Presentation on theme: "Prepared by Marion Lyons and Robin Hecht"— Presentation transcript:
1Prepared by Marion Lyons and Robin Hecht Common Core Strategies in the ClassroomELL and Special Needs student PopulationsPrepared by Marion Lyons and Robin HechtELA/Reading AIS TeacherMarlboro Middle School
2Where is Marlboro, New York? Just showing where Marlboro is
3Summer Camp: Hudson Valley Writing Project 2nd most visited site in NYS after Niagra FallsResearch using informative textSecond most visited site in NYS after Niagara FallsResearch using informative text
4Use the landmarks in your area to teach and connect Other area attractionsUse the landmarks in your area to teach and connectreading and writing to science and social studies
5Other Attractions West Point FDR’S Library and Museum Washington HeadquartersFDR’S Library and MuseumWashington Headquarters West Point FDR’S library and musumWest Point
6The purpose of reading is to comprehend. Let’s Talk about why students may need intervention strategies:Student did not meet the state reference pointTeacher recommendationIEPELLSSTBy the time students reach middle school they are expected to read to learn and not learning to read.The purpose of reading is to comprehend.How do we teach our students to understand more difficult and varied texts as demanded by Common Core standards?By the time students reach middle school they are expected to read to learn and not learning to read.The purpose of reading is to comprehend.How do we teach our students to understand more difficult and varied texts as demanded by Common Core standards?
710 Researched-based principles to Improve Reading Comprehension The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement has come up with 10 researched-based principles to improve reading comprehensionThe Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement has come up with 10 researched-based principles to improve reading comprehension
9Requires purposeful and explicit teaching Today we are going to learn…The reason we are learning this is …State Objective…At the end of this lesson you will be able to …Connect To And Review Previous Learning: Yesterday, you…Teach New Concept/Skill (I Do):Watch me or listen to me as I …Guided Practice (We Do): Now, let’s try this together.Assess Student Application (You Do): Now, let’s see you try this on your own.Return To Purpose: Tell your partner what you learned and practiced today.Provide Opportunity For Independent Practice: I want to give you a chance now to show that you can do this independently.When you’re working independently today, I would like you to …1- Effective teachers are clear about their purpose. Today we are going to learn…The reason we are learning this is …State ObjectiveAt the end of this lesson you will be able to …Connect To And Review Previous LearningYesterday, you…Teach New Concept/Skill (I Do)Watch me or listen to me as I …Guided Practice (We Do) Now, let’s try this together. Assess Student Application (You Do)Now, let’s see you try this on your own.Return To PurposeTell your partner what you learned and practiced today.Provide Opportunity For Independent PracticeI want to give you a chance now to show that you can do this independently.When you’re working independently today, I would like you to …2- effective teachers have a repertoire of techniques for enhancing comprehension of specific texts. Teacher and student led discussions, balance of lower and higher-level questions. Well designed writing assignments deepen children’s learning from the text.3- Reading and rereading a wide variety texts contribute to both phonemic awareness and comprehension.4-Expert readers make connections, predict, make inferences etc..
10When: circle time am meeting, play activities Starts before children read conventionally by developing comprehension skills through experiencing and promoting oral and written language through discussionsWhen: circle time am meeting, play activitiesReading and rereading a text contributes to phonemic awareness and comprehension.What: Teaches children the skills and strategies used by expert readers3-develop comprehension skills experience promote oral and written language, discussions- circle time am mtg, play activitiesReading and rereading a text contributes to phonemic awareness and comprehension. 2nd level book wars reread: vocab & comp4- Before Reading : Establish a purpose Preview or survey the text, Use prior knowledge, Make predictions, Identify new vocabularyDuring Reading: Confirm revise or reject predictions, Create mental images,Ask questions,Clarify understanding, Connect text to self,world and other texts, Draw inferencesAfter Reading· Summarize and synthesize· Respond to text· Answer questions· Connect text to self, world and other texts
11Repertoire of Techniques Effective teachers have a repertoire of techniques for enhancing comprehension of specific texts.Teacher and student led discussionsBalance of lower and higher-level questions.Well designed writing assignments deepen children’s learning from the text.Requires classroom interactions that support the understanding of specific textsA significant body of research links the close reading of complex text— whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced—to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness. (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7)
12Effective reading instruction….. Requires careful analysis of text to determine its appropriateness for particular students and strategies (publisher criteria)Determine the challenges and match your goals…byConsider conceptual and decoding demands and apply strategies to meet those challenges.Scaffolding experiences ensures all are exposed to high-level text and interactions.Builds on knowledge, vocabulary, and advanced language developmentVocabulary instruction is an important part of comprehension: students actively learning word meanings as well as relating words to contexts and other known words.Teaching about words (morphemes) improves comprehensionPervades all genres and school scripts5. Determine potential challenges and match it with the goals. ie consider conceptual and decoding demands and apply strategies to meet those challenges. Scaffolding experiences ensures all are exposed to high-level text and interactions.6. Good comprehension instruction helps students make connections more effectively. Vocabulary instruction is an important part of comprehension: students actively learning word meanings as well as relating words to contexts and other known words. Teaching about words (morphemes) improves comprehension
137th Grade Social Studies Co taught 7th grade social studiesFocus question: What was Benjamin Franklin’s greatest accomplishment?Grouped students and teacher rotated between groups making observations or asking for textual evidence to support their claimsTeacher shared excerpts from Walter Isaacson’s book. Good practice for comparing and contrasting and the reading of higher level text.Focus question: What was Benjamin Franklin’s greatest accomplishment?Grouped students and teacher rotated between groups making observations or asking for textual evidence to support their claimsTeacher shared excerpts from Walter Isaacson’s book. Good practice for comparing and contrasting and the reading of higher level text.
14(8) Actively engages students in text and motivates them to use strategies and skills …How? Create an environment where students read more(9) Requires assessments that inform instruction and monitor student progress ..Why?Timely feedback to inform/drive instruction and monitor student progress toward research-based benchmarks.Effective assessment also enables teachers to reliably interpret data and communicate results to students, parents, and colleagues.(10) Requires continuous teacher learning on the latest research et….ENGAGENY8- create an environment where students read more which in turn improves comprehension and knowledge9- the use of multiple assessments provides specific and timely feedback to inform/drive instruction and monitor student progress toward research-based benchmarks. Effective assessment also enables teachers to reliably interpret data and communicate results to students, parents, and colleagues.10. As educators we need to keep present on the latest research et….ENGAGENY
15Where do you start? Scheduling and grouping How often will you meet? Ability grouping?Student profilesStudent InventoryParent InventoryMeet with Co-teacherCommon Core Learning standardsBe visible
16Student profile.The STAR assessments allow teachers to accurately evaluate students’ abilitiesin just 10 to 15 minutes.studentEla5Ela6Ela7Ela1234Ss1Sc1*s/gI*j/gAISF&PJohn2h69657075807477815751600.9pp5.04.4PFs-uj-uj-vAntonio82848786858388906.866.45.9s-tj-tKathleen seizures78618.104.22.168.7Alisa6771722.214.171.124.9j-wj-xBrooke6th7th8th64n/a/n/as-Noel7126.96.36.199s-wj-yLenora2l506188.8.131.52s-sAlex2m7184.108.40.206Stephanie asthma63In/a4.3N/Aj-Chase731.3PP12.911.7s-zStudent profile. The STAR assessments allow teachers to accurately evaluate students’ abilities in just 10 to 15minutes. Teachers then use information provided by the assessments to target instruction,provide students with the most appropriate instructional materials, and intervene withstruggling students.Teachers then use information provided by the assessments to target instruction,provide students with the most appropriate instructional materials,Intervene with struggling students.
17Next, develop goals for each class that included individual and class goal
18Surveys are one way I can learn about my students and how they perceive themselves as learners and readersSurveys are one way I can learn about my students and how they perceive themselves as learners and readers
19Parent Inventory Business cards, “office hours,” two way communication 1. What are your child’s strengths (not only academic)? In what is she/he most interested (subject areas and otherwise)? __________________________________________________________________________ 2. On what academic skills does your child need to focus? 3. Developing a productive and healthy relationship with your child is one of my highest priorities. Getting to know a student can make all the difference in their school success. I take this opportunity very seriously. I believe as a parent you play a key role in assisting me learn more about your child. Please provide me with any tips or suggestions for getting the very best out of her/him. What motivates them to do their best work. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Is there anything else you want me to know about your child?Business cards, “office hours,” two way communicationLikewise, I want parental/guardian feedback This gives me another perspective and the the depth of support. I need them on my side.Business cards, “office hours,” two way communication
20Purposeful Planning with co- teacher What Critical Content will be the focus?Skill DevelopmentExplicit Instruction of Learning StrategiesDirect Instruction of Targeted SkillsRoles of each teacherModeling5. Student PracticeLesson ClosureAssessmentAgain, this is what make teaching effective2020
21Common Core shifts for ELA/Literacy “Talk the Langauge” Building knowledge through content-rich nonfictionReading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informationalRegular practice with complex text and its academic language
22Previous grade expectations/current and/or present helps drive instruction and acts as a springboard
23Be visibleMake it a point to interact with students outside of your class. This helps build rapport…..
24Explicit InstructionThe most effective teaching methodology that promotes learning of students with special needs includes:Classroom routinesBehavioral expectationsAcademic content & skillsLearning strategies2424
25Elements of Explicit Instruction Archer & Hughes, 2011, Explicit Instruction: Effective & Efficient TeachingFocus instruction on critical contentSequence skills logicallyBreak down complex skills & strategies into smaller unitsDesign organized & focused lessonsBegin lessons with a clear statement of the learning target & your expectationsReview prior skills & knowledge before beginning the lessonProvide step-by-step demonstrationsUse clear & concise language
26What are some indicators that a lesson is purposefully designed to meet the needs of all students?
27Evidence in the Classroom: Focus on Critical Content Teacher has students with special needs working on content aligned with the content of the work of their grade level peers.Teacher explicitly teaches required vocabulary.The learning target of the lesson is written on the board, written down by student and referenced by teacher.
28Explicit Instruction of Learning Strategies Continued Teacher uses both verbal and visual aids to teach the strategy.Teacher speaks slowly and clearly, gives wait time for students to formulate their responses.Teacher provides visual representations of concepts
29Evidence in the Classroom: Explicit Instruction of Learning Strategies Teacher provides purpose for strategies being taught, including “what, why, how and when”.Teacher models expectations and product and leads step-by-step practice.Modeling promotes learning and motivation
30Evidence in the Classroom: Direct Instruction of Targeted Skills Teachers are explicitly teaching the necessary skills and strategies. (quarterly goal sheets)Teachers are re-teaching to support student mastery. (Core class or AIS class)Teachers are providing accommodations, assistive technology, and/or supplemental supports in order to provide access & participation in instruction.
31Evidence in the Classroom: Student Practice Teacher’s instruction ensures multiple opportunities for participation by students with special needs, e.g., choral responding, thumbs-up, white board response.Teacher initially uses high level of prompting/cues with students with disabilities and gradually decrease based upon accuracy of responses.Teacher ensures that all students are grouped appropriately to practice during the lesson (individual, pairs, small group, whole group).
32Evidence in the Classroom: Lesson Closure The focus of the work is restated by teacher verbally and visually. (refer to “I Can” sheet)Teacher conducts a short formative assessment of students’ with disabilities level of understanding; (e.g. exit sheet, collects independent work, sticky note place on desk, self-check or ask students to report out as they leave the class).Teacher explicitly connects prior and upcoming lessons. Look at Units you already have….
33Lesson Assessment Closure: Exit activity Little or no understandingPartial understandingComplete understandingCan be used for closureAnother example:Lesson Assessment Closure: Exit activity
37Evidence in the Classroom: Checks for Understanding Teacher checks that students with disabilities understand the objective accurately.Teacher elicits alternatives from students with disabilities when response is incorrect.Teacher gives immediate feedback with error correction to students with disabilities.
38On the Spot Techniques: These techniques are used to quickly gauge the depth of student understanding of the concepts being taught.They require little or no advance preparation.Several can be inserted in a lesson when it is noticed that students are becoming disengagedThey can be placed strategically in transitional sections of the lesson.On The Spot Category
39Think –Pair-Share (Lyman, 1981) Students are given a specific task - Example: “Repeat teacher directions to your partner.” * prompt or question to answer/reflect upon * solve with a partner for seconds Example: In math it can be used for example: “Turn to your partner and tell him/her the steps to………………………using first, second and third. Higher Order Thinking. Example: “Until now, multiplying numbers has always resulted in a larger number. Using words and pictures explain why by multiplying a fraction will always result in a smaller number.”Have group turn and talk to their partner to create an example of when and how they can use this strategy.
40Quick WriteStudents with special needs and/or ELLs would benefit from completing a:Quick Write (2-3minutes) before they participate in aThink-Pair-Share.1) Have these students do a bulleted list or a quick writing of their thoughts before turning and talking to partner.2) Encourage to write words to direct the students’ discussion to the important concept being learned. Example: Jot down these words (vocabulary) that you will use in your Think-Pair-Share or write words that we have talked about that relate to the plant life cycle..
41Continued:Quick-Writes can be kept in a math journal and used as entry and exit tickets: Write your thinking process for solving……Follow up Quick-Writes with Pair-Shares or Networking Session or a Chalkboard Splash/Chart-board Splash
42Quick Draw: (Himmele & Himmele, 2009). First, select a big idea or concept within the lesson.Next, have the students reflect or think about the meaning of the ideathen, create a drawing that illustrates their thoughts about the meaning of the idea.Finally, students can then share the drawing and explain their thoughts to a partner.Music teacher played music and students listened to music. While listening drew Example: Pictures of what the music made them think of and added words or phrases to describe the picture.
43Chart Paper SplashStudents can also copy their Quick Draws on chart paper for a Chart Paper Splash at designated spots around the classroom.Students then visit each chart paper to analyze peer’s responses for similarities/differences and “I was surprised by ….,” and “I was very interested in how…… “.See worksheet:
44Wait Time ActivitiesUsed to extend the wait time for activities that may need longer processing time.
45Thumbs Up When You Are Ready! Use Thumbs are up when individuals are donethinking or reflecting on a prompt.Thumbs Up When You Are Ready strategy isdifferent from Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down not just foryes/no voting or agree/disagree.For Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down be sure to add anangled or sideways thumb for the in-betweenoptions for students who are not sure.Higher level thinking ask for a rationale or justify why for their voting preference in a quick write or draw.
46Processing Cards:One side reads: “Still THINKING” with yellow triangleOther side reads: “READY to Share” with a green circle.“Still THINKING” should show when working on task and “READY to Share” when task is completed.Above learners will need a higher order thinking activity to extend and apply which can be paper clipped to inside of tent. An example could be to think abstractly to create a SIMILE (connection between two unrelated things).Make copies to give to participants -
47Ranking: Type steps to a process on paper Ask students to 1) rank them or 2) order them according to importance to solving a word problem.They can then share with pairs, process what was shared and make changes based on their new information.Results can be used in whole class debriefing.This is just one example: have group create one… can use descriptive paragraphs, events, steps that can be analyzed or ranked according to specific criteria: least to most influential, changed, affected, likable or other rankable features of concepts or characters. Ranking Quotes Activity: Rank the quotes by most descriptiveRanking Quotes Activity
48Ranking Quotes Activity: Rank the quotes by most descriptive and defend your choice“I know,” said Rob. I know what the Sistine Chapel is.”Immediately he regretted saying it. It was his policy not to say things,but it was a policy he was having a hard time maintaining around Sistine.“I know what contagious means.” Sistine said. She looked at his legs.And then she did something truly astounding: she closed her eyes andreached out her left hand and placed it on top of Rob’s right leg. “PleaseLet me catch it,> she whispered. “You won’t.” said Rob, surprisedat her hand, how small it was and how warm. It made him think, for a minute,of his mother’s hand, tiny and soft. He stopped that thought. “It isn’t contagious,”he told herTurn and work with your partner to rank green blue orangeBy then, Norton and Billy Threemonger had spotted them sitting togetherand they were moving in. Rob was relieved when the first thump came tothe back of his head, because it meant that he wouldn’t have to talk toSistine anymore. It meant that he wouldn’t end up saying too much, telling herabout important things. Like his mother or the tiger.
49True/Not True Hold-Ups: Hold-Up CardsTeacher asks questions and students circle answer and hold it up for teacher to do a check“or”Students Think-Pair-Share and students provide a verbal/ a quick write /or draw a rationale for the voting preference.Students edit their responses with new information.Students have the template below as laminated tool. Great one for extending thinking!
50Numbered Heads Together (Kagan, 1989/90) 1) Ask students to count off so each group memberhas a number (1-4)2) Confirm by asking all of each number to stand3) All group members will need to be able to present thegroup’s information.4) Wait until all the group work is completed beforeinforming the groups which number will be presenting(pull the number)5) Since they do not know who will present everyonemust know the info as well as help each other learnthe info# 3 writes, # 2 wrote last time…How might you use this activity on a regular basis in your classroom?
51Hold UpsDirections1. Ask the students to think about and discuss their responsesto a set of prepared questions.2. Before students hold up their cards, have them pair-share orconfer in small groups (number heads)3. Say “Hold it Up”4. Students hold up their cards/white boards.5. Select students to share their groups rationale6. If students answer incorrectly give them time to hearopposing views, rethink and come to different conclusions.7. If students do not understand use this as an opportunity to re-teach.How might you use hold up over the next couple of weeks?
52Types of hold up cards Fact /Opinion Facial expressions with words Yes/noMultiple choice lettersCorresponding letters (branches of government)LEJWhich branch of government is also called “Congress”?Which branch has people who are appointed by the president andapproved by the senate?Which of these 3 branches would you say plays the biggest role in ensuringa balance of power? Be ready to defend
53Number Hold Ups Which number is greater? Which of these two numbers has less value?Which of these numbers is made of 2 tens?What is the sum of these two numbers?What is the product of these two numbers?Which is a prime #?What are the common factors of these 2 numbers?Show me a fraction that means one half.You can use number cards to hold up the answer or laminate“100 charts” and students can use dry erase markers to circle their answer.
54TPT Folder A Flannel square or sock (dry eraser) Dry erase pen Laminate light colored oak tag/construction paper or white boardA Flannel square or sock (dry eraser)Dry erase penTrue /Not True hold up cardsDecks of number cardsLaminated Hundreds ChartLaminated A-Z ChartA completed Appointment Agenda: useful for grouping studentsA Processing Card : to help know where students are in their thinkingBounce cardsGuided Note-taking TemplatesIndex cars for Quick Writes or Quick Draws
55TPT’s Involving Movement Line-up and inside outside circlesBounce CardsNetworking SessionsActing it out/Role Plays and Concept CharadesThree 3’s in a Row
56Line-Up and Inside Outside Circles Prepare questions or prompts based on concepts taught thatallow for discussion by a pair of students.Ask students to stand in 2 parallel lines or 2 circles (one inside the other)Ask students to stand and face the person across from them or opposite them.Tell them to refer to their prompt and take turns responding to it.Its best to time the talk.Teach students to shake hands, say thank and then move to the left or rightA specific number of students and repeat the activity.
57Networking Session Prepare one to four prompts or questions Ask students to reflect on the ?s and do a quick writeAsk the students to find someone to discuss their responsesto the prompt with.Signal after a predetermined time and ask students to find anew partner to continue the activity.They can also respond to a different prompt with each new partnerAdding notes to their quick write.Ask the students to defend their responses based on info theyhave learned in class8. You can require one partner to be a person you have not had a chance tospeak with yet today.Stretch the comfort zone and build community
58Bounce CardsBounce: Take what your partner said and bounce an idea off it. For example, you can start your sentence with –“That reminds me of…”“I agree. Because.. “True. Another example is when…“That’s a great point…”Sum it Up: Rephrase what was just said in s shorter version. For example, you can start sentences with ..I hear you saying..”“So, if I understand you correctly…”“I like how you said..”Inquire: Understand what your classmates mean by asking questions, For example, you can start sentences with .“ Can you tell me more about that?”“ I’m not sure I understand….?”“Have you thought about….?”“I see your point, but what about…?”Make these cards for students to keep in their desk. Model a conversation using the bounce cards.
59Appointment Agendas: Students create appointments with peers Appointment Agendas: Students create appointments with peers. When the teacher selects a time to meet the students already have partners.TimeYou have an appointment with:9:00am10:00am11:00 am1:00pm2:00pm
60Three 3’s in a RowPrepare 9 questions or prompts based on concepts taught thatallow for discussion by a pair of students.Students interact with peers and get peers feedback on what theyshould write in the boxes.One question per peer. Student writes summary of answer in thebox.Students answer what they are most comfortable with and getsupport from peer expertsAll students are required to process the concepts in all nine boxesOnly the owner of the template is to write on his own templateIt’s a quick assessment of what students have learned –empty boxesare an indication of what should be re-taught.Teacher should go over answers in class asking for volunteers toshare their responsesCopy of page 63 to end session
61Evidence in the Classroom: Pacing Teacher presents the content in chunks/segments.Teacher’s instruction ensures multiple opportunities for participation by students with disabilities, (e.g. choral responding, thumbs-up, white board responses).Teacher re-teaches if students’ responses are inaccurate.
62Evidence in the Classroom: Processing Time Teacher ensures that students with disabilities are engage in structured activities designed to allow to processing; (e.g., quick write, think-pair-share, elbow partners, think-jot).The teacher uses wait time to enable student with disabilities to process responses to questions/directions.Teacher pauses frequently to enable students with disabilities to respond and ask questions.
63Evidence in the Classroom: Specific & Timely Feedback Teacher checks on progress of students with disabilities throughout the lesson.Teacher gives immediate & specific feedback for reinforcement or error correction to students with disabilities.Teacher acknowledges student demonstrations of appropriate behavior at least four times more frequently than inappropriate behavior.Conference with students on a regular basis
64How do you track what is being done and if it is making a difference in student learning?
65Key QuestionsHow do results on formative and summative assessments compare for ELL/AIS students to those of their general education peers?What data indicates that what is happening instructionally for ELL/AIS students is effective?65
66Evidence in the Classroom: Provide step by step demonstrations Teacher has ELL/AIS students working on content aligned with the content of the work of their grade level peers.Teacher explicitly teaches required vocabulary.The objective of the lesson is written on the board and referenced by teacher.
67Questions to Consider as you view the video: How does Ms. Brewer tailor this lesson to the needs of English Language Learners?What kinds of questions does Ms. Brewer ask to guide her students' discussions?How does this activity prepare students for writing?https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/analyzing-text-brainstormingWatch and discuss video
68Strategy: Use Graphics to introduce and compare cultures. Visuals graphic for cultureHow do culture, time, and place influence the development of a character’s identity?Strategy: Use Graphics to introduce and compare cultures.
69Use Visuals to help define vocabulary and concepts Examples of visuals
70Intro to looking at text for details (physical) that segues into George vs. George
71Next class checks for authenticity Develops sentence strips for venn - diagram comparing George Washington and King George IIII.Next class checks for authenticityNext two classes try to place the strips appropriatelyEach class can repeat the original taskOne class develops sentence strips for venn diagram comparing George Washington and King George IIII. Next class checks for authenticity and the next two classes try to place the strips appropriately OR each class can repeat the orginal task
72Great book to teach satire and also a more positive look at King George III
73Great resource. Discusses close reading and article of the week Great resource! Discusses close reading and article of the week. Also, seeWatch video –second link
74Early close reading. As they become comfortable due as gallagher says with left and right margins
78Shane Templeton- University of Nevada, Reno Presented “Nuance, Structure, and Etymology: Vocabulary instruction in the Context of the Common Core, intermediate and Middle Grades, ” at the Literacy for All Conference on November 6, 2012.See:
80Curtis, Mary E. "When Adolescents Can't Read: Methods and Materials That Work (From Reading Research to Practice, V. 1) [Paperback]." When Adolescents Can't Read: Methods and Materials That Work (From Reading Research to Practice, V. 1): Mary Beth Curtis: : Amazon.com: Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 July 2013.Ferlazzo, Larry, and Katie Hull-Sypnieski. The ESL/ELL Teacher's Survival Guide: Ready-to-use Strategies, Tools, and Activities for Teaching English Language Learners of All Levels. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Print.Goodman, Getchen. Interventions for Struggling Learners. Peterborough: Crystal Springs, PrintHoyt, Linda. "Interactive Read-Alouds:." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 July 2013.Moss, Connie M., and Susan M. Brookhart. Learning Targets: Helping Students Aim for Understanding in Today's Lesson. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, Print.Michael F Opitz. Books and beyond New Ways to Reach Readers. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
81Thank youResources: Understanding The Common Core State Standards Written by John Kendall Total Participation Techniques Written by Persida Himmele & William Himmele