Presentation on theme: "South Carolina Wing Civil Air Patrol Mission Aircrew Course"— Presentation transcript:
1South Carolina Wing Civil Air Patrol Mission Aircrew Course Sign in rosterFill out Fax for AFIADL courseClass introduction - name, aviation experience, length of time in CAP, scanner, observer, pilot?Show Outline** Revised July 2008 – TX176/R.Hischke **
2Administrative Items Form 101 So, you wanna train ???Form 101Form 101 Specialty Qualification CardCAPR NEED GENERAL ES !!!Complete information contained in CAPR 60-3Issued by the wing commander.SQTR required for training in each specialtyCurrency requirement - as a minimum qualified personnel should participate in at least one mission (actual, training or proficiency sortie) every two years in each specialty.Scanners and observers must also maintain currency IAW CAPR 60-1 which means satisfactorily completing a biennial refresher qualification program covering the subjects in this course.Lost currency may be regained IAW procedures in CAPR 60-3, pp READ
3Mission Scanner Requirements Trainee18 years of age minimumComplete on-line CAPT 116, ES/ICS testsQualificationPreparatory Training per SQTR-MSRecommend Completion of AFIADL 02130A Scanner CourseDemonstrate knowledge of procedures and plansAssist in planning & conducting two sortiesTraining conducted & verified by a qualified Mission ScannerRequirements for Scanner/Observer positions contained in CAPR 60-3Training requirements found in CAPR 60-3 pp 2-3Positional Checklists found in SQTR-MS,MO,MPTwo sorties is minimum. Must complete all training requirements and demonstrate proficiency.No specified minimum number of required hours for flight and classroom training - the goal is to achieve level of proficiencyMission Pilots can conduct Scanner / Observer flight trainingTraining is a continuous process - it doesn’t stop when the CAPF 101 is issued - professional performance demands continuous training.
4Training Requirements Visual Search Pattern ProceduresElectronic Search Pattern and ProceduresAircrew CoordinationFlight Line OperationsSurvival and First Aid ProceduresSafetyScanning Techniques and Sighting Characteristics- This course covers the classroom training required for Scanner, Observer, & Pilot.- Five Visual Search Patterns- Four Electronic Search Patterns- Assignment of Duties- Crew Efficiency- Search Altitude Selection- Coordination with ATC (Air Traffic Control)- Aircraft Marshalling Hand Signals- Flightline Safety- Safety Considerations- Scanning Patterns- Lighting Conditions- Visual Clues- Wreckage Patterns- Reducing Fatigue Effects
5Flight Training/Qualification Requirements Minimum of two separate sorties as a trainee under the direct supervision of a qualified Mission ScannerDemonstrate Thorough Knowledge and Understanding of:Visual Search Pattern ProceduresElectronic Search Pattern and ProceduresCoordination with Ground Teams/Air-Ground SignalsAircrew Coordination- Trainee must demonstrate to a qualified mission observer a thorough understanding of SAR/DR operations procedures.- SQTR-MS,MO,MP show list of training requirements:HAND OUT- Visual SearchTrack Line, Parallel Track, Creeping Line, Expanding Square, Sector, Contour/Mountainous Terrain- Electronic SearchWing Shadow (Signal Null), Aural, DF/Metered,Mountainous Terrain- Coordination with ground team: Directing ground teams along a desired route to specified objectives, with and w/o radio communication and correctly sending and receiving signals- Demonstrate proficiency in working with assigned crew members
6Scanner Duties PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY: Visual Search Be prepared to fly the mission — clothing, equipment, credentials, etc.Assist in Completion of pre-mission paperworkParticipate in briefingsMaintain an observer’s logConduct the mission as plannedReport observations accuratelyAssist in completion of all post-mission paperworkPrimary responsibility - Visual Search; allows the pilot to fly safely and accurately. You are the Eyes and Ears of the Mission Coordinator (MC).Briefings include: Mission, safety, comm, preflight/aircrew, passenger/crew and debriefCAPF 60 (Emergency Notification Form)CAPF 103 (Sign In Rosters)CAPF 121 (Aircraft and Vehicle Sign In Rosters)CAPF 104 (Flight Plan / Mission Briefing/Debriefing Form)Observer’s LogSource documents for Scanner/Observer are:CAPR 60-3, CAP Emergency Services Training and Operational MissionsCAPR 60-1, CAP Flight Management
7Mission Observer Requirements TraineeQualified Mission ScannerQualificationPreparatory Training per SQTR-MOCAP Radio Operator Authorization CardRecommend Completion of AFIADL 02130B Observer CourseDemonstrate knowledge of Procedures and PlansPlan & conduct two sortiesTraining conducted & verified by a qualified Mission ObserverThis course covers material required prior to the issuance of a SQTR for the Observer SpecialtyVisual Search Patterns and ProceduresElectronic Search Patterns and ProceduresChart Reading / CAP Grid SystemSearch CoverageNavigation and Position DeterminationAir Crew CoordinationWeatherHigh Altitude and Terrain ConsiderationsCoordination with Ground TeamsFlight Line OperationsCommunications ProceduresFlight Plans and Mission FormsReimbursement ProceduresState/Local AgreementsSurvival and First Aid ProceduresSafetyTransport Mission ProceduresScanning Techniques and Sighting Characteristics
8Flight Training Requirements Minimum of two separate sorties as a trainee under the direct supervision of a qualified Mission ObserverVisual and electronic search proceduresVisual search patterns as applicableElectronic search with direction finding equipmentElectronic search without direction finding equipmentAircrew coordinationOther search mission proceduresTrainee must demonstrate to a qualified mission observer a thorough understanding of SAR/DR operations procedures.- SQTR-MS,MO,MP show list of training requirements:Visual Search Procedures to includea. Track line (route) searchb. Parallel track searchc. Creeping line searchd. Expanding square searche. Contour searchf. Mountainous terrain procedures (if applicable)Electronic Search Proceduresa. Wing shadow methodb. Aural searchc. Use of direction finding equipmentd. Mountainous terrain procedures (if applicable)Coordination with Ground Teams/Air-ground SignalsNavigation and Position DeterminationAir Crew Coordination
9Observer Duties PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY: Visual Search SECONDARY RESPONSIBILITY: Assist MPBe prepared to fly the mission — clothing, equipment, credentials, etc.Complete pre-mission paperworkParticipate in briefingsMaintain an observer’s logConduct the mission as plannedAdvise the mission base of statusReport observations accuratelyComplete all post-mission paperworkPrimary responsibility - Visual Search; allows the pilot to fly safely and accurately. You are the Eyes and Ears of the Mission Coordinator (MC).Briefings include: Mission, safety, comm, preflight/aircrew, passenger/crew and debriefCAPF 60 (Emergency Notification Form)CAPF 103 (Sign In Rosters)CAPF 121 (Aircraft and Vehicle Sign In Rosters)CAPF 104 (Flight Plan / Mission Briefing/Debriefing Form)Source documents for Scanner/Observer are:CAPR 60-3, CAP Emergency Services Training and Operational MissionsCAPR 60-1, CAP Flight Management
10Mission Pilot Requirements TraineeQualified Mission ScannerHighly recommended to be Qualified Mission ObserverCurrent CAP Pilot with 175 Hrs. PIC incl. 50 Hrs. X/CPreparatory Training per SQTR-MPQualificationCAP Radio Operator Authorization CardComplete MISSION AIRCREW CourseFly two separate training sortiesDemonstrate capability to fly search patternsComplete evaluation flight check - CAPF 91.Training conducted & verified by a qualified Mission PilotClassroom training covering the applicable material outlined below is required prior to the issuance of a SQTR for the Observer SpecialtyVisual Search Patterns and ProceduresElectronic Search Patterns and ProceduresChart Reading / CAP Grid SystemSearch CoverageNavigation and Position DeterminationAir Crew CoordinationWeatherHigh Altitude and Terrain ConsiderationsCoordination with Ground TeamsFlight Line OperationsCommunications ProceduresFlight Plans and Mission FormsReimbursement ProceduresState/Local AgreementsSurvival and First Aid ProceduresSafetyTransport Mission ProceduresScanning Techniques and Sighting Characteristics
11Radio Operator Authorization Card Mission FormsRadio Operator Authorization CardComplete Basic Comm User TrainingCAP Form 76 (ROA)CAPR 100-1This is a prerequisite to Observer & Mission Pilot qualification.Wing Director of Communications issues this card.Requires an understanding of CAP Manual
12SQTR’s Specialty Qualification Training Records CAPR 60-3 & eServices SQTR-MS - Mission ScannerSQTR-MO - Mission ObserverSQTR-MP - Mission Pilotetc.Need these forms to begin training.Complete information and instructions found in CAPR 60-3 pp 2-3.Individual can train in up to 3 specialties at a time.To receive credit for field training the instructor must endorse the SQTR.SQTR expires in 2 years, but is no longer used when a person becomes qualified in an area and it is added to the CAPF 101.SQTR should be retained for continued participation in a training status until receipt of the CAPR 101.CAPF 100 documents the request for SQTR and the Unit Commander issues SQTR.
16Form 101 Form 101 Specialty Qualification Card CAPR 60-3 & eServices Complete information is contained in CAPR 60-3 pp 2-1Issued by the wing or region commander.Currency requirement - as a minimum qualified personnel should participate in at least one mission (actual, training or proficiency sortie) every two years in each specialty.Reciprocity is granted between states.Scanner and observers must also maintain currency IAW CAPR 60-1 which now means satisfactorily completing a biennial refresher qualification program covering the subjects in this course.Lost currency may be regained IAW procedures in CAPR 60-3 pp 2-5.
17Forms 104 and 108CAPF 104 Mission Flight Plan / Briefing / Debriefing FormCAPR 60-1Completed for each mission sortieCAPF 108 CAP Payment / Reimbursement Document for Aviation / Automotive / Miscellaneous ExpensesCAPR 173-3Completed for each missionFile within 30 days after mission completionProcessing may take weeksObserver log information is transferred to the back of the CAPF 104 for debriefing / recording.Is used in lieu of the FAA Flight Plan for operational missions.
18FAA Flight Plan FAA Form 7233-1 FLIGHT PLAN CLOSE VFR FLIGHT PLAN WITH ________________FSS ON ARRIVALU. S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATIONFEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATIONFLIGHT PLANTIME STARTEDSPECIALISTINITIALS1. TYPEVFRIFRDVFR2. AIRCRAFTIDENTIFICATION3. AIRCRAFT TYPE/SPECIAL EQUIPMENT4. TRUEAIRSPEEDKTS8. ROUTE OF FLIGHTPROPOSED (Z)ACTUAL (Z)5. DEPARTURE POINT6. DEPARTURE TIME7. CRUISINGALTITUDE9. DESTINATION (Name of airportand city)10. EST. TIME ENROUTEHOURSMINUTES12. FUEL ON BOARD13. ALTERNATE AIRPORT(S)11. REMARKS14. PILOTS NAME, ADDRESS, & TELEPHONE NUMBER & AIRCRAFT HOME BASE17. DESTINATION CONTACT / TELEPHONE (OPTIONAL)15. NUMBERABOARD16. COLOR OF AIRCRAFTCIVIL AIRCRAFT PILOTS, FAR Part 91 requires you file an IFR flight plan to operate under instrument flight rules incontrolled airspace. Failure to file could result in a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 for each violation (Section 901 of theFederal Aviation Act of 1958 as amended(FAA USE ONLY)PILOT BRIEFINGSTOPOVERVNRCAPR 60-1 para 2-1g requires this be filed any flight over 50 NM distance except where CAPF 104 or CAPF 84 flight plan forms are used.Filed with FAA to record your intended flight and will start a search if you don’t arrive/return.Observer may need to fill this out for some non-mission sorties.BE SURE TO CLOSE YOUR FLIGHT PLAN WITH FAA.
19Radio Communications & Procedures There are many radios in aircraftALL have similar features, tuning, volume, squelchLearn how to operate the radio you will be usingKeep radio transmissions brief and clearUse “Code words”Use “Prowords”FiguresTimePhonetic AlphabetHandoutsCode words are used to prevent unauthorized individuals from obtaining information (news media, etc.) Example “Blackjack” means recall (return to base).
20Ground Team Coordination CAPR 60-3Ground to Air SignalsSize equals visibilityNatural materials (contrast is important)Body signalsPaulin signalsAir to Ground SignalsAircraft motionCircling and headingRacing the engineMessage dropThink BIG!A radio is not always available, so you may have to communicate with ground teams using non-verbal means.IAMSAR Vol II Apx A and Vol III Sect 2 establishes standard signalsContrast and size are most important elements of ground signals
22Aircraft Motion Signals NOYESAlso, to direct the ground team in a certain direction, fly over the team on the appropriate heading and race the engine.Message received and understood
23Low Level Navigation THE DANGER The biggest single problem is crew workloadYour perception of speed varies with altitudeSPECIAL ATTENTIONMan-made obstructionsAir crew dutiesThese items should be covered during the pre-flight briefing.
24Position Determination Electronic meansRadial and distance (DME) from an identified stationIntersection of two radialsIntersection of two reverse courses
25Position Determination PilotageWork from larger to smallerWork from a known location to present locationWatch the scale on mapsRemain suspicious if all points don’t seem to line up rightUse groups of 3 characteristics to verify positionPilotage is using primarily VISUAL REFERENCES or landmarks along with some computations of time, speed, heading, and wind.Dead Reckoning is navigation using ONLY time, heading, wind and airspeed. No visual references are used.
26Pilotage Get a current chart Plot course Choose checkpoints 20º15º10º5º0ºAgonic LineEasterly VariationWesterly VariationGet a current chartPlot courseChoose checkpointsMeasure true courseAdjust for magnetic variationCorrect for windNote compass deviation
27CAP Grid Systems Overlay standard sectional maps Subdivides the map into distinct working areasAeronautical Chart SystemEach grid is 1/4° of latitude by 1/4° of longitude and is assigned a numberStandardized Latitude/Longitude SystemEach primary grid is 1° of latitude by 1° of longitude and is defined by the Lat/Long of the lower right cornerPrimary grids are subdivided by appropriate letters for sub-gridsThe grid system is used to uniformly identify areas for search.Only a couple of charts in the US have overlaps.
28Aeronautical Chart Grid System HOU 101HOU 126BEach 15’x15’ grid on the sectional is assigned a numberIn this example, the grids depicted are on the HOU sectionalGrids are subdivided into 7.5’x7.5’ sections labeled A, B, C, and DFor areas of overlap the grid number of the most westerly chart is used96-00 W95-00 W31-00 NABCD30-30 NThe first full 15 minute quadrangle in the northwest corner of the chart is numbered “001” and numbered in sequence from west to east. Continue in this manner until reaching the southeast corner of the gridded area which serves as the last full 15 minute quadrangle.95-45 W30-00 N95-30 W96-00 WHOU 17695-00 W
29Standardized Latitude/Longitude Grid System 30/095 AA30/095 ADBThis system does not require special numberingLat-long of lower right corner defines the primary gridLetters are used to define sub-gridsA defines a 30’x30’ gridAA defines a 15’x15’ gridAAA defines a 7.5’x7.5’ grid96-00 W95-00 W31-00 NABBCABCD30-30 NThis is another type of grid system that uses the Lat/Long to define the grid number. Otherwise, it is very similar to the aeronautical chart grid system95-45 WCD30-00 N95-30 W96-00 W95-00 W
30Making Grid ChartsYou can use a new sectional — normally not updated unless it gets worn outUse a hi-lighter (not pink) to mark grid boundaries on the chart using a long rulerMark grid identification in black ink for easy visibilityYou should always keep a current sectional with you even if you have a sectional which is marked with gridsYou can make a master grid chart and then mark up you current navigation chart with selected grids as needed.Red or pink marks on your charts will not be visible at night when the red light is the only light on.
31Search Planning & Coverage Search InvolvesEstimating the position of the wreck or survivorsDetermining the area to be searchedSelecting the search techniques to be usedPossibility AreaCircle around the Last Known Position (LKP)The radius is equal to the endurance of the aircraftCorrect for windProbability AreaWhere is the aircraft likely to beSearches must be planned and conducted in an orderly, methodical fashion to be sure the target is found quickly and important areas are covered properly.These issues are usually handled by the Mission Coordinator.You need to be familiar so you can understand where your sortie fits into the mission and what information is important in your debriefing report.
32Determining the Possibility Area No wind enduranceFlight level winds: 330/20Aircraft Speed: KtsEndurance: HoursLKP40NM200 NMWind vectorTake the radius of the endurance of the aircraft (possible range from last known position, LKP), and offset it by the current wind velocity times the endurance.Corrected for windMaximum possibility area
33Determining the Probability Area Where was the last point where RADAR had the aircraft identified?Is there an ELT?Was there a flight plan (even if not on file with the FAA)?Dead reckoning from LKP and headingReports of sightingsOther aircraftPeople living along the intended route of flightNot necessarily a written flight plan. It could be a report of what the pilot planned to do or would usually do.Many pilots follow interstates, roads, and railroads.
34Narrowing the Probability Area Flight planWeather informationNational Track Analysis Program dataAirports along the intended flight trackAircraft performancePilot’s flying habitsRadar coverage as a limiting factorNature of terrain along the flight trackPosition reports — fuel stops, etc.Most likely within 5 miles of intended track
35Search Priorities Areas of bad weather Low clouds and poor visibility Areas where weather was not as forecastHigh terrainAreas not covered by radarReports of low flying aircraftSurvival factorsRadio contacts or MAYDAY callsThe MC will assess the conditions and facts to determine the priorities for search.
36Search Coverage Factors which affect detection Weather & lighting conditionsType of TerrainSearch VisibilityScanning RangeTrack Spacing (S)Determining factors for search area coverageType and number of aircraft availableSearch visibilityPossibility AreaProbability AreaProbability Of Detection (POD)AFIADL 2130A & B defines the process in great detailprobability of detection = mathematically expressed measure of detection capability - see table in AFIADL 2130A, figure 2-11track spacing = distance between adjacent search tracks - should never exceed a distance equal to twice the search visibilitysearch visibility = distance at which an object can be recognized on the ground - always less than the meteorological visibilitysearch altitude ft for aircraft crash over open terrain in good weather
37Search Coverage Probability Of Detection (POD) POD expressed as a “percent” that the search object can be detectedFour interrelated factors used to calculateTrack Spacing (S)Search VisibilitySearch AltitudeType of TerrainCumulative POD calculated using a chart“Effectiveness” must also be consideredCrew ability, training, fatigue also contribute to the POD.
38Probability of Detection Chart Search CoverageProbability of Detection ChartVisibility, altitude and track spacing all directly affect your ability to spot the target (POD).
39Cumulative Probability of Detection Chart Search CoverageCumulative Probability of Detection ChartPreviousPOD5-10% 1511-20% 20 2521-30%31-40%41-50%51-60%61-70%71-80%80+%5-10% 11-20% 21-30% 31-40% 41-50% 51-60% 61-70% 71-80% 80+%The cumulative POD increases with each repeated search of an area.POD For This Search
40Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Electronic Search PatternsRequires special skills that must be learned and practiced.Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)Normally set off by the impact of an airplane crash; can be set off by a hard landing--check before engine shutdownTSO 91 ELTs are most common121.5 MHz98% of all ELT activations are false alarmsTSO 91A ELTs also available406 MHzSignal includes registration informationHas lower false alarm rate - only 90%
41Electronic Search Line-of-sight ELT signals can be blocked Signal blocked by thecurvature of the earthArea of ReceptionArea of Reception
42Done using Track Line or Creeping Line pattern Altitude is normally 5,000 to 10,000 AGLUse a search pattern assigned by the Mission CoordinatorTrack Line (route) search or Creeping Line may be usedTrack Line flown out and back on either side of expected track.Creeping Line flown back and forth covering a large area. Legs flown perpendicular to the general direction the target would have been travelingPath of missingaircraftSearchPathPath of missingaircraft
43Homing with DF Equipment Direction Finding Equipment for MHzUse standard homing proceduresDetermine direction from the needle indicationsTurn toward the direction indicated by the needleProceed until you get a strong “crossover” indicationDescend if needed to locate the signalHoming at low altitudes may cause problems due to interference from the ground or man-made obstacles
44Signal Null MethodRequires a receiver AND a SPECIALLY PLACED antenna, i.e. directly between the wings.Fly the turn, record the heading of the null (where the signal disappears), calculate the direction to the signal (add or subtract 90 deg.)Signal HeardHigh Ant NullLow Ant NullNo nulls detected at low altitudeNull vector from first turnNull Vector from second turnPath ofAircraft
45Aural Search Pattern Only requires a receiver. Don’t touch the volume, or squelch controls while working the pattern.One person should determine the points where the signal fades or returns.Signal fadedSignal heard againSignal heardFirst headingSecond headingThird headingChord 1Chord 2Chord 3Barely audible signal in aircraft receiver at search altitudeCommence lowaltitude searchSignal faded again
46Metered Search Only requires a receiver with a signal strength meter. Watch the strength meter on the receiver.First pass- signal detected28765Signal fades outELT4Second pass -turnto locate ELT
47Electronic Search Problems Pattern distortion due to terrain/obstaclesBeware, the signal may lead you AWAY from the actual target.Signal loss due to terrainDetermination of aural signalDifferent people hear sounds differently.Volume problemsVolume control and SquelchAutomatic volume controlsIndividual differences in peopleSuccess requiresEquipmentKnowledgePractice
48Visual Search Patterns & Procedures Track Line (Route Search) Used when aircraft missing without a trace - also used at nightRapid and reasonably thorough coverage near the expected track.Track of missing aircraft1/2 STrack of search aircraft
49Visual Search Patterns Parallel Track (“Grid”) Used for large and fairly level search areas.
50Visual Search Patterns Creeping Line Used when search area is long, narrow, fairly level and target is thought to be on either side of the expected track.sDirection of Search
51Visual Search Patterns Expanding Square (second pass rotated 45°) Used when the approximate location of target is known - very difficult to fly without a GPS.Gradually will cover a larger and larger area.4SS2S3S5S
52Visual Search Patterns Sector Search Used when the position of the distress incident is known to be within close limits; i.e., there was a MAYDAY call with definite location.The pattern provides concentratedcoverage near the center of the areaThis pattern is used when anelectronic search has led thecrew to a general area to findthe exact location visuallyThe pattern and headingsare planned in advanceS maxS mean
53Visual Search Patterns Contour Search Always flown from high terrain to lower terrain.CAUTION - Density altitude and aircraft performance limitations can cause you to get into an unrecoverable situation.This is a most difficult anddangerous pattern to flyRequires special trainingDon’t try it when windsor turbulence are badWatch density altitudeEnsure the aircraft has therequired performance forthe mission
54Vision PhysiologyThe maximum visual acuity is a circle 10° in diameter around a fixation pointDuring the day, peripheral vision is good to pick up things, then focus on them with your central vision.Dark adaptation requires 30 minutesAt nightUse off-center visionFewer scansRest between scansLighting conditions & shadows may significantly affect vision10 degrees
55Visual Clues Light colored or shiny objects Smoke, fire, blackened areasDisturbed or discolored foliageFresh bare earthBreaks in cultivated field patternsDisturbances in water and snowBirds and animalsSignals and messages
56Wreckage Patterns Hole in the ground - steep dive into the ground Cork screw or auger - uncontrolled spinCreaming or smear - level flight into the groundThe four winds - in-flight breakup, pieces scattered everywhere.Hedge-trimming - aircraft strikes high ridge or obstruction and continues on - some wreckage at first impact, most of it further away.Splash – water impact – oil slick & debris
57FartherScanning TechniqueFixation areaUsing proper scanning techniques and understanding sighting characteristics is essential to a proper search.Follow a routine patternCover area systematicallyPause to “fix” on a point every 3° to 4°Cover 10° per secondLateral patternVertical patternLimitationsWeatherAltitudeWindowsFocuspointsNearer
58Effect of flight pathBe aware - Movement of the aircraft across the ground can adversely affect coverage
59Scanning from RIGHT SIDE Window 1514131211109Scanning Range876543Direction of Flight21Aircraft Ground Track1000’ AGL ( 1/2 - 1 mile )500’ AGL (1/4 - 1/2 mile)
60Scanning from LEFT SIDE WINDOW 151413121110987Scanning Range6543Direction of Flight211000’ AGL ( 1/2 - 1 mile )Aircraft Ground Track500’ AGL (1/4 - 1/2 mile)
61Diagonal Scanning Key: Numbers represent scanning focuses Dots represent focus pointsFlight PathLeft Side Scanning Diagonally In to OutFlight Path512433425115243342Right Side Scanning Diagonally In to Out51
62Fighting FatigueChange positions every 30 minutes if the size of the aircraft permitsRest your eyes occasionally - let the crew knowSwitch sides of the aircraftFind a comfortable scanning positionEnsure aircraft windows are clean (pre-flight)Scan through open hatches when possibleKeep inside lighting low to reduce reflectionsOnly use binoculars to check sightings - Using binoculars to scan will limit your view and probably make you ill.Focus on close objects periodically
63Flight Planning Time conversion Proper flight planning is essential to safe flight and it will make for much more effective sorties.Time conversionTravel across time zones makes local time difficult to useCoordinated Universal Time, Greenwich Mean Time, or Zulu time usually usedConversion factor can be found in flight planning material
64VFR / IFR Flight Plans Visual Flight Rules (VFR) VFR flight plans are not required by the FAA, but are highly recommended - helps make sure someone will come looking for you if you don’t reach your destinationMinimum weather conditions and clearance from clouds must be observedPilot assumes complete responsibility to see and avoid other aircraftDuring search missions, your CAPF 104 is you flight plan - the MC and mission staff will know if you don’t return.FAA flight plan required if Search Area is over 50 miles from Mission BaseInstrument Flight Rules (IFR)IFR flight plan and clearance are requiredMinimum weather conditions are much lower than VFRController assumes responsibility for aircraft separationVisual search is not done in IFR conditions
65Preflight BriefingUnderstanding all of the conditions of the flight will better prepare you to do your job.Prior to each flight the pilot-in-command will brief the crew and passengers with essential information regarding the flight, and specific information concerning the aircraft. Pay attention.Mission ObjectivesWeatherSearch Altitudes & RoutesCrew DutiesEmergency ProceduresSurvival EquipmentKnow what your looking for, where you’ll be going, what to expect, what you’ll be doing.When you have an emergency it’s too late to discuss what you’re going to do.If you don’t understand something ask.
66Aircrew CoordinationScanner / Observer qualifications are contained in CAPR 60-3Scanner / Observer responsibilities are contained in AFIADL 2130A & B Course BooksMaintain flight logReport observationsUse effective scanning techniquesThe Aircrew is a TEAM - Each has a job to perform - the team members must work together to be effective.Remember your job is to look for targets.You must record what you see.You need to be aware of where you are and the status of the sortie at all times.
67Inflight Observations Observers LogObserver LogAircraftPilotObserverMissionDateDestinationTotal DistETERemainTakeoff TimeETAATAFuelInflight ObservationsTimeObservationDeparture Pt.Check PointsMagHdgDistGroundSpeedIdentFreqProvides a record ofthe flightPreflight calculationsRecord of observationsBasis for debriefingUsed to complete CAPF 104 (Debriefing)Information is forwarded to Mission Coordinator to guide mission managementGood logs can be combined from several sorties to give the Mission Coordinator a better picture of how the search is going
68Team concept and communication Pay close attention to all briefingsUnderstand the “big picture”Watch for task overload in yourself and other crewmembers – “Crew Resource Management”67% of aircraft accidents occur during 17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, climb, approach and landing. Keep casual conversation and distractions to a minimum during these phases of flight – “Sterile Cockpit”Begin critical communication with instructions, then explainDon’t be afraid to ask questions
69DebriefingNote both Positive and Negative results - You may not have seen anything, but the conditions (sun angle, terrain, etc.) may have been such that it will be necessary to send another sortie to that same area.Use the back side of CAPF Report any possible targets spotted that were identified as other things (refrigerators, scrap metal, etc.) This will help others who search the same area if they know you’ve already identified the object.Debriefing used to determine effectivity of the searchWeather — shadows, visibility, snow coverTerrain — open flat, mountainous, roughGround Cover — barren, forest, scrub, sparse, denseOther information — hazards, changes from planResults used to calculate the “probability of detection” which is used for subsequent search planning
70Crew EfficiencyCommunications - The efficient crew works together and communicates well.Clock Position - When a target is sighted, keep your eyes on it and tell the pilot the position. Something like, “I have a target, 3 o’clock.”High, Low, LevelManeuvers - Then give the pilot maneuver instructions to guide them to it without losing sight of it yourself.Straight aheadStop turnSmall Corrections5 degrees right10 degrees left bankExternal References - Use reference points like “straight out the road to the east”.Don’t expect the pilot to be able to see the target immediately. You must guide them to it.121234567891011
71“Typical” Air Sortie Sequence SARSATINCIDENTFlightServiceCAPAlert OfcrAFRCCStateDirectorAirCrewSqdn Cdr/ ES OfcrIncidentCommanderDir ofOpsCAPF99CAPF115WMIRS103(all)104(all)MO/MSLogs104(all)CAPF117121MPORM(all)108(MP)WingAdminCAPF201Wt/Bal(MP)FuelRcpt(Click to Advance)
72Summary Successful missions hinge on each and every aircrew member Learn how to use the procedures and tools available to you, and use them correctlyNever stop learningDon’t be afraid to ask questionsNever criticize someone for asking questionsPractice, practice, practice
73** Revision 5 - July 2008 – TX176/R.Hischke ** Now, Let’s Go Flying !!** Revision 5 - July 2008 – TX176/R.Hischke **