2Topics What is a Project? Common Project Terms What does a Project Manager do?What’s in a Project?Project Management ProcessesGetting StartedPlanning a ProjectExecuting the PlanFinishing the Project
3What is a project? A project is an activity that : is temporary having a start and end dateis uniquebrings about changehas unknown elements, which therefore create risk
4What is a project?Generally projects are formed to solve a problem or take advantage of an opportunity.Business as usual activities can often be mistaken for projects.Generally it is the uniqueness of the activity that is the deciding factor – do we do this every year? If so, then it is not truly a project – although you can use project methods to get it done.
5Quiz- Are these projects? Building a deckImplementing a new systemMowing the lawnPlanning a weddingSetting up a businessPlanning a student graduationYes No
6Common project termsDeliverables: Tangible ‘things’ that the project producesMilestones: Dates by which major activities are performed.Tasks: Also called Actions. Activities undertaken during the projectRisks: Potential problems that may ariseIssues: Risks that have happenedGantt Chart: A specific type of chart showing time and tasks. Usually created by a Project Management program like MS Project.Stakeholder: Any person or group of people who may be affected by your project
7Example – Building a deck Deliverables: A plan, a consent form, the deckMilestones:Tasks:Plan draftedPlan approved1 Dec15 DecPlan submitted16 Dec15 JanMaterials purchasedResources bookedEquipment identifiedDeck constructedDeck testedDeck quality approved“Deck warming” completed16 Jan19 Jan23 Jan24 Jan28 JantasksSubtasksPlan draftedRequirement gatheredBest practice researchedDraft 1 preparedDistributed to stakeholdersPlan approvedFeedback gatheredAmendments madeFinal plan preparedSign-off obtained
8Example Continued Risks: Issues: Gantt Chart: Stakeholder: Plan is not approved after first round of feedbackResources are not available at the required timePlan is not given consentFor each of the above, you should have a contingency plan, or do some activity that may prevent it happening in the first place.Issues:If any of the above actually happens, then it becomes an issue to solve.Gantt Chart:Stakeholder:House owner, Builder, Council, ???
9Project ManagerA person with a diverse set of skills – management, leadership, technical, conflict management, and customer relationship – who is responsible for:initiating,planning,executing,controlling,monitoring,and closing down a project.
10What does a PM do?Project Managers are essentially jugglers. They must make sure that everything keeps to task, that potential issues are quickly eliminated and the project is delivered on time, all the while making sure everyone knows what is happening and the project quality and budget are acceptable. Specifically they:direct all activities required to successfully meet the project objectivesmanage risk – scanning ahead for potential issues and resolving them before they become a problemsolve problems - recommending alternative approaches to problems that arise and providing guidance to the Project Sponsortrack and report project progresscommunicate to all stakeholders in the project
11Characteristics of Projects A project contains a well defined objective. The project objective is defined in terms of scope ( or requirements), schedule, and cost.A project is carried out via a set of interdependent tasks.A project uses various resources to carry out these tasks.
12Characteristics of Projects Three critical driversScope (or requirement), cost, and timeTrade-offs exist in any project against time and costsTime can only be reduced to a pointAdding more people can create diseconomies of scaleIncreasing time may reduce or increase costs
13Characteristics of Projects A project has a definite start date and an expected completion date. The actual completion date may not always be the same as the expected date.A project is a one time or unique endeavor.A project has a customer.So why do projects fail? See later material!
14Characteristics of Projects A project has a degree of UNCERTAINTY. In project planning many assumptions are made regarding:access to resources.resource capability.impact of environmental factors.These assumptions are not always accurate.
15Measuring Project Success We measure the success of a project using 4 major project constraints, specifically:Scope.Cost.Schedule (Time).Customer satisfaction (quality and performance).
16Project ConstraintsProject scope – Have all the project requirements (i.e., deliverables) been completed?Project cost – Is the cost of the project close to the amount the customer has agreed to pay?Schedule – Was the project completed on time?Customer satisfaction – Is the customer happy with the quality of the project?
17Project Goal The goal of a project is therefore: Complete the project scope within budget, time, and to the customer’s satisfaction.Examples of sources of project failure:The project manager underestimated the costs or resources required to complete the project.Uncertainties (e.g., weather, strikes, fire) may cause delays in the project.Customers may change requirements during the project. This is very common in software and new product development projects.
18Work-Breakdown Structure WBSHierarchy of tasks required to complete projectEach task is broken into smaller tasks that can be managed and estimatedDefine task dependenciesSome tasks must begin at the same time, some must end at the same time and some cannot start until the other tasks have finished.Estimate task durations and costMay be inputted into project management softwareFinal WBS plan is called baseline WBS
20IT projects fail … a lot.31.1% of projects will be cancelled before they ever get completed….Over 50% of projects cost almost triple their original estimates.1 million dollar project turns into a 3 million dollar projectEstimate:in 1995 American companies and government agencies spent $81 billion for cancelled software projects.On the success side, the average is only 16.2% for software projects that are completed on-time and on-budget.
22Baseline Plan Things don’t always go according to plan critical people turnover, natural disasters, hiring freeze, technology change, new managements, competitors may make project more or less importantRequires project managers to re-assess and trade-offs between requirements, costs, and time
23The Project Life Cycle 5 major phases of a project are: Identifying a need.Developing a proposed solution.Performing the project.Monitoring and controlTerminating the project.
27Activity Duration Estimates The first step in scheduling is to estimate how long each activity will take.The duration estimate is the total elapsed time for the work to be done PLUS any associated waiting time.The person responsible for performing the activity should help make the duration estimate.6775756555
28Project Start and Finish Times It is necessary to select an estimated start time and a required completion time for the overall project.7886867666
29Schedule Calculations A project schedule includes:the earliest times (or dates) at which each activity can start and finish, based on the project's estimated start time (or date)the latest times (or dates) by which each activity must start and finish in order to complete the project by its required completion time (or date)8101071078777
30Earliest Start and Finish Times Earliest start time (ES) is the earliest time at which a particular activity can begin.Earliest finish time (EF) is the earliest time by which a particular activity can be completed.EF – ES = Activity Duration Estimate9111181189888
31Latest Start and Finish Times Latest start time (LS) is the latest time an activity must be started in order for the entire project to be completed by its completion time.Latest finish time (LF) is the latest time an activity must be finished in order for the entire project to be completed by its completion time.LF – LS = Activity Duration Estimate11
32Slack timeSlack or float is the amount of time that a task in a project network can be delayed without causing a delay to:subsequent tasks (free float)project completion date (total float)An activity that has a total float equal to zero is said to be a 'critical activity', which means that a delay in the finish time of this activity will cause the entire project to be delayed by the same amount of time.
33Free vs Total slackFree slack: The free slack of an activity is the time this activity can be delayed without impact on the following activity. Total slack: The total slack of an activity is the time this activity can be delayed without impact on the finish date of the project.
34Total Slack (Cont.)If total slack is positive, it is the maximum time the activities on the path can be delayed.If total slack is negative, it is the amount of time the activities on the path must be accelerated.14171711171114111111
36Critical Path The critical path is the longest path in the diagram. The activities that make up the critical path have the least slack.15181812181215121212
37Types of Critical Paths Noncritical paths have positive values of total slack.Critical paths have zero or negative values of total slack.16191913191316131313
38Critical Path Analysis Sequence of activities chartedLongest path through the network of activitiesTask dependencies compressed as much as possibleTasks may be moved to non-critical paths to shorten critical pathIf tasks on critical path run late, the project will be late.
40Various Project Management Tools/Techniques Gantt Charta simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendarProgram Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)is a graphical network model that depicts a project’s tasks and the relationships between those tasks (Dependencies and Critical paths are found in PERT charts)Critical Path Method (CPM)A method used for determining the sequence of task activities that directly affect the completion of a projectMicrosoft ProjectMost widely used project management software
44Planning Large-Scale Systems Development Projects Biggest challenge is schedulingErrors accumulateDifficult to do credible planningEvery task may be on critical pathMS Vista Operating system was delivered two years late. Was suppose to take 3 Y but took 5 Y ( 67% schedule overrun)Office 2003 was late. MS SQL server 2005 barely made it into 2005.
45Managing Large-Scale Systems Development Project ChallengesCoordinationProjects often organized into independent groupsDiseconomies of scaleAdding people increases coordination requirementsConfiguration controlChanges must be carefully manages and monitoredUnexpected eventsChance of disruption due to unanticipated events
46Dealing with Uncertainty Policies and procedures implemented to instill these principles:Business users take responsibility for new systems’ successUsers work with IS throughout systems developmentUsers take active role in project planning, management, and reviewsDevelopment phase not complete until work reviewed and approvedUsers actively test systemFuture systems developed in small increments