+ Hudson River School Background Context This is not a real school (like were in right now). It was used to call a group of painters who had the same outlook and styles of the art through a common thread (and the art was of the Hudson River). Thomas Cole: known as the founder Humans and Nature exist peaceful (pastoral style) Blended with romanticism ideas Link to Nationalism Europe had ancient monuments, but America had NATURE They used it to their advantage, showing pride and beauty in the landscapes of America – thus, influencing nationalism.
+ Rocky Mountain School Background Context This was crucial to the creation of not only Yellowstone National Park, but also the National Park System when these pictures were presented to Congress in 1916. Thomas Moran: known as the leader Emphasized the beauty of the Western United States, a place that was still fairly new to everyone Link to Nationalism The establishment of the National Park System was the key to nationalism, as it showcased our natural beauty in an open, raw setting.
+ Genre Artists Background Context Basically, a piece of genre art would show everyday life. This could be a marketplace, a barn, anything that depicted normal life in the era (early America). William Sydney Mount: foundational in establishing a genre art presence in early America Link to Nationalism Depicting everyday life in a grandiose, elaborate form such as art elongated nationalism in a way that made American life seem classy and elegant. This, too, boosted nationalism.
+ Classical Revival vs. Georgian CLASSICAL REVIVAL Ancient Roman architecture revival Used in the US on the basis that America ought to be likened to the once powerful and influential Roman republic GEORGIAN The iconic British form of Architecture Reminders of King George and Britain, which were not to be reminded of in the new America
+ Jeffersons Architecture Virginia State Capitol Monticello
+ Ralph Waldo Emerson Nature focused on the fields of religion and philosophy. He believed in individualism, non-conformity, and the all- important harmony between man and nature. Transcendentalism: Emersons movement that derived religion and philosophy from mental essence and inner spirituality of the human (intellectual capacity). **Link to Nationalism: Transcendentalism, and Emersons works in general, worked to foster intellectual movements across the United States. Emerson, among others, created the birth of thought and questioning for new ideas. Intellectual nationalism began, as the US became a dominant thinker in the global arena. Nature
+ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Written with the purpose of fulfilling citizens with a strong ideology that would keep them confident even through future hardships (like the Civil War… which literally does happen after) Longfellows interpretation is said to be of greater significance than the actual event because… **Link to Nationalism: He interpreted the event in such a way that allowed for future generations and citizens to be armed with a cultural identity of what their nation stood for (nationalism). Paul Reveres Ride
+ Nathaniel Hawthorne The ideas presented in The Scarlet Letter show Hawthornes view that the fall of a society, group of people, or humanity is full of sin, guilt, anxiety, and sorrow (in that order). And that, in Hawthornes works, was the fall of society. **Link to Nationalism: In Hawthornes view of America, he projected nationalism (an iconic sense of culture of American society) that was centered around an inherent attraction to sin, following by guilt and anxiety, which leads to sorrow (or failure). The Scarlet Letter