Presentation on theme: "A study of the love of wisdom Tridib Chatterji, Dubai Womens College, 2009 For Maureen Szulczewski and Year One Pharmacy students."— Presentation transcript:
A study of the love of wisdom Tridib Chatterji, Dubai Womens College, 2009 For Maureen Szulczewski and Year One Pharmacy students
What is Philosophy? Philosophy comes from two Greek words – philos (love) and sophia (wisdom). The Ancient Greeks believed that wisdom didnt come naturally to human beings! Philosophy is an activity people do when they want to understand truths about themselves, the world in which they live, and their relationships to the world and to each other. Philosophy is all about asking questions MetaphysicsEpistemologyEthicsPoliticsAestheticsLogic
Metaphysics: the theory of reality Is there a God? What is truth? What is a person? What makes a person the same through time? Is the world strictly composed of matter? Do people have minds? If so, how is the mind related to the body? Do people have free wills? What is it for one event to cause another? I have concluded the evident existence of God, and that my existence depends entirely on God in all the moments of my life, that I do not think that the human spirit may know anything with greater evidence and certitude. René Descartes (1596-1650) – French mathematician, scientist, and founder of modern philosophy
Epistemology: the study of knowledge What is knowledge? Do we know anything at all? How do we know what we know? Can we be justified in claiming to know certain things? "The thinking that has gotten us to where we are will be insufficient to solve the problems created in getting us here." Albert Einstein
Ethics: the study of right and wrong What is good? What makes actions or people good? What is right? What makes actions right? How should I treat others? When I do good, I feel good; when I do bad, I feel bad. That's my religion Abraham Lincoln
Politics: the study of legal rights and government To speak practically and as a citizen, I ask for at once a better government. Let every man make known what kind of government would command his respect, and that will be one step toward obtaining it. Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) – American writer and philosopher – Civil Disobedience What makes a government legitimate? What rights and freedoms it should protect and why, What form it should take and why What the law is What duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any When it may be a government be legitimately overthrownif ever "The only stable state is the one in which all men are equal before the law. Aristotle (384-322 BC) – Greek philosopher and scientist
Aesthetics: the study of beauty "Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes. It is not something physical." Sophia Loren What is beauty? What makes something beautiful? Are there any objective standards of beauty? Are true things beautiful? Are good things beautiful? What is art?
Logic: the study of right reasoning The last function of reason is to recognize that there are an infinity of things which surpass it. Blaise Pascal, 1670 – French mathematician, atmospheric pressure and wristwatch What is good and bad reasoning? How do we determine when reasoning is good or bad? What makes an argument valid or invalid? What is a good or sound argument?
Ibn Rushd: Also known as Averroes Founding father of secular thought in Western Europe. No conflict between religion and philosophy, rather that they are different ways of reaching the same truth. Claimed that women were equal to men in all respects and possessed equal capacities to shine in peace and in war. Averroism remained the dominant philosophy in Europe for 400 years until the 16 th century. Abū 'l-Walīd Mu ammad ibn A mad ibn Rushd (1126-1198) Works were spread over 20,000 pages covering a variety of different subjects, including early Islamic philosophy, logic in Islamic philosophy, Arabic medicine, Arabic mathematics, Arabic astronomy, Arabic grammar, Islamic theology, Sharia (Islamic law), and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Ibn Sina: Also known as Avicenna His most famous works are The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities. The Canon of Medicine was used as a text-book in the universities as late as 1650. Developed his own medical system – combination of Islamic, Greek and Indian medical systems. Memorized the Qur'an by the age seven. Qualified doctor by age 18 Wrote 450 volumes Abū-Alī Ibn Sīnā Balkhi (980-1037) Astronomer, chemist, geologist, logician, paleontologist, mathematician, physicist, poet, psychologist, scientist and teacher. Foremost physician and philosopher of his time and one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history