Presentation on theme: "1 South Carolina Wing Civil Air Patrol Mission Aircrew Course South Carolina Wing Civil Air Patrol Mission Aircrew Course ** Revised July 2008 – TX176/R.Hischke."— Presentation transcript:
1 South Carolina Wing Civil Air Patrol Mission Aircrew Course South Carolina Wing Civil Air Patrol Mission Aircrew Course ** Revised July 2008 – TX176/R.Hischke **
2 Form 101 m Form 101 Specialty Qualification Card m CAPR 60-3 NEED GENERAL ES !!! So, you wanna train ??? Administrative Items
3 Mission Scanner Requirements m Trainee 18 years of age minimum Complete on-line CAPT 116, ES/ICS tests m Qualification Preparatory Training per SQTR-MS Recommend Completion of AFIADL 02130A Scanner Course Demonstrate knowledge of procedures and plans Assist in planning & conducting two sorties Training conducted & verified by a qualified Mission Scanner
4 Training Requirements m Visual Search Pattern Procedures m Electronic Search Pattern and Procedures m Aircrew Coordination m Flight Line Operations m Survival and First Aid Procedures m Safety m Scanning Techniques and Sighting Characteristics
5 Flight Training/Qualification Requirements m Minimum of two separate sorties as a trainee under the direct supervision of a qualified Mission Scanner m Demonstrate Thorough Knowledge and Understanding of: Visual Search Pattern Procedures Electronic Search Pattern and Procedures Coordination with Ground Teams/Air-Ground Signals Aircrew Coordination
6 m PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY: Visual Search m Be prepared to fly the mission clothing, equipment, credentials, etc. m Assist in Completion of pre-mission paperwork m Participate in briefings m Maintain an observers log m Conduct the mission as planned m Report observations accurately m Assist in completion of all post-mission paperwork Scanner Duties
7 Mission Observer Requirements m Trainee Qualified Mission Scanner m Qualification Preparatory Training per SQTR-MO CAP Radio Operator Authorization Card Recommend Completion of AFIADL 02130B Observer Course Demonstrate knowledge of Procedures and Plans Plan & conduct two sorties Training conducted & verified by a qualified Mission Observer
8 Flight Training Requirements m Minimum of two separate sorties as a trainee under the direct supervision of a qualified Mission Observer m Visual and electronic search procedures Visual search patterns as applicable Electronic search with direction finding equipment Electronic search without direction finding equipment m Aircrew coordination m Other search mission procedures
9 m PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY: Visual Search m SECONDARY RESPONSIBILITY: Assist MP m Be prepared to fly the mission clothing, equipment, credentials, etc. m Complete pre-mission paperwork m Participate in briefings m Maintain an observers log m Conduct the mission as planned m Advise the mission base of status m Report observations accurately m Complete all post-mission paperwork Observer Duties
10 Mission Pilot Requirements m Trainee Qualified Mission Scanner Highly recommended to be Qualified Mission Observer Current CAP Pilot with 175 Hrs. PIC incl. 50 Hrs. X/C Preparatory Training per SQTR-MP m Qualification CAP Radio Operator Authorization Card Complete MISSION AIRCREW Course Fly two separate training sorties Demonstrate capability to fly search patterns Complete evaluation flight check - CAPF 91. Training conducted & verified by a qualified Mission Pilot
11 Radio Operator Authorization Card m Complete Basic Comm User Training m CAP Form 76 (ROA) m CAPR Mission Forms
12 SQTRs m Specialty Qualification Training Records m CAPR 60-3 & eServices m SQTR-MS - Mission Scanner m SQTR-MO - Mission Observer m SQTR-MP - Mission Pilot m etc.
16 Form 101 m Form 101 Specialty Qualification Card m CAPR 60-3 & eServices
17 Forms 104 and 108 m CAPF 104 Mission Flight Plan / Briefing / Debriefing Form CAPR 60-1 Completed for each mission sortie m CAPF 108 CAP Payment / Reimbursement Document for Aviation / Automotive / Miscellaneous Expenses CAPR Completed for each mission File within 30 days after mission completion Processing may take weeks
18 FAA Flight Plan m FAA Form FAA Form (8-82) CLOSE VFR FLIGHT PLAN WITH ________________FSS ON ARRIVAL U. S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION FLIGHT PLAN TIME STARTEDSPECIALIST INITIALS 1. TYPE VFR IFR DVFR 2. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION 3. AIRCRAFT TYPE/ SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 4. TRUE AIRSPEED KTS 8. ROUTE OF FLIGHT PROPOSED (Z)ACTUAL (Z) 5. DEPARTURE POINT 6. DEPARTURE TIME 7. CRUISING ALTITUDE 9. DESTINATION (Name of airport and city) 10. EST. TIME ENROUTE HOURSMINUTES 12. FUEL ON BOARD HOURS MINUTES 13. ALTERNATE AIRPORT(S) 11. REMARKS 14. PILOTS NAME, ADDRESS, & TELEPHONE NUMBER & AIRCRAFT HOME BASE 17. DESTINATION CONTACT / TELEPHONE (OPTIONAL) 15. NUMBER ABOARD 16. COLOR OF AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT PILOTS, FAR Part 91 requires you file an IFR flight plan to operate under instrument flight rules in controlled airspace. Failure to file could result in a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 for each violation (Section 901 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 as amended (FAA USE ONLY)PILOT BRIEFING STOPOVER VNR
19 Radio Communications & Procedures m There are many radios in aircraft ALL have similar features, tuning, volume, squelch Learn how to operate the radio you will be using m Keep radio transmissions brief and clear Use Code words Use Prowords Figures Time Phonetic Alphabet m Handouts
20 m CAPR 60-3 m Ground to Air Signals Size equals visibility Natural materials (contrast is important) Body signals Paulin signals m Air to Ground Signals Aircraft motion Circling and heading Racing the engine Message drop Ground Team Coordination Think BIG!
21 Ground Signals
22 Aircraft Motion Signals YES NO Message received and understood
23 Low Level Navigation THE DANGER m The biggest single problem is crew workload m Your perception of speed varies with altitude SPECIAL ATTENTION m Man-made obstructions m Air crew duties m These items should be covered during the pre-flight briefing.
24 Position Determination m Electronic means Radial and distance (DME) from an identified station Intersection of two radials Intersection of two reverse courses
25 Position Determination m Pilotage Work from larger to smaller Work from a known location to present location Watch the scale on maps Remain suspicious if all points dont seem to line up right Use groups of 3 characteristics to verify position
26 m Get a current chart m Plot course m Choose checkpoints m Measure true course m Adjust for magnetic variation m Correct for wind m Note compass deviation 20º 15º10º 5º 0º 5º 10º 15º 20º Agonic Line Easterly VariationWesterly Variation Pilotage
27 CAP Grid Systems m Overlay standard sectional maps m Subdivides the map into distinct working areas m Aeronautical Chart System Each grid is 1/4° of latitude by 1/4° of longitude and is assigned a number m Standardized Latitude/Longitude System Each primary grid is 1° of latitude by 1° of longitude and is defined by the Lat/Long of the lower right corner Primary grids are subdivided by appropriate letters for sub-grids
28 Aeronautical Chart Grid System m Each 15x15 grid on the sectional is assigned a number m In this example, the grids depicted are on the HOU sectional m Grids are subdivided into 7.5x7.5 sections labeled A, B, C, and D m For areas of overlap the grid number of the most westerly chart is used W W N N HOU N W W A B C D HOU 126B HOU 176
29 Standardized Latitude/Longitude Grid System m This system does not require special numbering m Lat-long of lower right corner defines the primary grid m Letters are used to define sub-grids A defines a 30x30 grid AA defines a 15x15 grid AAA defines a 7.5x7.5 grid W W N N AB C B C D 30/095 AA N W W A B C D 30/095 ADB
30 Making Grid Charts m You can use a new sectional normally not updated unless it gets worn out m Use a hi-lighter (not pink) to mark grid boundaries on the chart using a long ruler m Mark grid identification in black ink for easy visibility m You should always keep a current sectional with you even if you have a sectional which is marked with grids
31 Search Planning & Coverage m Search Involves Estimating the position of the wreck or survivors Determining the area to be searched Selecting the search techniques to be used m Possibility Area Circle around the Last Known Position (LKP) The radius is equal to the endurance of the aircraft Correct for wind m Probability Area Where is the aircraft likely to be
32 Determining the Possibility Area LKP Corrected for wind Wind vector No wind endurance Maximum possibility area Flight level winds: 330/20 Aircraft Speed: 100 Kts Endurance: 2 Hours 200 NM 40NM
33 Determining the Probability Area m Where was the last point where RADAR had the aircraft identified? m Is there an ELT? m Was there a flight plan (even if not on file with the FAA)? m Dead reckoning from LKP and heading m Reports of sightings Other aircraft People living along the intended route of flight
34 Narrowing the Probability Area m Flight plan m Weather information m National Track Analysis Program data m Airports along the intended flight track m Aircraft performance m Pilots flying habits m Radar coverage as a limiting factor m Nature of terrain along the flight track m Position reports fuel stops, etc. m Most likely within 5 miles of intended track
35 Search Priorities m Areas of bad weather m Low clouds and poor visibility m Areas where weather was not as forecast m High terrain m Areas not covered by radar m Reports of low flying aircraft m Survival factors m Radio contacts or MAYDAY calls
36 Search Coverage m Factors which affect detection Weather & lighting conditions Type of Terrain Search Visibility Scanning Range Track Spacing (S) m Determining factors for search area coverage Type and number of aircraft available Search visibility Possibility Area Probability Area m Probability Of Detection (POD)
37 Search Coverage Probability Of Detection (POD) m POD expressed as a percent that the search object can be detected m Four interrelated factors used to calculate Track Spacing (S) Search Visibility Search Altitude Type of Terrain m Cumulative POD calculated using a chart m Effectiveness must also be considered
38 Search Coverage Probability of Detection Chart
39 Search Coverage 5-10% % % % % % % % % %11-20%21-30%31-40%41-50%51-60%61-70%71-80%80+% POD For This Search Previous POD Cumulative Probability of Detection Chart
40 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) m Normally set off by the impact of an airplane crash; can be set off by a hard landing--check before engine shutdown m TSO 91 ELTs are most common MHz 98% of all ELT activations are false alarms m TSO 91A ELTs also available 406 MHz Signal includes registration information Has lower false alarm rate - only 90% Electronic Search Patterns m Requires special skills that must be learned and practiced.
41 Electronic Search Area of Reception m Line-of-sight ELT signals can be blocked Signal blocked by the curvature of the earth
42 Done using Track Line or Creeping Line pattern m Altitude is normally 5,000 to 10,000 AGL m Use a search pattern assigned by the Mission Coordinator m Track Line (route) search or Creeping Line may be used m Track Line flown out and back on either side of expected track. m Creeping Line flown back and forth covering a large area. Legs flown perpendicular to the general direction the target would have been traveling Path of missing aircraft Search Path Path of missing aircraft
43 Homing with DF Equipment m Direction Finding Equipment for MHz m Use standard homing procedures Determine direction from the needle indications Turn toward the direction indicated by the needle Proceed until you get a strong crossover indication Descend if needed to locate the signal m Homing at low altitudes may cause problems due to interference from the ground or man- made obstacles
44 Signal Null Method Signal Heard High Ant Null Low Ant Null High Ant Null No nulls detected at low altitude Null vector from first turn Null Vector from second turn Path of Aircraft m Requires a receiver AND a SPECIALLY PLACED antenna, i.e. directly between the wings. m Fly the turn, record the heading of the null (where the signal disappears), calculate the direction to the signal (add or subtract 90 deg.)
45 Aural Search Pattern Signal faded Signal heard again Signal heard First heading Second heading Third heading Chord 1 Chord 2 Chord 3 Barely audible signal in aircraft receiver at search altitude Commence low altitude search Signal faded again Signal heard again m Only requires a receiver. m Dont touch the volume, or squelch controls while working the pattern. m One person should determine the points where the signal fades or returns.
46 Metered Search First pass- signal detected Signal fades out ELT Second pass -turn to locate ELT m Only requires a receiver with a signal strength meter. m Watch the strength meter on the receiver.
47 Electronic Search Problems m Pattern distortion due to terrain/obstacles Beware, the signal may lead you AWAY from the actual target. m Signal loss due to terrain m Determination of aural signal Different people hear sounds differently. m Volume problems Volume control and Squelch Automatic volume controls Individual differences in people m Success requires Equipment Knowledge Practice
48 Visual Search Patterns & Procedures Track Line (Route Search) Track of missing aircraft 1/2 S Track of search aircraft m Used when aircraft missing without a trace - also used at night m Rapid and reasonably thorough coverage near the expected track.
49 Visual Search Patterns Parallel Track (Grid) m Used for large and fairly level search areas.
50 Visual Search Patterns Creeping Line sssss Direction of Search m Used when search area is long, narrow, fairly level and target is thought to be on either side of the expected track.
51 Visual Search Patterns Expanding Square (second pass rotated 45°) 4SS 2S 3S5S 4S 2S 3S 5S m Used when the approximate location of target is known - very difficult to fly without a GPS. m Gradually will cover a larger and larger area.
52 Visual Search Patterns Sector Search The pattern provides concentrated coverage near the center of the area This pattern is used when an electronic search has led the crew to a general area to find the exact location visually The pattern and headings are planned in advance S max S mean m Used when the position of the distress incident is known to be within close limits; i.e., there was a MAYDAY call with definite location.
53 Visual Search Patterns Contour Search This is a most difficult and dangerous pattern to fly Requires special training Dont try it when winds or turbulence are bad Watch density altitude Ensure the aircraft has the required performance for the mission m Always flown from high terrain to lower terrain. m CAUTION - Density altitude and aircraft performance limitations can cause you to get into an unrecoverable situation.
54 Vision Physiology m The maximum visual acuity is a circle 10° in diameter around a fixation point m During the day, peripheral vision is good to pick up things, then focus on them with your central vision. m Dark adaptation requires 30 minutes m At night Use off-center vision Fewer scans Rest between scans m Lighting conditions & shadows may significantly affect vision 10 degrees
55 Visual Clues m Light colored or shiny objects m Smoke, fire, blackened areas m Disturbed or discolored foliage m Fresh bare earth m Breaks in cultivated field patterns m Disturbances in water and snow m Birds and animals m Signals and messages
56 Wreckage Patterns m Hole in the ground - steep dive into the ground m Cork screw or auger - uncontrolled spin m Creaming or smear - level flight into the ground m The four winds - in-flight breakup, pieces scattered everywhere. m Hedge-trimming - aircraft strikes high ridge or obstruction and continues on - some wreckage at first impact, most of it further away. m Splash – water impact – oil slick & debris
57 Scanning Technique m Follow a routine pattern m Cover area systematically m Pause to fix on a point every 3° to 4° m Cover 10° per second m Lateral pattern m Vertical pattern m Limitations Weather Altitude Windows Focus points Fixation area Farther Nearer m Using proper scanning techniques and understanding sighting characteristics is essential to a proper search.
58 Effect of flight path m Be aware - Movement of the aircraft across the ground can adversely affect coverage
Direction of Flight Aircraft Ground Track Scanning Range 1000 AGL ( 1/2 - 1 mile ) 500 AGL (1/4 - 1/2 mile) Scanning from RIGHT SIDE Window
60 Direction of Flight Aircraft Ground Track Scanning Range 1000 AGL ( 1/2 - 1 mile ) 500 AGL (1/4 - 1/2 mile) Scanning from LEFT SIDE WINDOW
61 Flight Path Left Side Scanning Diagonally In to Out Key: Numbers represent scanning focuses Dots represent focus points Right Side Scanning Diagonally In to Out Flight Path Diagonal Scanning
62 Fighting Fatigue m Change positions every 30 minutes if the size of the aircraft permits m Rest your eyes occasionally - let the crew know m Switch sides of the aircraft m Find a comfortable scanning position m Ensure aircraft windows are clean (pre-flight) m Scan through open hatches when possible m Keep inside lighting low to reduce reflections m Only use binoculars to check sightings - Using binoculars to scan will limit your view and probably make you ill. m Focus on close objects periodically
63 Time conversion m Travel across time zones makes local time difficult to use m Coordinated Universal Time, Greenwich Mean Time, or Zulu time usually used m Conversion factor can be found in flight planning material Flight Planning m Proper flight planning is essential to safe flight and it will make for much more effective sorties.
64 VFR / IFR Flight Plans m Visual Flight Rules (VFR) VFR flight plans are not required by the FAA, but are highly recommended - helps make sure someone will come looking for you if you dont reach your destination Minimum weather conditions and clearance from clouds must be observed Pilot assumes complete responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft During search missions, your CAPF 104 is you flight plan - the MC and mission staff will know if you dont return. FAA flight plan required if Search Area is over 50 miles from Mission Base m Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) IFR flight plan and clearance are required Minimum weather conditions are much lower than VFR Controller assumes responsibility for aircraft separation Visual search is not done in IFR conditions
65 Preflight Briefing m Understanding all of the conditions of the flight will better prepare you to do your job. m Prior to each flight the pilot-in-command will brief the crew and passengers with essential information regarding the flight, and specific information concerning the aircraft. Pay attention. Mission Objectives Weather Search Altitudes & Routes Crew Duties Emergency Procedures Survival Equipment m Know what your looking for, where youll be going, what to expect, what youll be doing. m When you have an emergency its too late to discuss what youre going to do. m If you dont understand something ask.
66 Aircrew Coordination m Scanner / Observer qualifications are contained in CAPR 60-3 m Scanner / Observer responsibilities are contained in AFIADL 2130A & B Course Books Maintain flight log Report observations Use effective scanning techniques m The Aircrew is a TEAM - Each has a job to perform - the team members must work together to be effective. m Remember your job is to look for targets. m You must record what you see. m You need to be aware of where you are and the status of the sortie at all times.
67 Observers Log m Provides a record of the flight Preflight calculations Record of observations m Basis for debriefing m Used to complete CAPF 104 (Debriefing) m Information is forwarded to Mission Coordinator to guide mission management m Good logs can be combined from several sorties to give the Mission Coordinator a better picture of how the search is going Observer Log AircraftPilotObserverMissionDate DestinationTotal Dist ETE Remain Takeoff Time ETA ATA Fuel Remain Fuel Inflight Observations Time Observation Departure Pt. Check Points Mag Hdg Dist Ground Speed Ident Freq ETE
68 Team concept and communication m Pay close attention to all briefings m Understand the big picture m Watch for task overload in yourself and other crewmembers – Crew Resource Management m 67% of aircraft accidents occur during 17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, climb, approach and landing. Keep casual conversation and distractions to a minimum during these phases of flight – Sterile Cockpit m Begin critical communication with instructions, then explain m Dont be afraid to ask questions
69 Debriefing m Note both Positive and Negative results - You may not have seen anything, but the conditions (sun angle, terrain, etc.) may have been such that it will be necessary to send another sortie to that same area. m Use the back side of CAPF Report any possible targets spotted that were identified as other things (refrigerators, scrap metal, etc.) This will help others who search the same area if they know youve already identified the object. m Debriefing used to determine effectivity of the search Weather shadows, visibility, snow cover Terrain open flat, mountainous, rough Ground Cover barren, forest, scrub, sparse, dense Other information hazards, changes from plan m Results used to calculate the probability of detection which is used for subsequent search planning
70 Crew Efficiency m Communications - The efficient crew works together and communicates well. m Clock Position - When a target is sighted, keep your eyes on it and tell the pilot the position. Something like, I have a target, 3 oclock. High, Low, Level m Maneuvers - Then give the pilot maneuver instructions to guide them to it without losing sight of it yourself. Straight ahead Stop turn m Small Corrections 5 degrees right 10 degrees left bank m External References - Use reference points like straight out the road to the east. m Dont expect the pilot to be able to see the target immediately. You must guide them to it
INCIDENT Flight Service AFRCC CAP Alert Ofcr Incident Commander Sqdn Cdr / ES Ofcr Air Crew 108 (MP) 104 (all) ORM (all) Fuel Rcpt Wt/Bal (MP) MO/MS Logs 104 (all) CAPF 117 CAPF 201 CAPF 115 Wing Admin State Director Dir of Ops SARSAT (Click to Advance) Typical Air Sortie Sequence 103 (all) 121 MP CAPF 99 WMIRS
72 Summary m Successful missions hinge on each and every aircrew member m Learn how to use the procedures and tools available to you, and use them correctly m Never stop learning m Dont be afraid to ask questions m Never criticize someone for asking questions m Practice, practice, practice
73 Now, Lets Go Flying !! ** Revision 5 - July 2008 – TX176/R.Hischke **