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Prepared by Marion Lyons and Robin Hecht

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1 Prepared by Marion Lyons and Robin Hecht
Common Core Strategies in the Classroom ELL and Special Needs student Populations Prepared by Marion Lyons and Robin Hecht ELA/Reading AIS Teacher Marlboro Middle School

2 Where is Marlboro, New York?
Just showing where Marlboro is

3 Summer Camp: Hudson Valley Writing Project
2nd most visited site in NYS after Niagra Falls Research using informative text Second most visited site in NYS after Niagara Falls Research using informative text

4 Use the landmarks in your area to teach and connect
Other area attractions Use the landmarks in your area to teach and connect reading and writing to science and social studies

5 Other Attractions West Point FDR’S Library and Museum
Washington Headquarters FDR’S Library and Museum Washington Headquarters West Point FDR’S library and musum West Point

6 The purpose of reading is to comprehend.
Let’s Talk about why students may need intervention strategies: Student did not meet the state reference point Teacher recommendation IEP ELL SST By the time students reach middle school they are expected to read to learn and not learning to read. The purpose of reading is to comprehend. How do we teach our students to understand more difficult and varied texts as demanded by Common Core standards? By the time students reach middle school they are expected to read to learn and not learning to read. The purpose of reading is to comprehend. How do we teach our students to understand more difficult and varied texts as demanded by Common Core standards?

7 10 Researched-based principles to Improve Reading Comprehension
The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement has come up with 10 researched-based principles to improve reading comprehension The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement has come up with 10 researched-based principles to improve reading comprehension

8 Effective reading instruction…..
Keep reiterating “Effective reading instruction…..”

9 Requires purposeful and explicit teaching
Today we are going to learn… The reason we are learning this is … State Objective…At the end of this lesson you will be able to … Connect To And Review Previous Learning: Yesterday, you… Teach New Concept/Skill (I Do):Watch me or listen to me as I … Guided Practice (We Do): Now, let’s try this together. Assess Student Application (You Do): Now, let’s see you try this on your own. Return To Purpose: Tell your partner what you learned and practiced today. Provide Opportunity For Independent Practice: I want to give you a chance now to show that you can do this independently. When you’re working independently today, I would like you to … 1- Effective teachers are clear about their purpose. Today we are going to learn… The reason we are learning this is …State ObjectiveAt the end of this lesson you will be able to …Connect To And Review Previous LearningYesterday, you…Teach New Concept/Skill (I Do)Watch me or listen to me as I …Guided Practice (We Do) Now, let’s try this together. Assess Student Application (You Do)Now, let’s see you try this on your own.Return To PurposeTell your partner what you learned and practiced today.Provide Opportunity For Independent PracticeI want to give you a chance now to show that you can do this independently.When you’re working independently today, I would like you to … 2- effective teachers have a repertoire of techniques for enhancing comprehension of specific texts. Teacher and student led discussions, balance of lower and higher-level questions. Well designed writing assignments deepen children’s learning from the text. 3- Reading and rereading a wide variety texts contribute to both phonemic awareness and comprehension. 4-Expert readers make connections, predict, make inferences etc..

10 When: circle time am meeting, play activities
Starts before children read conventionally by developing comprehension skills through experiencing and promoting oral and written language through discussions When: circle time am meeting, play activities Reading and rereading a text contributes to phonemic awareness and comprehension. What: Teaches children the skills and strategies used by expert readers 3-develop comprehension skills experience promote oral and written language, discussions- circle time am mtg, play activities Reading and rereading a text contributes to phonemic awareness and comprehension. 2nd level book wars reread: vocab & comp 4- Before Reading : Establish a purpose Preview or survey the text, Use prior knowledge, Make predictions, Identify new vocabulary During Reading:  Confirm revise or reject predictions,  Create mental images, Ask questions, Clarify understanding,  Connect text to self, world and other texts, Draw inferences After Reading ·         Summarize and synthesize ·         Respond to text ·         Answer questions ·         Connect text to self, world and other texts

11 Repertoire of Techniques
Effective teachers have a repertoire of techniques for enhancing comprehension of specific texts. Teacher and student led discussions Balance of lower and higher-level questions. Well designed writing assignments deepen children’s learning from the text. Requires classroom interactions that support the understanding of specific texts A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text— whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced—to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness. (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7)

12 Effective reading instruction…..
Requires careful analysis of text to determine its appropriateness for particular students and strategies (publisher criteria) Determine the challenges and match your goals…by Consider conceptual and decoding demands and apply strategies to meet those challenges. Scaffolding experiences ensures all are exposed to high-level text and interactions. Builds on knowledge, vocabulary, and advanced language development Vocabulary instruction is an important part of comprehension: students actively learning word meanings as well as relating words to contexts and other known words. Teaching about words (morphemes) improves comprehension Pervades all genres and school scripts 5. Determine potential challenges and match it with the goals. ie consider conceptual and decoding demands and apply strategies to meet those challenges. Scaffolding experiences ensures all are exposed to high-level text and interactions. 6. Good comprehension instruction helps students make connections more effectively. Vocabulary instruction is an important part of comprehension: students actively learning word meanings as well as relating words to contexts and other known words. Teaching about words (morphemes) improves comprehension

13 7th Grade Social Studies
Co taught 7th grade social studies Focus question: What was Benjamin Franklin’s greatest accomplishment? Grouped students and teacher rotated between groups making observations or asking for textual evidence to support their claims Teacher shared excerpts from Walter Isaacson’s book. Good practice for comparing and contrasting and the reading of higher level text. Focus question: What was Benjamin Franklin’s greatest accomplishment? Grouped students and teacher rotated between groups making observations or asking for textual evidence to support their claims Teacher shared excerpts from Walter Isaacson’s book. Good practice for comparing and contrasting and the reading of higher level text.

14 (8) Actively engages students in text and motivates them to use strategies and skills …How? Create an environment where students read more (9) Requires assessments that inform instruction and monitor student progress ..Why? Timely feedback to inform/drive instruction and monitor student progress toward research-based benchmarks. Effective assessment also enables teachers to reliably interpret data and communicate results to students, parents, and colleagues. (10) Requires continuous teacher learning on the latest research et….ENGAGENY 8- create an environment where students read more which in turn improves comprehension and knowledge 9- the use of multiple assessments provides specific and timely feedback to inform/drive instruction and monitor student progress toward research-based benchmarks. Effective assessment also enables teachers to reliably interpret data and communicate results to students, parents, and colleagues. 10. As educators we need to keep present on the latest research et….ENGAGENY

15 Where do you start? Scheduling and grouping
How often will you meet? Ability grouping? Student profiles Student Inventory Parent Inventory Meet with Co-teacher Common Core Learning standards Be visible

16 Student profile. The STAR assessments allow teachers to accurately evaluate students’ abilities in just 10 to 15 minutes. student Ela5 Ela6 Ela7 Ela1 2 3 4 Ss1 Sc1 *s/g I *j/g AIS F&P John 2h 69 65 70 75 80 74 77 81 57 51 60 0.9 pp 5.0 4.4 P F s-u j-u j-v Antonio 82 84 87 86 85 83 88 90 6.8 6 6.4 5.9 s-t j-t Kathleen seizures 78 68 5.5 4.8 9.2 8.7 Alisa 67 71 72 7.2 6.3 8.3 6.9 j-w j-x Brooke 6th 7th 8th 64 n/a/ n/a s- Noel 79 2.7 7.6 6.5 s-w j-y Lenora 2l 50 61 2.8 5.8 5.1 s-s Alex 2m 76 4.5 5.6 4.9 Stephanie asthma 63 In/a 4.3 N/A j- Chase 73 1.3 PP 12.9 11.7 s-z Student profile. The STAR assessments allow teachers to accurately evaluate students’ abilities in just 10 to 15 minutes. Teachers then use information provided by the assessments to target instruction, provide students with the most appropriate instructional materials, and intervene with struggling students. Teachers then use information provided by the assessments to target instruction, provide students with the most appropriate instructional materials, Intervene with struggling students.

17 Next, develop goals for each class that included individual and class goal

18 Surveys are one way I can learn about my students
and how they perceive themselves as learners and readers Surveys are one way I can learn about my students and how they perceive themselves as learners and readers

19 Parent Inventory Business cards, “office hours,” two way communication
1. What are your child’s strengths (not only academic)? In what is she/he most interested (subject areas and otherwise)? __________________________________________________________________________ 2. On what academic skills does your child need to focus? 3. Developing a productive and healthy relationship with your child is one of my highest priorities. Getting to know a student can make all the difference in their school success. I take this opportunity very seriously. I believe as a parent you play a key role in assisting me learn more about your child. Please provide me with any tips or suggestions for getting the very best out of her/him. What motivates them to do their best work. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Is there anything else you want me to know about your child? Business cards, “office hours,” two way communication Likewise, I want parental/guardian feedback This gives me another perspective and the the depth of support. I need them on my side. Business cards, “office hours,” two way communication

20 Purposeful Planning with co- teacher
What Critical Content will be the focus? Skill Development Explicit Instruction of Learning Strategies Direct Instruction of Targeted Skills Roles of each teacher Modeling 5. Student Practice Lesson Closure Assessment Again, this is what make teaching effective 20 20

21 Common Core shifts for ELA/Literacy “Talk the Langauge”
Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational Regular practice with complex text and its academic language

22 Previous grade expectations/current and/or present helps drive instruction and acts as a springboard

23 Be visible Make it a point to interact with students outside of your class. This helps build rapport…..

24 Explicit Instruction The most effective teaching methodology that promotes learning of students with special needs includes: Classroom routines Behavioral expectations Academic content & skills Learning strategies 24 24

25 Elements of Explicit Instruction Archer & Hughes, 2011, Explicit Instruction: Effective & Efficient Teaching Focus instruction on critical content Sequence skills logically Break down complex skills & strategies into smaller units Design organized & focused lessons Begin lessons with a clear statement of the learning target & your expectations Review prior skills & knowledge before beginning the lesson Provide step-by-step demonstrations Use clear & concise language

26 What are some indicators that a lesson is purposefully designed to meet the needs of all students?

27 Evidence in the Classroom: Focus on Critical Content
Teacher has students with special needs working on content aligned with the content of the work of their grade level peers. Teacher explicitly teaches required vocabulary. The learning target of the lesson is written on the board, written down by student and referenced by teacher.

28 Explicit Instruction of Learning Strategies Continued
Teacher uses both verbal and visual aids to teach the strategy. Teacher speaks slowly and clearly, gives wait time for students to formulate their responses. Teacher provides visual representations of concepts

29 Evidence in the Classroom: Explicit Instruction of Learning Strategies
Teacher provides purpose for strategies being taught, including “what, why, how and when”. Teacher models expectations and product and leads step-by-step practice. Modeling promotes learning and motivation

30 Evidence in the Classroom: Direct Instruction of Targeted Skills
Teachers are explicitly teaching the necessary skills and strategies. (quarterly goal sheets) Teachers are re-teaching to support student mastery. (Core class or AIS class) Teachers are providing accommodations, assistive technology, and/or supplemental supports in order to provide access & participation in instruction.

31 Evidence in the Classroom: Student Practice
Teacher’s instruction ensures multiple opportunities for participation by students with special needs, e.g., choral responding, thumbs-up, white board response. Teacher initially uses high level of prompting/cues with students with disabilities and gradually decrease based upon accuracy of responses. Teacher ensures that all students are grouped appropriately to practice during the lesson (individual, pairs, small group, whole group).

32 Evidence in the Classroom: Lesson Closure
The focus of the work is restated by teacher verbally and visually. (refer to “I Can” sheet) Teacher conducts a short formative assessment of students’ with disabilities level of understanding; (e.g. exit sheet, collects independent work, sticky note place on desk, self-check or ask students to report out as they leave the class). Teacher explicitly connects prior and upcoming lessons. Look at Units you already have….

33 Lesson Assessment Closure: Exit activity
Little or no understanding Partial understanding Complete understanding Can be used for closure Another example: Lesson Assessment Closure: Exit activity

34

35 What are some indicators that instruction is delivered to meet the needs of all students?

36 Classroom Actions & Student Growth
Checking for Understanding Pacing Processing Time Specific & Timely Feedback 36 36

37 Evidence in the Classroom: Checks for Understanding
Teacher checks that students with disabilities understand the objective accurately. Teacher elicits alternatives from students with disabilities when response is incorrect. Teacher gives immediate feedback with error correction to students with disabilities.

38 On the Spot Techniques:
These techniques are used to quickly gauge the depth of student understanding of the concepts being taught. They require little or no advance preparation. Several can be inserted in a lesson when it is noticed that students are becoming disengaged They can be placed strategically in transitional sections of the lesson. On The Spot Category

39 Think –Pair-Share (Lyman, 1981) Students are given a specific task - Example: “Repeat teacher directions to your partner.” * prompt or question to answer/reflect upon * solve with a partner for seconds Example: In math it can be used for example: “Turn to your partner and tell him/her the steps to………………………using first, second and third. Higher Order Thinking. Example: “Until now, multiplying numbers has always resulted in a larger number. Using words and pictures explain why by multiplying a fraction will always result in a smaller number.” Have group turn and talk to their partner to create an example of when and how they can use this strategy.

40 Quick Write Students with special needs and/or ELLs would benefit from completing a: Quick Write (2-3minutes) before they participate in a Think-Pair-Share. 1) Have these students do a bulleted list or a quick writing of their thoughts before turning and talking to partner. 2) Encourage to write words to direct the students’ discussion to the important concept being learned. Example: Jot down these words (vocabulary) that you will use in your Think-Pair-Share or write words that we have talked about that relate to the plant life cycle..

41 Continued: Quick-Writes can be kept in a math journal and used as entry and exit tickets: Write your thinking process for solving…… Follow up Quick-Writes with Pair-Shares or Networking Session or a Chalkboard Splash/Chart-board Splash

42 Quick Draw: (Himmele & Himmele, 2009).
First, select a big idea or concept within the lesson. Next, have the students reflect or think about the meaning of the idea then, create a drawing that illustrates their thoughts about the meaning of the idea. Finally, students can then share the drawing and explain their thoughts to a partner. Music teacher played music and students listened to music. While listening drew Example: Pictures of what the music made them think of and added words or phrases to describe the picture.

43 Chart Paper Splash Students can also copy their Quick Draws on chart paper for a Chart Paper Splash at designated spots around the classroom. Students then visit each chart paper to analyze peer’s responses for similarities/differences and “I was surprised by ….,” and “I was very interested in how…… “. See worksheet:

44 Wait Time Activities Used to extend the wait time for activities that may need longer processing time.

45 Thumbs Up When You Are Ready!
Use Thumbs are up when individuals are done thinking or reflecting on a prompt. Thumbs Up When You Are Ready strategy is different from Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down not just for yes/no voting or agree/disagree. For Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down be sure to add an angled or sideways thumb for the in-between options for students who are not sure. Higher level thinking ask for a rationale or justify why for their voting preference in a quick write or draw.

46 Processing Cards: One side reads: “Still THINKING” with yellow triangle Other side reads: “READY to Share” with a green circle. “Still THINKING” should show when working on task and “READY to Share” when task is completed. Above learners will need a higher order thinking activity to extend and apply which can be paper clipped to inside of tent. An example could be to think abstractly to create a SIMILE (connection between two unrelated things). Make copies to give to participants -

47 Ranking: Type steps to a process on paper
Ask students to 1) rank them or 2) order them according to importance to solving a word problem. They can then share with pairs, process what was shared and make changes based on their new information. Results can be used in whole class debriefing. This is just one example: have group create one… can use descriptive paragraphs, events, steps that can be analyzed or ranked according to specific criteria: least to most influential, changed, affected, likable or other rankable features of concepts or characters. Ranking Quotes Activity: Rank the quotes by most descriptive Ranking Quotes Activity

48 Ranking Quotes Activity:
Rank the quotes by most descriptive and defend your choice “I know,” said Rob. I know what the Sistine Chapel is.” Immediately he regretted saying it. It was his policy not to say things, but it was a policy he was having a hard time maintaining around Sistine. “I know what contagious means.” Sistine said. She looked at his legs. And then she did something truly astounding: she closed her eyes and reached out her left hand and placed it on top of Rob’s right leg. “Please Let me catch it,> she whispered. “You won’t.” said Rob, surprised at her hand, how small it was and how warm. It made him think, for a minute, of his mother’s hand, tiny and soft. He stopped that thought. “It isn’t contagious,” he told her Turn and work with your partner to rank green blue orange By then, Norton and Billy Threemonger had spotted them sitting together and they were moving in. Rob was relieved when the first thump came to the back of his head, because it meant that he wouldn’t have to talk to Sistine anymore. It meant that he wouldn’t end up saying too much, telling her about important things. Like his mother or the tiger.

49 True/Not True Hold-Ups:
Hold-Up Cards Teacher asks questions and students circle answer and hold it up for teacher to do a check “or” Students Think-Pair-Share and students provide a verbal/ a quick write /or draw a rationale for the voting preference. Students edit their responses with new information. Students have the template below as laminated tool. Great one for extending thinking!

50 Numbered Heads Together (Kagan, 1989/90)
1) Ask students to count off so each group member has a number (1-4) 2) Confirm by asking all of each number to stand 3) All group members will need to be able to present the group’s information. 4) Wait until all the group work is completed before informing the groups which number will be presenting (pull the number) 5) Since they do not know who will present everyone must know the info as well as help each other learn the info # 3 writes, # 2 wrote last time…How might you use this activity on a regular basis in your classroom?

51 Hold Ups Directions 1. Ask the students to think about and discuss their responses to a set of prepared questions. 2. Before students hold up their cards, have them pair-share or confer in small groups (number heads) 3. Say “Hold it Up” 4. Students hold up their cards/white boards. 5. Select students to share their groups rationale 6. If students answer incorrectly give them time to hear opposing views, rethink and come to different conclusions. 7. If students do not understand use this as an opportunity to re-teach. How might you use hold up over the next couple of weeks?

52 Types of hold up cards Fact /Opinion Facial expressions with words
Yes/no Multiple choice letters Corresponding letters (branches of government) L E J Which branch of government is also called “Congress”? Which branch has people who are appointed by the president and approved by the senate? Which of these 3 branches would you say plays the biggest role in ensuring a balance of power? Be ready to defend

53 Number Hold Ups Which number is greater?
Which of these two numbers has less value? Which of these numbers is made of 2 tens? What is the sum of these two numbers? What is the product of these two numbers? Which is a prime #? What are the common factors of these 2 numbers? Show me a fraction that means one half. You can use number cards to hold up the answer or laminate “100 charts” and students can use dry erase markers to circle their answer.

54 TPT Folder A Flannel square or sock (dry eraser) Dry erase pen
Laminate light colored oak tag/construction paper or white board A Flannel square or sock (dry eraser) Dry erase pen True /Not True hold up cards Decks of number cards Laminated Hundreds Chart Laminated A-Z Chart A completed Appointment Agenda: useful for grouping students A Processing Card : to help know where students are in their thinking Bounce cards Guided Note-taking Templates Index cars for Quick Writes or Quick Draws

55 TPT’s Involving Movement
Line-up and inside outside circles Bounce Cards Networking Sessions Acting it out/Role Plays and Concept Charades Three 3’s in a Row

56 Line-Up and Inside Outside Circles
Prepare questions or prompts based on concepts taught that allow for discussion by a pair of students. Ask students to stand in 2 parallel lines or 2 circles (one inside the other) Ask students to stand and face the person across from them or opposite them. Tell them to refer to their prompt and take turns responding to it. Its best to time the talk. Teach students to shake hands, say thank and then move to the left or right A specific number of students and repeat the activity.

57 Networking Session Prepare one to four prompts or questions
Ask students to reflect on the ?s and do a quick write Ask the students to find someone to discuss their responses to the prompt with. Signal after a predetermined time and ask students to find a new partner to continue the activity. They can also respond to a different prompt with each new partner Adding notes to their quick write. Ask the students to defend their responses based on info they have learned in class 8. You can require one partner to be a person you have not had a chance to speak with yet today. Stretch the comfort zone and build community

58 Bounce Cards Bounce: Take what your partner said and bounce an idea off it. For example, you can start your sentence with – “That reminds me of…” “I agree. Because.. “True. Another example is when… “That’s a great point…” Sum it Up: Rephrase what was just said in s shorter version. For example, you can start sentences with .. I hear you saying..” “So, if I understand you correctly…” “I like how you said..” Inquire: Understand what your classmates mean by asking questions, For example, you can start sentences with . “ Can you tell me more about that?” “ I’m not sure I understand….?” “Have you thought about….?” “I see your point, but what about…?” Make these cards for students to keep in their desk. Model a conversation using the bounce cards.

59 Appointment Agendas: Students create appointments with peers
Appointment Agendas: Students create appointments with peers. When the teacher selects a time to meet the students already have partners. Time You have an appointment with: 9:00am 10:00am 11:00 am 1:00pm 2:00pm

60 Three 3’s in a Row Prepare 9 questions or prompts based on concepts taught that allow for discussion by a pair of students. Students interact with peers and get peers feedback on what they should write in the boxes. One question per peer. Student writes summary of answer in the box. Students answer what they are most comfortable with and get support from peer experts All students are required to process the concepts in all nine boxes Only the owner of the template is to write on his own template It’s a quick assessment of what students have learned –empty boxes are an indication of what should be re-taught. Teacher should go over answers in class asking for volunteers to share their responses Copy of page 63 to end session

61 Evidence in the Classroom: Pacing
Teacher presents the content in chunks/segments. Teacher’s instruction ensures multiple opportunities for participation by students with disabilities, (e.g. choral responding, thumbs-up, white board responses). Teacher re-teaches if students’ responses are inaccurate.

62 Evidence in the Classroom: Processing Time
Teacher ensures that students with disabilities are engage in structured activities designed to allow to processing; (e.g., quick write, think-pair-share, elbow partners, think-jot). The teacher uses wait time to enable student with disabilities to process responses to questions/directions. Teacher pauses frequently to enable students with disabilities to respond and ask questions.

63 Evidence in the Classroom: Specific & Timely Feedback
Teacher checks on progress of students with disabilities throughout the lesson. Teacher gives immediate & specific feedback for reinforcement or error correction to students with disabilities. Teacher acknowledges student demonstrations of appropriate behavior at least four times more frequently than inappropriate behavior. Conference with students on a regular basis

64 How do you track what is being done
and if it is making a difference in student learning?

65 Key Questions How do results on formative and summative assessments compare for ELL/AIS students to those of their general education peers? What data indicates that what is happening instructionally for ELL/AIS students is effective? 65

66 Evidence in the Classroom: Provide step by step demonstrations
Teacher has ELL/AIS students working on content aligned with the content of the work of their grade level peers. Teacher explicitly teaches required vocabulary. The objective of the lesson is written on the board and referenced by teacher.

67 Questions to Consider as you view the video:
How does Ms. Brewer tailor this lesson to the needs of English Language Learners? What kinds of questions does Ms. Brewer ask to guide her students' discussions? How does this activity prepare students for writing? https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/analyzing-text-brainstorming Watch and discuss video

68 Strategy: Use Graphics to introduce and compare cultures.
Visuals graphic for culture How do culture, time, and place influence the development of a character’s identity? Strategy: Use Graphics to introduce and compare cultures.

69 Use Visuals to help define vocabulary and concepts
Examples of visuals

70 Intro to looking at text for details (physical) that segues into George vs. George

71 Next class checks for authenticity
Develops sentence strips for venn - diagram comparing George Washington and King George IIII. Next class checks for authenticity Next two classes try to place the strips appropriately Each class can repeat the original task One class develops sentence strips for venn diagram comparing George Washington and King George IIII. Next class checks for authenticity and the next two classes try to place the strips appropriately OR each class can repeat the orginal task

72 Great book to teach satire and also a more positive look at King George III

73 Great resource. Discusses close reading and article of the week
Great resource! Discusses close reading and article of the week. Also, see Watch video –second link

74 Early close reading. As they become comfortable due as gallagher says with left and right margins

75

76 Sample resononse

77

78 Shane Templeton- University of Nevada, Reno
Presented “Nuance, Structure, and Etymology: Vocabulary instruction in the Context of the Common Core, intermediate and Middle Grades, ” at the Literacy for All Conference on November 6, 2012. See:

79 Resources I

80 Curtis, Mary E. "When Adolescents Can't Read: Methods and Materials That Work (From Reading Research to Practice, V. 1) [Paperback]." When Adolescents Can't Read: Methods and Materials That Work (From Reading Research to Practice, V. 1): Mary Beth Curtis: : Amazon.com: Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 July 2013. Ferlazzo, Larry, and Katie Hull-Sypnieski. The ESL/ELL Teacher's Survival Guide: Ready-to-use Strategies, Tools, and Activities for Teaching English Language Learners of All Levels. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Print. Goodman, Getchen. Interventions for Struggling Learners. Peterborough: Crystal Springs, Print Hoyt, Linda. "Interactive Read-Alouds:." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 July 2013. Moss, Connie M., and Susan M. Brookhart. Learning Targets: Helping Students Aim for Understanding in Today's Lesson. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, Print. Michael F Opitz. Books and beyond New Ways to Reach Readers. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

81 Thank you Resources: Understanding The Common Core State Standards Written by John Kendall Total Participation Techniques Written by Persida Himmele & William Himmele


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