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Prepared by Marion Lyons and Robin Hecht ELA/Reading AIS Teacher Marlboro Middle School Common Core Strategies in the Classroom ELL and Special Needs student.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared by Marion Lyons and Robin Hecht ELA/Reading AIS Teacher Marlboro Middle School Common Core Strategies in the Classroom ELL and Special Needs student."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared by Marion Lyons and Robin Hecht ELA/Reading AIS Teacher Marlboro Middle School Common Core Strategies in the Classroom ELL and Special Needs student Populations

2 Where is Marlboro, New York?

3 Second most visited site in NYS after Niagara Falls Research using informative text Summer Camp: Hudson Valley Writing Project

4 Use the landmarks in your area to teach and connect reading and writing to science and social studies

5 Other Attractions Washington Headquarters West Point FDRS Library and Museum

6 Lets Talk about why students may need intervention strategies: Student did not meet the state reference point Teacher recommendation IEP ELL SST By the time students reach middle school they are expected to read to learn and not learning to read. The purpose of reading is to comprehend. How do we teach our students to understand more difficult and varied texts as demanded by Common Core standards?

7 10 Researched-based principles to Improve Reading Comprehension The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement has come up with 10 researched-based principles to improve reading comprehension

8 Effective reading instruction…..

9 Requires purposeful and explicit teaching Today we are going to learn… The reason we are learning this is … State Objective…At the end of this lesson you will be able to … Connect To And Review Previous Learning: Yesterday, you… Teach New Concept/Skill (I Do):Watch me or listen to me as I … Guided Practice (We Do): Now, lets try this together. Assess Student Application (You Do): Now, lets see you try this on your own. Return To Purpose: Tell your partner what you learned and practiced today. Provide Opportunity For Independent Practice: I want to give you a chance now to show that you can do this independently. When youre working independently today, I would like you to …

10 Starts before children read conventionally by developing comprehension skills through experiencing and promoting oral and written language through discussions When: circle time am meeting, play activities Reading and rereading a text contributes to phonemic awareness and comprehension. What: Teaches children the skills and strategies used by expert readers

11 Repertoire of Techniques Effective teachers have a repertoire of techniques for enhancing comprehension of specific texts. Teacher and student led discussions Balance of lower and higher-level questions. Well designed writing assignments deepen childrens learning from the text. Requires classroom interactions that support the understanding of specific texts A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text whether the student is a struggling reader or advancedto significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness. (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7)

12 Effective reading instruction….. Requires careful analysis of text to determine its appropriateness for particular students and strategies (publisher criteria) Determine the challenges and match your goals…by Consider conceptual and decoding demands and apply strategies to meet those challenges. Scaffolding experiences ensures all are exposed to high-level text and interactions. Builds on knowledge, vocabulary, and advanced language development Vocabulary instruction is an important part of comprehension: students actively learning word meanings as well as relating words to contexts and other known words. Teaching about words (morphemes) improves comprehension Pervades all genres and school scripts

13 7 th Grade Social Studies Focus question: What was Benjamin Franklins greatest accomplishment? Grouped students and teacher rotated between groups making observations or asking for textual evidence to support their claims Teacher shared excerpts from Walter Isaacsons book. Good practice for comparing and contrasting and the reading of higher level text.

14 (8) Actively engages students in text and motivates them to use strategies and skills …How? Create an environment where students read more (9) Requires assessments that inform instruction and monitor student progress..Why? Timely feedback to inform/drive instruction and monitor student progress toward research-based benchmarks. Effective assessment also enables teachers to reliably interpret data and communicate results to students, parents, and colleagues. (10) Requires continuous teacher learning on the latest research et….ENGAGENY

15 Where do you start? Scheduling and grouping How often will you meet? Ability grouping? Student profiles Student Inventory Parent Inventory Meet with Co-teacher Common Core Learning standards Be visible

16 studentEla5Ela6Ela7Ela1234Ss1234Sc1234*s/gI*j/gI IAISF&P John 222h pp PFPPFP s-u j-u j-v Antonio 222h PPPPPP s-t j-t j-v Kathleen seizures 232h PPPPPP s-u j-v Alisa 222h PPPPPP s-t j-w j-x Brooke 6th 2 7th 2 8 th n/a/n/a P s- j-t Noel 2h PPPPPP s-w j-x j-y Lenora 222l PPPPPP s-s j-u j-v Alex 232m PPPPPP s-s j-t Stephanie asthma 222m7684n/a 7885n/a 63In/an/a n/a P N/A s- j- Chase n/a PP PPPP s-z j- Student profile. The STAR assessments allow teachers to accurately evaluate students abilities in just 10 to 15 minutes. Teachers then use information provided by the assessments to target instruction, provide students with the most appropriate instructional materials, Intervene with struggling students.

17 Next, develop goals for each class that included individual and class goal

18 Surveys are one way I can learn about my students and how they perceive themselves as learners and readers

19 Parent Inventory 1. What are your childs strengths (not only academic)? In what is she/he most interested (subject areas and otherwise)? __________________________________________________________________________ 2. On what academic skills does your child need to focus? __________________________________________________________________________ 3. Developing a productive and healthy relationship with your child is one of my highest priorities. Getting to know a student can make all the difference in their school success. I take this opportunity very seriously. I believe as a parent you play a key role in assisting me learn more about your child. Please provide me with any tips or suggestions for getting the very best out of her/him. What motivates them to do their best work. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Is there anything else you want me to know about your child? Business cards, office hours, two way communication

20 Purposeful Planning with co- teacher 1. What Critical Content will be the focus? 2. Skill Development Explicit Instruction of Learning Strategies Direct Instruction of Targeted Skills 3. Roles of each teacher 4. Modeling 5. Student Practice Lesson Closure Assessment

21 Common Core shifts for ELA/Literacy Talk the Langauge Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational Regular practice with complex text and its academic language


23 Be visible

24 24 Explicit Instruction The most effective teaching methodology that promotes learning of students with special needs includes: Classroom routines Behavioral expectations Academic content & skills Learning strategies

25 Elements of Explicit Instruction Archer & Hughes, 2011, Explicit Instruction: Effective & Efficient Teaching Focus instruction on critical content Sequence skills logically Break down complex skills & strategies into smaller units Design organized & focused lessons Begin lessons with a clear statement of the learning target & your expectations Review prior skills & knowledge before beginning the lesson Provide step-by-step demonstrations Use clear & concise language

26 What are some indicators that a lesson is purposefully designed to meet the needs of all students?

27 Evidence in the Classroom: Focus on Critical Content Teacher has students with special needs working on content aligned with the content of the work of their grade level peers. Teacher explicitly teaches required vocabulary. The learning target of the lesson is written on the board, written down by student and referenced by teacher.

28 Explicit Instruction of Learning Strategies Continued Teacher uses both verbal and visual aids to teach the strategy. Teacher speaks slowly and clearly, gives wait time for students to formulate their responses. Teacher provides visual representations of concepts

29 Evidence in the Classroom: Explicit Instruction of Learning Strategies Teacher provides purpose for strategies being taught, including what, why, how and when. Teacher models expectations and product and leads step-by-step practice. Modeling promotes learning and motivation

30 Evidence in the Classroom: Direct Instruction of Targeted Skills Teachers are explicitly teaching the necessary skills and strategies. (quarterly goal sheets) Teachers are re-teaching to support student mastery. (Core class or AIS class) Teachers are providing accommodations, assistive technology, and/or supplemental supports in order to provide access & participation in instruction.

31 Evidence in the Classroom: Student Practice Teachers instruction ensures multiple opportunities for participation by students with special needs, e.g., choral responding, thumbs-up, white board response. Teacher initially uses high level of prompting/cues with students with disabilities and gradually decrease based upon accuracy of responses. Teacher ensures that all students are grouped appropriately to practice during the lesson (individual, pairs, small group, whole group).

32 Evidence in the Classroom: Lesson Closure The focus of the work is restated by teacher verbally and visually. (refer to I Can sheet) Teacher conducts a short formative assessment of students with disabilities level of understanding; (e.g. exit sheet, collects independent work, sticky note place on desk, self-check or ask students to report out as they leave the class). Teacher explicitly connects prior and upcoming lessons. Look at Units you already have….

33 Little or no understanding Partial understanding Complete understanding Lesson Assessment Closure: Exit activity


35 What are some indicators that instruction is delivered to meet the needs of all students?

36 Classroom Actions & Student Growth 1. Checking for Understanding 2. Pacing 3. Processing Time 1. Specific & Timely Feedback

37 Evidence in the Classroom: Checks for Understanding Teacher checks that students with disabilities understand the objective accurately. Teacher elicits alternatives from students with disabilities when response is incorrect. Teacher gives immediate feedback with error correction to students with disabilities.

38 On the Spot Techniques: These techniques are used to quickly gauge the depth of student understanding of the concepts being taught. They require little or no advance preparation. Several can be inserted in a lesson when it is noticed that students are becoming disengaged They can be placed strategically in transitional sections of the lesson.

39 Think –Pair-Share (Lyman, 1981) Students are given a specific task - Example:Repeat teacher directions to your partner. * prompt or question to answer/reflect upon * solve with a partner for seconds Example: In math it can be used for example:Turn to your partner and tell him/her the steps to………………………using first, second and third. Higher Order Thinking. Example: Until now, multiplying numbers has always resulted in a larger number. Using words and pictures explain why by multiplying a fraction will always result in a smaller number.

40 Quick Write Students with special needs and/or ELLs would benefit from completing a: Quick Write (2-3minutes) before they participate in a Think-Pair-Share. 1) Have these students do a bulleted list or a quick writing of their thoughts before turning and talking to partner. 2) Encourage to write words to direct the students discussion to the important concept being learned. Example: Jot down these words (vocabulary) that you will use in your Think-Pair-Share or write words that we have talked about that relate to the plant life cycle..

41 Continued: Quick-Writes can be kept in a math journal and used as entry and exit tickets: Write your thinking process for solving…… Follow up Quick-Writes with Pair-Shares or Networking Session or a Chalkboard Splash/Chart-board Splash

42 Quick Draw: (Himmele & Himmele, 2009). First, select a big idea or concept within the lesson. Next, have the students reflect or think about the meaning of the idea then, create a drawing that illustrates their thoughts about the meaning of the idea. Finally, students can then share the drawing and explain their thoughts to a partner.

43 Chart Paper Splash Students can also copy their Quick Draws on chart paper for a Chart Paper Splash at designated spots around the classroom. Students then visit each chart paper to analyze peers responses for similarities/differences and I was surprised by …., and I was very interested in how……. See worksheet:

44 Wait Time Activities Used to extend the wait time for activities that may need longer processing time.

45 Thumbs Up When You Are Ready! Use Thumbs are up when individuals are done thinking or reflecting on a prompt. Thumbs Up When You Are Ready strategy is different from Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down not just for yes/no voting or agree/disagree. For Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down be sure to add an angled or sideways thumb for the in-between options for students who are not sure. Higher level thinking ask for a rationale or justify why for their voting preference in a quick write or draw.

46 Processing Cards: One side reads: Still THINKING with yellow triangle Other side reads: READY to Share with a green circle. Still THINKING should show when working on task and READY to Share when task is completed. Above learners will need a higher order thinking activity to extend and apply which can be paper clipped to inside of tent. An example could be to think abstractly to create a SIMILE (connection between two unrelated things).

47 Ranking: Type steps to a process on paper Ask students to 1) rank them or 2) order them according to importance to solving a word problem. They can then share with pairs, process what was shared and make changes based on their new information. Results can be used in whole class debriefing. Ranking Quotes Activity

48 Ranking Quotes Activity: Rank the quotes by most descriptive and defend your choice I know, said Rob. I know what the Sistine Chapel is. Immediately he regretted saying it. It was his policy not to say things, but it was a policy he was having a hard time maintaining around Sistine. By then, Norton and Billy Threemonger had spotted them sitting together and they were moving in. Rob was relieved when the first thump came to the back of his head, because it meant that he wouldnt have to talk to Sistine anymore. It meant that he wouldnt end up saying too much, telling her about important things. Like his mother or the tiger. I know what contagious means. Sistine said. She looked at his legs. And then she did something truly astounding: she closed her eyes and reached out her left hand and placed it on top of Robs right leg. Please Let me catch it,> she whispered. You wont. said Rob, surprised at her hand, how small it was and how warm. It made him think, for a minute, of his mothers hand, tiny and soft. He stopped that thought. It isnt contagious, he told her

49 True/Not True Hold-Ups: Teacher asks questions and students circle answer and hold it up for teacher to do a check or Students Think-Pair-Share and students provide a verbal/ a quick write /or draw a rationale for the voting preference. Students edit their responses with new information. Hold-Up Cards

50 Numbered Heads Together (Kagan, 1989/90 ) 1) Ask students to count off so each group member has a number (1-4) 2) Confirm by asking all of each number to stand 3) All group members will need to be able to present the groups information. 4) Wait until all the group work is completed before informing the groups which number will be presenting (pull the number) 5) Since they do not know who will present everyone must know the info as well as help each other learn the info

51 Hold Ups 1. Ask the students to think about and discuss their responses to a set of prepared questions. 2. Before students hold up their cards, have them pair-share or confer in small groups (number heads) 3. Say Hold it Up 4. Students hold up their cards/white boards. 5. Select students to share their groups rationale 6. If students answer incorrectly give them time to hear opposing views, rethink and come to different conclusions. 7. If students do not understand use this as an opportunity to re-teach. Directions

52 Types of hold up cards Fact /Opinion Facial expressions with words Yes/no Multiple choice letters Corresponding letters (branches of government) LEJ Which branch of government is also called Congress? Which branch has people who are appointed by the president and approved by the senate? Which of these 3 branches would you say plays the biggest role in ensuring a balance of power? Be ready to defend

53 Number Hold Ups Which number is greater? Which of these two numbers has less value? Which of these numbers is made of 2 tens? What is the sum of these two numbers? What is the product of these two numbers? Which is a prime #? What are the common factors of these 2 numbers? Show me a fraction that means one half. You can use number cards to hold up the answer or laminate 100 charts and students can use dry erase markers to circle their answer.

54 TPT Folder Laminate light colored oak tag/construction paper or white board A Flannel square or sock (dry eraser) Dry erase pen True /Not True hold up cards Decks of number cards Laminated Hundreds Chart Laminated A-Z Chart A completed Appointment Agenda: useful for grouping students A Processing Card : to help know where students are in their thinking Bounce cards Guided Note-taking Templates Index cars for Quick Writes or Quick Draws

55 TPTs Involving Movement Line-up and inside outside circles Bounce Cards Networking Sessions Acting it out/Role Plays and Concept Charades Three 3s in a Row

56 Line-Up and Inside Outside Circles Prepare questions or prompts based on concepts taught that allow for discussion by a pair of students. Ask students to stand in 2 parallel lines or 2 circles (one inside the other) Ask students to stand and face the person across from them or opposite them. Tell them to refer to their prompt and take turns responding to it. Its best to time the talk. Teach students to shake hands, say thank and then move to the left or right A specific number of students and repeat the activity.

57 Networking Session 1.Prepare one to four prompts or questions 2.Ask students to reflect on the ?s and do a quick write 3.Ask the students to find someone to discuss their responses to the prompt with. 4.Signal after a predetermined time and ask students to find a new partner to continue the activity. 5.They can also respond to a different prompt with each new partner 6.Adding notes to their quick write. 7.Ask the students to defend their responses based on info they have learned in class 8. You can require one partner to be a person you have not had a chance to speak with yet today.

58 Bounce Cards Bounce: Take what your partner said and bounce an idea off it. For example, you can start your sentence with – That reminds me of… I agree. Because..True. Another example is when… Thats a great point… Sum it Up: Rephrase what was just said in s shorter version. For example, you can start sentences with.. I hear you saying.. So, if I understand you correctly… I like how you said.. Inquire: Understand what your classmates mean by asking questions, For example, you can start sentences with. Can you tell me more about that? Im not sure I understand….? Have you thought about….? I see your point, but what about…?

59 Appointment Agendas: St udents create appointments with peers. When the teacher selects a time to meet the students already have partners. TimeYou have an appointment with: 9:00am 10:00am 11:00 am 1:00pm 2:00pm

60 Three 3s in a Row Prepare 9 questions or prompts based on concepts taught that allow for discussion by a pair of students. Students interact with peers and get peers feedback on what they should write in the boxes. One question per peer. Student writes summary of answer in the box. Students answer what they are most comfortable with and get support from peer experts All students are required to process the concepts in all nine boxes Only the owner of the template is to write on his own template Its a quick assessment of what students have learned –empty boxes are an indication of what should be re-taught. Teacher should go over answers in class asking for volunteers to share their responses

61 Evidence in the Classroom: Pacing Teacher presents the content in chunks/segments. Teachers instruction ensures multiple opportunities for participation by students with disabilities, (e.g. choral responding, thumbs-up, white board responses). Teacher re-teaches if students responses are inaccurate.

62 Evidence in the Classroom: Processing Time Teacher ensures that students with disabilities are engage in structured activities designed to allow to processing; (e.g., quick write, think-pair-share, elbow partners, think-jot). The teacher uses wait time to enable student with disabilities to process responses to questions/directions. Teacher pauses frequently to enable students with disabilities to respond and ask questions.

63 Evidence in the Classroom: Specific & Timely Feedback Teacher checks on progress of students with disabilities throughout the lesson. Teacher gives immediate & specific feedback for reinforcement or error correction to students with disabilities. Teacher acknowledges student demonstrations of appropriate behavior at least four times more frequently than inappropriate behavior.

64 How do you track what is being done and if it is making a difference in student learning?

65 Key Questions How do results on formative and summative assessments compare for ELL/AIS students to those of their general education peers? What data indicates that what is happening instructionally for ELL/AIS students is effective?

66 Evidence in the Classroom: Provide step by step demonstrations Teacher has ELL/AIS students working on content aligned with the content of the work of their grade level peers. Teacher explicitly teaches required vocabulary. The objective of the lesson is written on the board and referenced by teacher.

67 Questions to Consider as you view the video: How does Ms. Brewer tailor this lesson to the needs of English Language Learners? What kinds of questions does Ms. Brewer ask to guide her students' discussions? How does this activity prepare students for writing?

68 How do culture, time, and place influence the development of a characters identity? Strategy: Use Graphics to introduce and compare cultures.

69 Use Visuals to help define vocabulary and concepts

70 Looking at text for details (physical) that segues into George vs. George

71 Develops sentence strips for venn - diagram comparing George Washington and King George IIII. Next class checks for authenticity Next two classes try to place the strips appropriately Each class can repeat the original task

72 Great book to teach satire and also a more positive look at King George III

73 Great resource! Discusses close reading and article of the week. Also, see BVB7XP0





78 Shane Templeton- University of Nevada, Reno Presented Nuance, Structure, and Etymology: Vocabulary instruction in the Context of the Common Core, intermediate and Middle Grades, at the Literacy for All Conference on November 6, See:

79 Resources leadership/dec12/vol70/num04sing-in-on-Close- Reading.aspx I

80 Curtis, Mary E. "When Adolescents Can't Read: Methods and Materials That Work (From Reading Research to Practice, V. 1) [Paperback]." When Adolescents Can't Read: Methods and Materials That Work (From Reading Research to Practice, V. 1): Mary Beth Curtis: : Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 July Ferlazzo, Larry, and Katie Hull-Sypnieski. The ESL/ELL Teacher's Survival Guide: Ready-to-use Strategies, Tools, and Activities for Teaching English Language Learners of All Levels. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Print. Goodman, Getchen. Interventions for Struggling Learners. Peterborough: Crystal Springs, Print Hoyt, Linda. "Interactive Read-Alouds:." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 July Moss, Connie M., and Susan M. Brookhart. Learning Targets: Helping Students Aim for Understanding in Today's Lesson. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, Print. Michael F Opitz. Books and beyond New Ways to Reach Readers. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

81 Thank you Resources: Understanding The Common Core State Standards Written by John Kendall Total Participation Techniques Written by Persida Himmele & William Himmele

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