What is wrong with you? Are you trying to make me crazy? Do you want me to punish you? If you hit her again Ill tell your father and hell beat you until you cry! Speak calmly, not angrily (see previous example)

94 Training: Language Positive reinforcement Efforts (e.g. Good job studying your best) Abilities (e.g. You draw very nicely) Passions (e.g. You really know your computers) Opinions (e.g. Thats an interesting view)

95 Training: Language Use simple statements and repeat them Cognitive conditioning = positive self- esteem e.g. You dealt with that very well

96 Training: Language Avoid focusing mainly on single values/achievements e.g. Youre a great student, youre going to be a doctor Avoid focusing mainly on external appreciation e.g. Everybody loves you because youre so funny

97 Language: Practice Respond to the following behaviors: I dont want to do homework! Ill do it later, Im watching TV! But I want a cookie now! I promise Ill eat my dinner. You cant make me! Stay out of my room/stuff! Respect my privacy! Child is hitting younger sibling

98 Final Parenting Tips for 2 parents Back each other up in front of the child Disagree later, you can always apologize to the child (great example) Share authority, dont split Dont negate or undermine others authority Dont use child in an argument Dont dictate rules as way to retain control in a relationship Be consistent with each other Plan rules and consequences together beforehand Agreement on rules is less important than consistency!

99 Mirror Dynamics: Here and Now

100 Mirror Dynamics Therapist-Parent relationship mirrors Parent-Child relationship Parent expresses emotions behaviorally Resistance Tardiness/Cancellations Accusations Hopelessness Lack of practice Therapist reflects parental mistakes Judgment/Criticism/Forces homework (Authoritarian) Poor boundaries: Doesnt address misbehaviors (Permissive) Doesnt show empathy for parents frustration (Neglectful) Therapist emotion: Threatened, hopeless, annoyed, anxious

101 Mirror Dynamics Set example in therapy room Maintain boundaries & Enforce rules Show empathy for parents difficulties Allow parents to take responsibility for actions and possible alternative actions Model tolerance for lack of control/perfection/knowledge, including owning/reflecting own emotions Seek out supervision

102 Review Additional exercises Case Consultations Q & A


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