2What does “transcendentalism” mean? There is an ideal spiritual state which “transcends” the physical and empirical.A loose collection of eclectic ideas about literature, philosophy, religion, social reform, and the general state of American culture.Transcendentalism had different meanings for each person involved in the movement.
3Where did it come from?Ralph Waldo Emerson gave German philosopher Immanuel Kant credit for popularizing the term “transcendentalism.”It began as a reform movement in the Unitarian church.It is not a religion—more accurately, it is a philosophy or form of spirituality.It centered around Boston and Concord, MA. in the mid-1800’s.Emerson first expressed his philosophy of transcendentalism in his essay Nature.
4What did Transcendentalists believe? Transcendentalism: A movement that sought to explore the relationship between humans and nature through emotions rather than through reason.This was not a religion, but rather a movement to show humans how connected they are to the nature around them.
5Who were the Transcendentalists? Ralph Waldo EmersonHenry David Thoreau
6Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803-1882 Unitarian minister Poet and essayist Founded the Transcendental ClubPopular lecturerBanned from Harvard for 40 years following his Divinity School addressSupporter of abolitionism
7Henry David Thoreau 1817-1862 Schoolteacher, essayist, poet Most famous for Walden and Civil DisobedienceInfluenced environmental movementSupporter of abolitionism
8Literature 1800’s literature illustrated daily life in early America. Famous Authors of the 1800’sWashington Irving wroteRip Van Winkle, the Legend of Sleepy Hollow and The SketchbookTheme - change occurs but traditions remainJames Fenimore Cooper wroteThe Deerslayer, The Last of the MohicansTheme – life on the frontierNathaniel Hawthorne wroteThe Scarlet LetterTheme – morality, stigma’s, good v evilHerman Melville wroteMoby DickTheme – good v evil
9Literature Famous Authors of the 1800’s continued Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrotePaul Revere’s RideTheme – American historical eventsRalph Waldo Emerson wroteConcord HymnTheme – American historical event, spirituality and transcendentalismHenry David Thoreau wroteResistance to Civil GovernmentTheme – civil disobedience, nature, abolitionism
10Literature Famous Authors of the 1800’s continued Louisa May Alcott wroteLittle WomenTheme – Feminine humanityWilliam Cullen wroteThanatopsisTheme – natural beauty, study of nature, understand life and death
11art Famous Artists of the 1800’s Hudson River School Theme – natural wonders, landscapes of the Catskills Mountains and the Hudson River.Established by Thomas DoughtyArtists: Thomas Cole, Asher Durand and George Caleb BinghamArtists: George Catlin and Alfred Jacob MillerTheme – Native American life, fur traders, riverboat workers.
12music Famous Musicians of the 1800’s Stephen C. Foster Performed musicals with American songs in large cities and log cabins using banjos and pianos.Combined African and European music to create a uniquely American sound.Songs: My Old Kentucky Home and Swanee River
13architecture Architectural Themes of the 1800’s Public buildings were modeled on classical styles of Rome and Greece.Private homes and plantations were modeled on the style of Greek Revival .