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Biomechanics: An Introduction Songning Zhang, Ph.D. Biomechanics/Sports Medicine Lab The University of Tennessee, USA.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomechanics: An Introduction Songning Zhang, Ph.D. Biomechanics/Sports Medicine Lab The University of Tennessee, USA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomechanics: An Introduction Songning Zhang, Ph.D. Biomechanics/Sports Medicine Lab The University of Tennessee, USA

2 Selected Topic Areas Movement Analysis Movement Analysis Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Industrial Applications Industrial Applications Entertainment Applications Entertainment Applications

3 Movement Analysis/ Sports performance Sports performance Enhancement Enhancement Skill improvement Skill improvement Other applications Other applications Footwear biomechanics Footwear biomechanics Gait analysis Gait analysis

4 Movement Analysis

5 Movement Analysis Video

6 Footwear Biomechanics In 1960s, running – most popular sport In 1960s, running – most popular sport Injuries: common in runners Injuries: common in runners Running footwear Running footwear Popular research topics since 1970s Popular research topics since 1970s

7 Shoe Structures

8 Material Testing Force platform Force platform Coefficient of friction Coefficient of friction Shoes on diff. surfaces Shoes on diff. surfaces Where Fz – vertical force Fy – A/P force

9 Footwear Biomechanics Mechanical factors Mechanical factors Thickness of shoe soles Wear Midsole mechanical properties Other design issues Heel counter Flare Studies in footwear Studies in footwear Material testing Lab biomechanical subject testing

10 Footwear Biomechanics Comfort and cushion: most important factors for footwear in sport activities (Nigg 1999) Comfort and cushion: most important factors for footwear in sport activities (Nigg 1999) Plantar pressure shown to be a good indicator of comfort (Chen & Nigg 1994) Plantar pressure shown to be a good indicator of comfort (Chen & Nigg 1994) Lack of plantar sensory input may provoke injuries, even in a well-cushioned shoe (Robbins 1991) Lack of plantar sensory input may provoke injuries, even in a well-cushioned shoe (Robbins 1991)

11 Rationale Perception of footwear: an important factor in selection of athletic footwear Perception of footwear: an important factor in selection of athletic footwear Material testing Material testing 500 miles running: 70% of impact absorption (Cook et al. 1985) 500 miles running: 70% of impact absorption (Cook et al. 1985) Tanaka et al. (2001) Tanaka et al. (2001) A good correlation between footwear wear (outsole) and sensory evaluation A good correlation between footwear wear (outsole) and sensory evaluation

12 Footwear Biomechanics Lab testing Lab testing High-speed video/film High-speed video/film Force platform Force platform And/or accelerometers And/or accelerometers Plantar pressure measuring system Plantar pressure measuring system More often used More often used

13 Example

14 Gait Analysis Normal and pathological patterns Normal and pathological patterns Return to normal gait patterns Return to normal gait patterns One of the most basic but common tasks in rehabilitation/physical medicine One of the most basic but common tasks in rehabilitation/physical medicine One of most studied areas One of most studied areas

15 Gait Biomechanics Video

16 Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Sports and physical activities: very popular Sports and physical activities: very popular Sports-related injuries very common Sports-related injuries very common Orthopedics Orthopedics Orthotics and Prosthetics Orthotics and Prosthetics Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

17 Orthotists and Prosthetists

18 Applications In our lab - In our lab - Costo 1999: effects of ankle braces on walking biomechanics Costo 1999: effects of ankle braces on walking biomechanics Two types braces Two types braces Rodenback 2002: effectiveness of patellotendon brace and taping in landing biomechanics Rodenback 2002: effectiveness of patellotendon brace and taping in landing biomechanics

19 Other Applications Knee braces Knee braces ACL injuries prevention ACL injuries preventions (Devita 1992 & 1996)

20 Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (CD/Video)

21 ACL Injuries and Reconstruction Knee Joint Complex Knee Joint Complex Patellofemoral Joint Patellofemoral Joint Tibiofemoral Joint Tibiofemoral Joint Tibiofibular Joint Tibiofibular Joint Ligamentous Support Ligamentous Support Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) PCL, MCL & LCL PCL, MCL & LCL

22 ACL Functions Resist anterior tibia translation Resist anterior tibia translation Resist medial/lateral rotation of tibia Resist medial/lateral rotation of tibia

23 Biomechanics Lab - UTK ACL Injury Survey Basketball (Gray et al. 1985) Basketball (Gray et al. 1985) Female: ACL - 25% Female: ACL - 25% Male: ACL - 3% Male: ACL - 3% Volleyball (Ferretti et al. 1990) Volleyball (Ferretti et al. 1990) 1978 to 1988, 40 cases 1978 to 1988, 40 cases Female: 80% Female: 80% 55% in competition 55% in competition

24 Biomechanics Lab - UTK NCAA (Hutchinson et al. 1995) NCAA (Hutchinson et al. 1995) female greater rate of injury per 1000 exposures female greater rate of injury per 1000 exposures gymnastics gymnastics 0.52 (F) Vs 0.17 (M) 0.52 (F) Vs 0.17 (M) soccer soccer 0.31 (F) Vs 0.13 (M) 0.31 (F) Vs 0.13 (M) basketball basketball 0.23 (F) Vs 0.06 (M) 0.23 (F) Vs 0.06 (M) ACL Injury Survey

25 Biomechanics Lab - UTK NCAA (Arendt & Dick 1995) NCAA (Arendt & Dick 1995) Rate of injury per 1000 exposures Rate of injury per 1000 exposures Soccer Soccer ACL: 0.31 (F) Vs 0.13 (M) ACL: 0.31 (F) Vs 0.13 (M) Basketball Basketball ACL: 0.29 (F) Vs 0.07 (M) ACL: 0.29 (F) Vs 0.07 (M) ACL Injury Survey

26 ACL Reconstructions

27

28 Biomechanics Lab - UTK ACL Injury Mechanisms Direct Contact Direct Contact Anterior Tibial Translation Anterior Tibial Translation Posterior Femoral Translation Posterior Femoral Translation Rotational stress Rotational stress Non-Contact Non-Contact Deceleration and change of direction Deceleration and change of direction Landing from a jump Landing from a jump Pivoting/twisting Pivoting/twisting Straight leg landing Straight leg landing

29 Industrial Applications Robotic Control Automobile Video

30 Industrial Applications Vibration Analysis Ergonomics Process Control

31 Entertainment Applications Films Films Television Television Computer and video games Computer and video games

32 Animation Facial Caption

33 Animation

34 Animation Video

35 Video Games

36 Movie/Television Seamless and believable visual effects Seamless and believable visual effects Films Films Titanic Titanic "Gladiator "Gladiator "The Mummy Returns", "The Mummy Returns", "Star Wars Episode 1 - the Phantom Menace "Star Wars Episode 1 - the Phantom Menace Crowd Scenes Crowd Scenes Stunt Work Stunt Work Photorealistic foreground characters Photorealistic foreground characters

37 Topics Brief history of Biomechanics Brief history of Biomechanics Current developments in Biomechanics Current developments in Biomechanics Other resources Other resources

38 Ph.D. Biomechanics Programs (Hay 1978) University of Illinois, Charles Dillman University of Illinois, Charles Dillman Indiana University, John Cooper Indiana University, John Cooper University of Iowa, Louis Alley University of Iowa, Louis Alley University of Maryland, David Kelley University of Maryland, David Kelley University of Massachusetts, Stanley Plagenhoef University of Massachusetts, Stanley Plagenhoef University of Oregon, Barry Bates University of Oregon, Barry Bates Penn State University, Richard Nelson Penn State University, Richard Nelson Purdue University, Carol Widule Purdue University, Carol Widule Washington State University, Marlene Adrian Washington State University, Marlene Adrian University of Wisconsin, Elizabeth Robert University of Wisconsin, Elizabeth Robert

39 International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) Founded at Penn State University in 1973 Founded at Penn State University in 1973 The goal is to promote the study of all areas of biomechanics at the international level, with special emphasis given to the biomechanics of Human Movement The goal is to promote the study of all areas of biomechanics at the international level, with special emphasis given to the biomechanics of Human Movement Working Groups Working Groups Sport Biomechanics, Shoulder Biomechanics, Functional Footwear, 3-D Motion Analysis, Computer Simulation Sport Biomechanics, Shoulder Biomechanics, Functional Footwear, 3-D Motion Analysis, Computer Simulation Current President, Sandra Olney, Canada Current President, Sandra Olney, Canada More than 1,000 members More than 1,000 members

40 International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) NumberNamePlace, 1st, 1967 International Seminar on Biomechanics Zurich, Switzerland 2nd, 1970 International Seminar on Biomechanics Eindhoven, Netherlands Rome, Italy 4th, 1973 International Seminar on Biomechanics Penn State Univ., USA International Seminar on Biomechanics Penn State Univ., USA 1975Vth ISB CongressJyvaskyla, Finland 1973 Founded International Seminar on Biomechanics 3rd, 1971

41 American Society of Biomechanics (ASB) ASB: founded in October 1977 ASB: founded in October 1977 The purpose The purpose provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among researchers in biomechanics provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among researchers in biomechanics Annual conference: 1 st in 1971 Annual conference: 1 st in 1971 Current president: Andrew Biewener, Harvard University, USA Current president: Andrew Biewener, Harvard University, USA More than 640 members More than 640 members

42 American Society of Biomechanics (ASB)

43 International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (ISBS) Annual conference/symposia: 1 st in 1982, San Diego, California, USA Annual conference/symposia: 1 st in 1982, San Diego, California, USA The goal The goal learn and study human movement in general, and sports in particular of applied sports biomechanics learn and study human movement in general, and sports in particular of applied sports biomechanics Current president: Eugene Brown, USA Current president: Eugene Brown, USA Members: ? Members: ?

44 International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (ISBS) YearNamePlace, 1978 Discussion International Society of Biomechanics in Sport Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 1982 Founded International Society of Biomechanics in Sport San Diego, USA 1st, 1983 Annual Symposium of ISBS San Diego, USA 2nd, 1984 Annual Symposium of ISBS Colorado Spring, USA Annual Symposium of ISBS Univ. of Northern Colorado, USA 4th, 1986 Annual Symposium of ISBS Dalhousie Univ., Nova Scotia 3rd, 1985

45 International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (ISBS) SYMPOSIUM XIX: 2001 San Francisco SYMPOSIUM XIX: 2001 San Francisco SYMPOSIUM XVIII: 2000 Hong - Kong SYMPOSIUM XVIII: 2000 Hong - Kong SYMPOSIUM XVII: PERTH, AUSTRALIA SYMPOSIUM XVII: PERTH, AUSTRALIA SYMPOSIUM XVI: KONSTANZ, GERMANY SYMPOSIUM XVI: KONSTANZ, GERMANY

46 European Society of Biomechanics (ESB) ESB: founded at a meeting of 20 scientists from 11 countries in Brussels on May 21, 1976 ESB: founded at a meeting of 20 scientists from 11 countries in Brussels on May 21, 1976 The primary goal The primary goal To encourage, foster, promote and develop research, progress and information concerning the science of Biomechanics To encourage, foster, promote and develop research, progress and information concerning the science of Biomechanics Bi-annual General Meeting Bi-annual General Meeting The first scientific meeting, Brussels in1978 The first scientific meeting, Brussels in1978 Current president: G. Van der Perre, Belgium Current president: G. Van der Perre, Belgium > 300 members > 300 members

47 Canadian Society of Biomechanics (CSB) CSB: formed in 1973 CSB: formed in 1973 The purpose The purpose To foster research and the interchange of information on the biomechanics of human physical activity To foster research and the interchange of information on the biomechanics of human physical activity Bi-annual conferences: 1 st 1974, Edmonton, Canada Bi-annual conferences: 1 st 1974, Edmonton, Canada Every 6 years: NACOB – combined with ASB Every 6 years: NACOB – combined with ASB Current president: François Prince, Canada Current president: François Prince, Canada 82 members 82 members

48 Biomechanics Journals YearNamePlace, Editor 1961 Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology Univ. of Louvain, Belgium Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology U.K., Moshe Solomonow 1968Journal of BiomechanicsU.K., Huiskes & Brand 1985 Journal of Applied Biomechanics USA, Mark D. Grabiner Sports BiomechanicsUSA, ?? 1985Clinical BiomechanicsU.K., Burton

49

50 Other Journals Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise Journal of Biomechanical Engineering Journal of Biomechanical Engineering Biomechanics - The Magazine of Lower Extremity Movement Biomechanics - The Magazine of Lower Extremity Movement American Journal of Sports Medicine American Journal of Sports Medicine Motor Behavior Motor Behavior Human Movement Science Human Movement Science Journal of Human Movement Studies Journal of Human Movement Studies Gait and Posture Gait and Posture Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness The Orthopedic Clinics of North America The Orthopedic Clinics of North America American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

51 Internet Resource Biomechanics World Wide Biomechanics World Wide ASB ASB asb-biomech.org/ asb-biomech.org/ asb-biomech.org/ ISB ISB isb.ri.ccf.org/ isb.ri.ccf.org/ isb.ri.ccf.org/ ISBS ISBS ESB ESB

52 Internet Resource Canadian Society of Biomechanics (CSB) Canadian Society of Biomechanics (CSB) Biomch-l discussion forum Biomch-l discussion forum Biomechanics and Movement Science Listserv Biomechanics and Movement Science Listserv isb.ri.ccf.org/biomch-l/ isb.ri.ccf.org/biomch-l/ isb.ri.ccf.org/biomch-l/ To subscribe: send a message To subscribe: send a message Sub: Biomch-l Sub: Biomch-l To: To: Biomechanics Graduate Programs - Biomechanics Graduate Programs - asb-biomech.org/gradinfo/index.html asb-biomech.org/gradinfo/index.html asb-biomech.org/gradinfo/index.html

53 Commercial Companies Ariel Dynamics Inc. Ariel Dynamics Inc. Motion Analysis Motion Analysis Peak Performance Technologies, Inc. Peak Performance Technologies, Inc. Qualisys Qualisys Skill Technologies Inc. Skill Technologies Inc. Vicon Motion Systems Vicon Motion Systems

54

55 Motion Analysis Cooperation Founded in May of 1982 Founded in May of 1982 Located in Santa Rosa, California Located in Santa Rosa, California Largest manufacturer of high performance video/computer-based instrumentation systems Largest manufacturer of high performance video/computer-based instrumentation systems New system New system Digital Eagle 3-D system

56 Motion Analysis Cooperation Eagle digital system Eagle digital system Falcon analog system Falcon analog system 3-D analysis 3-D analysis Kinematic and joint kinetics Kinematic and joint kinetics SIMM SIMM MusculoGraphics, Inc. MusculoGraphics, Inc. Modeling, animation and analysis of 3D musculoskeletal systems Modeling, animation and analysis of 3D musculoskeletal systems

57 Peak Performance Founded in 1984 Founded in 1984 Englewood, Colorado, USA Englewood, Colorado, USA Close ties with US Olympic training center Close ties with US Olympic training center Video-based system Video-based system Peak Motus® Motion Measurement System Peak Motus® Motion Measurement System

58 Qualisys A publicly traded company in Sweden A publicly traded company in Sweden Digital infra-Red measurement system Digital infra-Red measurement system Up to 1000 Hz Up to 1000 Hz High resolution High resolution

59 Vicon Founded in 1984 Founded in 1984 Oxford Metrics Oxford, UK Oxford, UK Lake Forest, CA USA Datastation Datastation 426 – max 6 cameras 612 – max 12 cameras 624 – max 24 cameras Different cameras Different cameras V cam SV cam MCam2 1.3 million pixels Up to 1000 Hz

60 Vicon Motion Systems Software Software Workstation Workstation BodyBuilder BodyBuilder Polygon Polygon Plug-in gait Plug-in gait

61 Vicon

62 Any Questions??


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