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Biomechanics: An Introduction

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1 Biomechanics: An Introduction
Songning Zhang, Ph.D. Biomechanics/Sports Medicine Lab The University of Tennessee, USA

2 Selected Topic Areas Movement Analysis
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Industrial Applications Entertainment Applications

3 Movement Analysis/ Sports performance Other applications Enhancement
Skill improvement Other applications Footwear biomechanics Gait analysis                                                     Mainstream biomechanical applications

4 Movement Analysis                                  

5 Movement Analysis Video Video

6 Footwear Biomechanics
In 1960s, running – most popular sport Injuries: common in runners Running footwear Popular research topics since 1970s

7 Shoe Structures Shoe design
Depend on materials used in the outsole and stud patterns. Material Stud types

8 Material Testing Force platform Coefficient of friction
Shoes on diff. surfaces Where Fz – vertical force Fy – A/P force

9 Footwear Biomechanics
Mechanical factors Thickness of shoe soles Wear Midsole mechanical properties Other design issues Heel counter Flare Studies in footwear Material testing Lab biomechanical subject testing                                              

10 Footwear Biomechanics
Comfort and cushion: most important factors for footwear in sport activities (Nigg 1999) Plantar pressure shown to be a good indicator of comfort (Chen & Nigg 1994) Lack of plantar sensory input may provoke injuries, even in a well-cushioned shoe (Robbins 1991)

11 Rationale Perception of footwear: an important factor in selection of athletic footwear Material testing 500 miles running: 70% of impact absorption (Cook et al. 1985) Tanaka et al. (2001) A good correlation between footwear wear (outsole) and sensory evaluation

12 Footwear Biomechanics
Lab testing High-speed video/film Force platform And/or accelerometers Plantar pressure measuring system More often used

13 Example

14 Gait Analysis Normal and pathological patterns
Return to normal gait patterns One of the most basic but common tasks in rehabilitation/physical medicine One of most studied areas

15 Gait Biomechanics Video

16 Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Sports and physical activities: very popular Sports-related injuries very common Orthopedics Orthotics and Prosthetics Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

17 Orthotists and Prosthetists
Quantitative measurement and analysis of walking is useful in the design and fabrication of orthotics and prosthetics. Orthotists and prosthetists have been reluctant to use video motion capture systems for improving the design and fitting of orthoses and prostheses due to the time necessary for processing motion data. The Motion Analysis RealTime motion capture system offers exciting possibilities in the design of orthoses and prostheses as well as interactive fitting of AK or BK prostheses for optimal fit and performance by providing real-time kinematic and kinetic data with minimal or no time delay.

18 Applications In our lab -
Costo 1999: effects of ankle braces on walking biomechanics Two types braces Rodenback 2002: effectiveness of patellotendon brace and taping in landing biomechanics

19 Other Applications Knee braces ACL injuries prevention
ACL injuries preventions (Devita 1992 & 1996)

20 Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

21 ACL Injuries and Reconstruction
Knee Joint Complex Patellofemoral Joint Tibiofemoral Joint Tibiofibular Joint Ligamentous Support Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) PCL, MCL & LCL

22 ACL Functions Resist anterior tibia translation
Resist medial/lateral rotation of tibia

23 ACL Injury Survey Basketball (Gray et al. 1985)
Female: ACL - 25% Male: ACL - 3% Volleyball (Ferretti et al. 1990) 1978 to 1988, 40 cases Female: 80% 55% in competition Injury survey data suggested that the ACL injury in female is wide spread. Basketball (Gray et al. 1985) In a study within a period of 30 months, Gray et al. studied 227 athletes in basketball with 76 females and 151 males. They found that 72% of female athletes had knee-related problem and 25% of those athletes had ACL injury. However, the Male athletes had only 3% ACL-related problems. Volleyball (Ferretti et al. 1990) In a study of 40 cases of ACL problems in volleyball from 1978 to 1988, Ferretti et al. showed about 80% female volleyball players had ACL tear or rupture and 55% occurred in competition. Biomechanics Lab - UTK

24 ACL Injury Survey 1990-93 NCAA (Hutchinson et al. 1995)
female greater rate of injury per 1000 exposures gymnastics 0.52 (F) Vs 0.17 (M) soccer 0.31 (F) Vs 0.13 (M) basketball 0.23 (F) Vs 0.06 (M) Biomechanics Lab - UTK

25 ACL Injury Survey 1989-93 NCAA (Arendt & Dick 1995)
Rate of injury per 1000 exposures Soccer ACL: (F) Vs 0.13 (M) Basketball ACL: 0.29 (F) Vs 0.07 (M) Biomechanics Lab - UTK

26 ACL Reconstructions Figure 2 A schematic diagram indicating the desired position of the tibial tunnel to prevent graft impingement during knee extension. (From Howell and Barad.48).

27 ACL Reconstructions Figure 5 A schematic diagram demonstrating anatomic versus distant tibial-sided fixation of the ACL replacement graft. (Modified from Ishibashi et al.52). Figure 6 Anteroposterior (left) and lateral (right) radiographs illustrating bone-tunnel widening after ACL reconstruction.

28 ACL Injury Mechanisms Direct Contact
Anterior Tibial Translation Posterior Femoral Translation Rotational stress Non-Contact Deceleration and change of direction Landing from a jump Pivoting/twisting Straight leg landing Direct Contact Mechanism for ACL injury in direct contact such as football and Soccer can summarized as those stresses which can cause 1) Anterior Tibial Translation, or 2) Posterior Femoral Translation, and 3) external/internal rotation of tibia, may stress the ACL structure and tear it. Non-Contact In non-contact situation where ACL can also be strained or ruptured, Deceleration and sudden change of direction, Landing from a jump Pivoting/twisting, and Straight leg landing were accounted for as injury mechanisms by several authors in Basketball, Volleyball. Biomechanics Lab - UTK

29 Industrial Applications
Accurate, timely data are guaranteed to those in the Robot Control field with the motion capture system from Motion Analysis. Whether your concerns involve redundancy control of robot manipulators, coordination control issues for multiple arm motion, or force control, Motion Analysis has a system to help you with your feedforward and feedback control schemes. Motion Analysis provides professionals in the Process Control field accurate data to solve challenges involving manufacturing placement and control and repetitive human movement in the industrial setting. Our optical system's ability to precisely and quickly measure small, fast movements, and to measure orientations of several models simultaneously in real time, makes it an integral component of your control engineering solutions. Video Automobile Robotic Control

30 Industrial Applications
The specialized engineering problems and effects of dynamic environments on vehicles, structures, equipment, components and humans can be accurately and non-invasively measured with the systems from Motion Analysis. Whether your needs involve crash dynamics, structural dynamics, machinery vibration, shock characterization, or biodynamics, Motion Analysis has a system that will help you with your non-invasive vibration measurement analysis. Vibration Analysis Ergonomics Process Control

31 Entertainment Applications
Films Television Computer and video games

32 Animation Facial Caption
                                                        Crowd ScenesVicon technology enables your team to capture a few dozen moves from one or more performers and use this information to drive hundreds or even thousands of characters in the background scene. Stunt WorkVicon motion capture allows for extremely large areas and complex shapes for "active areas". If it is a human stunt which is too costly, risky or impossible to perform, perhaps Vicon can help. It did help the crew at Digital Domain when tasked with portraying victims falling to their death on the doomed "Titanic". Photorealistic foreground CG charactersOne of the keys to making CG characters believeable when interacting with live action characters is that their movement be believeable. Audiences are easily distracted when elements in the scene don’t add up. Vicon produces accuracy suitable for even the most demanding film customers. Facial Caption

33 Animation

34 Animation                                                     Video

35 Video Games                                                                  This article appears in the April 2002 edition of Film & Video Magazine. When applied to crowds, motion capture can be a painstaking process of shooting one or two people at a time, and layering them together in a final composite, and often getting realistic crowd behavior can be a real challenge. But for a recent test shot at Spectrum Studios, Marina del Rey, California, Demian Gordon, motion capture supervisor, put 17 people in the company's newly customized capture volume, and told them to act like a crowd of moviegoers looking for their seats. Each person moved randomly without choreography or direction throughout the 40-second shot, which used 32 cameras, called for 718 markers in a capture volume that was 32-feet long by 28-feet wide and 18-feet high. And while Gordon wasn't able to say what film it is that he's working on, a previous press release mentioned that the company has been contracted to do motion capture on The Matrix 2. We're running our system through its paces for this feature film that we're working on. We were trying to meet their needs and we wanted to push the envelopoe way past where they wanted to go. We actually were going for 25 people, but we ran out of bodies," explained Gordon. "Prior to this, the most people I'd ever heard of anyone doing had been six optically, and that was considered ground breaking." To get the shot, motion capture system developer Motion Analysis customized a unique system for the company that links together four controller boxes with six capture cards each, in order to support 32 cameras and up to 1200 markers. "We actually have many systems wired together to make a 'supersystem' and Motion Analysis has custom written its software to handle that. Now I don't even know what our ceiling is," he said. The "supersystem" is based on off-the-shelf XP based hardware with either 1.5 Gb or dual 1 Gb processors and Wildcat 4210 graphics cards. "We customise the whole system", said Gordon. "We doubled the amount of memory that was in the main controller. They come with 250 Mb; we doubled it to 500 Mb and upped our hard drive storage sizw because we were getting such big files. Then we just threw cameras at it." The software, which typically has an upper limit of 200 markers, also had to be customized to accept up to 1200 markers. "Throughput is really the big problem. It's a bandwidth issue because you have so many markers, which are being digitized, plus 32 cameras and 17 people and each one of those cameras can be outputting a file that's Mb. That can plug up your average bus pretty quick," said Gordon. "And when the cameras fall behind you'll lose the shot." The data was then rendered out through Kaydara's Filmbox. "Motion Analysis has really jumped into the fray with us. There was an unprecedented level of support from them where they were actually on set with us in the early days of the testing to make sure that the system would work for the kind of 'supercapture" that we were about to start doing." Gordon reported that the technology for motion capture is advancing at a break-neck speed. He recalled the "old days" (a little over a year ago) when capturing four people simultaneously was a painful and tedious process. "Sometimes, what would happen is you would have one person in the volume and it would be nice. If you put two people in the same volume, you'd start to get snow and ghost markering. If you put four people in the volume it looked like a swarm of insects. Now we can put as many people as we want and there's no data hit." He predicted these advances would enable artists to get much more natural crowd behavior. "Typically in motion capture you have to layer it in ones and twos and you get kind of an isolated look to things where people aren't really looking at one another or they are not waiting to walk because there is somebody in front of them. So its more difficult for artists to piece together a crowd shot from one and two-person shots," Gordon said. "For the movie that we're working on, they just started saying such insane things that I started saying 'we could not be hurt by conventional weapons any more,'" Gordon quipped. "We shot things that you would normally look at and say, 'there's no way'".

36 Movie/Television Seamless and believable visual effects Films
“Titanic“ "Gladiator“ "The Mummy Returns", "Star Wars Episode 1 - the Phantom Menace” Crowd Scenes Stunt Work Photorealistic foreground characters Blockbuster films have made great use of Vicon motion capture technology. Blending live action and computer generated characters enables the director to tell the story with seamless and believeable visual effects. Vicon’s contribution to the filmmaking process is the ability to capture movement with such incredible accuracy that even foreground characters on the big screen are lifelike. Films such as "Titanic", "Gladiator", "The Mummy", "The Mummy Returns", "Star Wars Episode 1 - the Phantom Menace", "The Patriot", "Enemy at the Gates", "Pearl Harbor" and several others on the way use Vicon motion capture in three key areas: Crowd ScenesVicon technology enables your team to capture a few dozen moves from one or more performers and use this information to drive hundreds or even thousands of characters in the background scene. Stunt WorkVicon motion capture allows for extremely large areas and complex shapes for "active areas". If it is a human stunt which is too costly, risky or impossible to perform, perhaps Vicon can help. It did help the crew at Digital Domain when tasked with portraying victims falling to their death on the doomed "Titanic". Photorealistic foreground CG charactersOne of the keys to making CG characters believeable when interacting with live action characters is that their movement be believeable. Audiences are easily distracted when elements in the scene don’t add up. Vicon produces accuracy suitable for even the most demanding film customers. By far the most widespread justification for motion capture to date, several industries including TELEVISION production require CG production volumes which are in huge excess of the capacity of most artistic teams. Vicon Motion Capture technology enables the Director and Artistic staff to achieve extremely high quality 3D animations with less labor and faster turn around times.

37 Topics Brief history of Biomechanics
Current developments in Biomechanics Other resources

38 Ph.D. Biomechanics Programs (Hay 1978)
University of Illinois, Charles Dillman Indiana University, John Cooper University of Iowa, Louis Alley University of Maryland, David Kelley University of Massachusetts, Stanley Plagenhoef University of Oregon, Barry Bates Penn State University, Richard Nelson Purdue University, Carol Widule Washington State University, Marlene Adrian University of Wisconsin, Elizabeth Robert

39 International Society of Biomechanics (ISB)
Founded at Penn State University in 1973 The goal is to promote the study of all areas of biomechanics at the international level, with special emphasis given to the biomechanics of Human Movement Working Groups Sport Biomechanics, Shoulder Biomechanics, Functional Footwear, 3-D Motion Analysis, Computer Simulation Current President, Sandra Olney, Canada More than 1,000 members History and Purpose The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) was formed to promote the study of all areas of biomechanics at the international level, although special emphasis is given to the biomechanics of Human Movement. The Society encourages international contacts amongst scientists, promotes the dissemination of knowledge, and forms liaisons with national organizations. The Society's membership includes scientists from a variety of disciplines including anatomy, physiology, engineering (mechanical, industrial aerospace, etc.), orthopedics, rehabilitation medicine, sport science and medicine, ergonomics, electro-physiological kinesiology and others. Society activities include the organization of biennial international congresses, publication of congress proceedings and a biomechanics monograph series, distribution of a quarterly Society newsletter, sponsorship of scientific meetings related to biomechanics and affiliation with the Journal of Biomechanics, the Journal of Applied Biomechanics, Clinical Biomechanics and the Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. Since its founding at Penn State University in 1973, the ISB has grown to a membership of over 1,000 persons. The Society provides for affiliate membership of national biomechanics organizations. Current affiliate groups are the American Society of Biomechanics, British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Bulgarian Society of Biomechanics, Canadian Society of Biomechanics, Chinese Society of Sports Biomechanics, Comisia de Biomecanica Inginerie si Informatica (Romania), Czech Society of Biomechanics, Japanese Society of Biomechanics, Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics, Polish Society of Biomechanics, Russian Society of Biomechanics, Societe de Biomecanique (France), The Society also supports technical and working groups for the purpose of advancing knowledge in specialized areas within the field of biomechanics. Currently active are Working Groups on Sport Biomechanics, Shoulder Biomechanics, Functional Footwear and 3-D Motion Analysis, together with Technical Groups on Computer Simulation and Shoulder Biomechanics. International Congresses The major activity of the Society is the organization and conduct of its biennial International Congress on Biomechanics. This provides a unique opportunity for participants to gain an understanding of the current status of the field and make valuable personal and professional contacts. To promote international development of the field, congresses are held in different countries. The previous congress was held in Canada and the next congress will be held in Switzerland in Published proceedings from these biennial congresses are a valuable contribution to research literature and also serve to document the progress of the field of biomechanics.

40 International Society of Biomechanics (ISB)
Number Name Place, 1st , 1967 International Seminar on Biomechanics Zurich, Switzerland 2nd, 1970 Eindhoven, Netherlands Rome, Italy 4th, 1973 Penn State Univ., USA 1975 Vth ISB Congress Jyvaskyla, Finland 1973 Founded 3rd, 1971

41 American Society of Biomechanics (ASB)
ASB: founded in October 1977 The purpose provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among researchers in biomechanics Annual conference: 1st in 1971 Current president: Andrew Biewener, Harvard University, USA More than 640 members The American Society of Biomechanics (ASB) was founded in October The purpose of the Society is to provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among researchers in biomechanics. The term biomechanics is used here to mean the study of the structure and function of biological systems using the methods of mechanics. There are several regional and national associations - the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the Orthopaedic Research Society, for example, which regularly or occasionally assign portions of their meetings to biomechanics. These however, are generally attended by those people associated with the parent field. As a result, there is little opportunity for the kind of exchange between people working in different fields of application that would clearly benefit all concerned. The American Society of Biomechanics was formed to meet this need. The Society is affiliated with the Journal of Biomechanics. Members of the Society (optional for student members) receive a subscription to the journal at a reduced rate as part of their annual membership in the Society. Members can also take advantage of reduced subscription rates to other selected journals from Elsevier Science and from Human Kinetics.

42 American Society of Biomechanics (ASB)

43 International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (ISBS)
Annual conference/symposia: 1st in 1982, San Diego, California, USA The goal learn and study human movement in general, and sports in particular of applied sports biomechanics Current president: Eugene Brown, USA Members: ? International Society of Biomechanics in Sports is composed of members from all over the world with a common desire to learn and study human movement in general, and sports in particular of applied sports biomechanics are considered and encouraged with papers presented and speakers invited to cover topics providing the greatest benefit to participants. Over the years, as members, presenters, exhibitors and invited participants ISBS gathering have among others included persons from Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Congo, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Portugal, Russia, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovania, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, United States and Venezuela. Origin The first full scale conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports (ISBS) was held June 20 to 25, 1982, in San Diego, California, with 123 participants. ISBS started operating with a live constitution on May 7, 1983, with subsequent constitutional revisions since then to suit the changing times and the needs of the Society. The first activities of the ISBS biomechanists were on field research at National Championships, Olympic Trials, and biomechanics filming of the 1976 Olympic Games and the 1978 Commonwealth Games. Numerous other research projects have been completed since that time. In addition to research projects ISBS has conducted symposia, seminars, clinics, exhibits, technical lectures, published newsletters, published proceedings and held yearly conferences. Conferences The annual symposia of the ISBS family are conducted in a friendly atmosphere, which favours and encourages wide participation. This ISBS congeniality is unique and dear to its members as conferences occur in places like California, Czeck Republic, Colorado, Oregon, Italy, Nova Scotia, Greece, Massachusetts, Hungary, Iowa, Purtugal, Australia, Ontario, Texas Germany and China. At the same time research conducted and materials presented are at the cutting edge of knowledge and technology. The future is now at ISBS. In addition to research presentations and exhibits, special lectures cover sport science topics in depth. The icing on the lecture cake is usually in the form of the Geoffrey H.G. Dyson lecture presented by the selected outstanding scientists in sports biomechanics.

44 International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (ISBS)
Year Name Place, 1978 Discussion International Society of Biomechanics in Sport Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 1982 Founded San Diego, USA 1st, 1983 Annual Symposium of ISBS 2nd, 1984 Colorado Spring, USA Univ. of Northern Colorado, USA 4th, 1986 Dalhousie Univ., Nova Scotia 3rd, 1985

45 International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (ISBS)

46 European Society of Biomechanics (ESB)
ESB: founded at a meeting of 20 scientists from 11 countries in Brussels on May 21, 1976 The primary goal To encourage, foster, promote and develop research, progress and information concerning the science of Biomechanics Bi-annual General Meeting The first scientific meeting, Brussels in1978 Current president: G. Van der Perre, Belgium > 300 members The European Society of Biomechanics (ESB) was founded at a meeting of 20 scientists from 11 countries in Brussels on May 21, The participants decided to create a new society, the European Society of Biomechanics. Biomechanics was defined as "The study of forces acting on and generated within a body and of the effects of these forces on the tissues, fluids or materials used for diagnosis, treatment or research purposes". The primary goal of the ESB was formulated as "To encourage, foster, promote and develop research, progress and information concerning the science of Biomechanics". Those present at this meeting were selected to be the Founding Members and a first Council was formed under the Presidency of Dr. John Scales. Statutes and By-laws were drafted under the directorship of the first Secretary-General, Dr. Franz Burny. The statutes were approved under French law and registered in Strasbourg. A first scientific meeting and General Assembly of the membership was held in Brussels in 1978. From 20 members in 1976, the society grew to about 125 in 1985, about 275 in 1990 and 300 in 2000.

47 Canadian Society of Biomechanics (CSB)
CSB: formed in 1973 The purpose To foster research and the interchange of information on the biomechanics of human physical activity Bi-annual conferences: 1st 1974, Edmonton, Canada Every 6 years: NACOB – combined with ASB Current president: François Prince, Canada 82 members

48 Biomechanics Journals
Year Name Place, Editor 1961 Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology Univ. of Louvain, Belgium Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology U.K., Moshe Solomonow 1968 Journal of Biomechanics U.K., Huiskes & Brand 1985 Journal of Applied Biomechanics USA, Mark D. Grabiner Sports Biomechanics USA, ?? Clinical Biomechanics U.K., Burton 1991 2002


50 Other Journals Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering Biomechanics - The Magazine of Lower Extremity Movement American Journal of Sports Medicine Motor Behavior Human Movement Science Journal of Human Movement Studies Gait and Posture Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness The Orthopedic Clinics of North America American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

51 Internet Resource Biomechanics World Wide ASB ISB ISBS ESB

52 Internet Resource Canadian Society of Biomechanics (CSB)
Biomch-l discussion forum Biomechanics and Movement Science Listserv To subscribe: send a message Sub: Biomch-l <Last, First name> To: Biomechanics Graduate Programs -

53 Commercial Companies Ariel Dynamics Inc. Motion Analysis
Peak Performance Technologies, Inc. Qualisys Skill Technologies Inc. Vicon Motion Systems


55 Motion Analysis Cooperation
Founded in May of 1982 Located in Santa Rosa, California Largest manufacturer of high performance video/computer-based instrumentation systems New system Digital Eagle 3-D system Motion Analysis Corporation is the world's largest manufacturer of high performance video/computer-based instrumentation systems that test and measure the movement of objects. Our systems combine proprietary hardware, software and electro-optical techniques with standard computer and video hardware. These systems evaluate motion in a wide variety of applications: Animation Production, Movement Analysis, and Industrial Measurement & Control. Motion Analysis' systems operate as a stand-alone workstation in which the monitoring, testing and analysis of motion capture is done at a single location. We also provide a portable unit, which can collect data on videotape on-site and send it to a central workstation for analysis. We work closely with renowned specialists and third-party software developers to create value-added application software targeted at very specific vertical markets. Motion Analysis Corporation then licenses, maintains, and markets the software with its hardware systems. Motion Analysis is a California corporation formed in May of 1982 with principal executive offices located in Santa Rosa, California.

56 Motion Analysis Cooperation
Eagle digital system Falcon analog system 3-D analysis Kinematic and joint kinetics SIMM MusculoGraphics, Inc. Modeling, animation and analysis of 3D musculoskeletal systems The SIMM Biomechanics Software Suite is a powerful tool kit that facilitates the modeling, animation and analysis of 3D musculoskeletal systems. Unlike traditional animation and CAD packages, the SIMM software suite is specifically designed to work with systems that consist of bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons. SIMM, developed by MusculoGraphics, Inc., a division of Motion Analysis Corporation, is used worldwide in applications ranging from product design and gait analysis to anthropology. Motion Analysis & Playback Leading sports performance and clinical gait analysis centers use SIMM to visualize the relationships between external forces, muscle activity and the resulting body motion. Using SIMM, our movement analysis customers import files created by motion capture systems to display 3D animations and help determine ways to improve an individual's performance.

57 Peak Performance Founded in 1984 Englewood, Colorado, USA
Close ties with US Olympic training center Video-based system Peak Motus® Motion Measurement System Peak was founded in 1984 with a goal of producing a computer- and video-based biomechanical analysis tool in preparation for the Los Angeles Olympic games to help athletes improve their performance. Since then, Peak has expanded the use of its products from sports to a wide variety of applications that include commercial, industrial, medical and biological applications. For each of these, Peak systems quantify motion so that performance can be enhanced or studied. As Peak grew, so did the need for innovative solutions to measure and assess human and animal performance. With this in mind, continuous improvements have been made using our customers as active participants in designing systems that accomplish their goals. What began as an idea of helping athletes achieve their highest level of performance has grown into a company dedicated to producing a full line of motion measurement products which satisfy the requirements of businesses, researchers and clinicians who have a need to measure motion.

58 Qualisys A publicly traded company in Sweden
Digital infra-Red measurement system Up to 1000 Hz High resolution

59 Vicon Founded in 1984 Oxford, UK Datastation Different cameras
Oxford Metrics Oxford, UK Lake Forest, CA USA Datastation 426 – max 6 cameras 612 – max 12 cameras 624 – max 24 cameras Different cameras V cam SV cam MCam2 1.3 million pixels Up to 1000 Hz

60 Vicon Motion Systems Software Workstation BodyBuilder Polygon
Plug-in gait Your Vicon workstation software is at the heart of your system. It takes you through the process of optical motion capture from set up to modelled 3D data. Overview - BodyBuilder is a Windows based application used to create, display and analyze kinematic and kinetic models. Kinematic modeling can be used to study human or animal motion in various applications including sports, rehabilitation, ergonomics and biomechanics. It can be applied to a whole body or specific segments. BodyLanguage can be used to define a model specific to your needs. In fact there are no restrictions to its applications. Mechanical motion may be modeled equally as well. Polygon gives you a complete environment to incorporate into a single report all the information you need to share regarding a particular study or case. This includes graphs, movie video (mpeg), 3D rendered graphics, patient notes, x-rays or any other pertinent information. Polygon allows you to easily navigate and guide the reader via hyperlinks so that a summary and an index can be easily configured. Once you have completed your report, save it as a template and re-use as often as necessary. Since Polygon is available to all with a freeware viewer you can or send with your report. plug-in gait Vicon has a long standing reputation as the world's leading video kinematic and kinetic measurement system. The PC-based Vicon Systems reduce the task of capturing data, reconstructing 3D trajectories and labelling whole body or lower limb marker sets to a mainly automatic process taking just seconds. With a fully integrated Vicon Motion System with Plug-In Gait and Polygon Software, the complete process from system calibration to the production of customised clinical reports can now be completed ready for review before your patient leaves the clinic. plug-in modeller This latest Plug-in from Vicon extends the use of BodyBuilder to allow the insertion of your choice of BodyLanguage models into the standard pipeline function in Workstation.

61 Vicon

62 Any Questions??

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