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1 Injuries to the Thigh, Leg, and Knee PE 236 Amber Giacomazzi MS, ATC.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Injuries to the Thigh, Leg, and Knee PE 236 Amber Giacomazzi MS, ATC."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Injuries to the Thigh, Leg, and Knee PE 236 Amber Giacomazzi MS, ATC

2 Sports place extreme stress on the knee, and is one of the most traumatized joints Considered a _______________ which performs: _________ and ___________ The knee is extremely ______ in terms of _____________________ Support is provided by ________ and _________ The knee is designed to provide ________ in ____________ and _________ in locomotion 2

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4 Menisci Two _________________ deepen the joint and _________ any stress on the knee joint –Medial meniscus—”__” shaped and has an attachment to the _______________ Can easily be damaged –Lateral meniscus—”___” shaped Generally the meniscus has a ______________ _______________ provides nutrients 4

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7 7 Knee Ligament Injuries The most commonly injured knee ligaments are the _____, and the ____ Common mechanisms include _______ maneuvers when running and _______ _______ to the joint. Common mechanisms include _______ maneuvers when running and _______ _______ to the joint.

8 Collateral Ligament Injuries MCL injuries are from a ____________ or a Severe ___________ –Concern for the MCL, _______, and ____ with this type of injury LCL injuries are from a ________, often with _______________ –An avulsion fracture (_____) can occur 8

9 Collateral Ligament Injuries Signs and Symptoms –____________ Treatment 9

10 Cruciate Ligament Injuries Anterior Cruciate Ligament –ACL can be injured when the ______ moves forcefully in an _____________ or when the _____ gets pushed ________ while the tibia is held in place –______________ associated with ____________ movements can also damage ACL –Most __________ and most ___________ disrupted ligament in the knee Rule changes, surfaces, shoes, increase participation of females –If the following three structures, _____, _____, ____ are involved in an injury, it is referred to an “________ ________” 10

11 Cruciate Ligament Injuries Posterior Cruciate Ligament –Prevents the _______ from moving too far _________ –PCL injuries most often happen when an athlete ______________, or receives a ___________ to the _____ of the knee while the _____ is _______________________ –Knee’s ______________ and is almost ______ as strong as the _____ –Provides a central axis about which the knee rotates 11

12 12 Cruciate Ligament Injuries Signs and symptoms: –Athlete reports the knee was _______________ ________________ –Pain at the site of the injury –_________ around the knee. –Athlete indicates the knee feels _____________ –Athlete reports having a _______ or __________ sensation at the time of injury

13 13 Cruciate Ligament Injuries Treatment –Immediately apply ____ and _________ –Have athlete ______ _____________ –_________________ _________________

14 Menisci Injuries Menisci are typically damaged by _____, _____, _________ movements –Injury is more likely to occur if ______________ firmly on the playing surface There are many different types of tears, and they affect each athlete differently –In some cases, a _______________ will __________ _______, causing it to ________ 14

15 15 Menisci Injuries Signs and symptoms: –____ or ________ when the knee was injured –May not see any significant _________ –May not be painful –_____________ –Athlete may be able to ____________________ –A feeling the knee is “____________” periodically

16 16 Menisci Injuries Treatment –Apply ________ _____________ –Have athlete use crutches –____________ ___________

17 Fractures of the Femur and/or Patella Direct trauma- _____________ Indirect trauma- __________________ ________ against the femur when the knee is _____________ 17

18 Fractures of the Femur and/or Patella Signs and symptoms: –Pain at the injury site –_________ and/or ______________ Athlete’s report of having suffered a ______________ –Athlete may report a _____ or _____ at the time of injury 18

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21 Treatment: –_________________ –_______ the injured leg, preferably with _________________ –Apply _____________ to any ___________ –Monitor _________ and _________ to lower leg –Arrange for ________ to a nearby medical facility 21 Fractures of the Femur and/or Patella

22 22 Patellar Dislocation/Subluxation Injury may be caused by a __________ ______ that generates a great deal of ____________ within the knee Instead of moving normally within it’s groove, the _________________________________

23 Patellar Dislocation/Subluxation Individuals predisposed to condition –________________ –________________________________ –________________ 23

24 Patellar Dislocation/Subluxation Signs and Symptoms: –Severe pain and abnormal movement of the patella when injury occurred –_____________ –____________ along the ____________ of the patella –Majority of subluxations/luxations displace ____________!! 24

25 Patellar Dislocation/Subluxation Treatment: –___________________ 25

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27 Dislocation of the Knee or Tibiofemoral Joint Dislocation of the knee or the tibiofemoral joint can compromise _____________________________ –**Napoleon MCcallum –**Shaun Livingston Signs and symptoms: –_________________ –Dislocation of the joint –_________________ Treatment: –The injury must be ___________ –___________________________________________ 27

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29 Acute and chronic injuries can affect patellofemoral joint. Such injuries can be debilitating and must be treated _______________________ or “_________” –Condition occurs when ________________ or __________ are dislodged from joint and _________ ________________ –A bone fragment can ____________ –Damage to _____________ can occur 29 Patellofemoral Joint Injuries

30 Signs and symptoms –Pain especially _____________ –_____________ –______________ –Knee may lock; ______________________ –One or more ______________ may be ______ when palpated Treatment –Application of ice and compression. –If necessary, ________________ –___________________________ 30

31 31 Chondromalacia Patella Wear and tear of the under surface of the patella as it articulates on the femoral groove due to overuse Three Stages –Stage 1-___________________________ ________________ –Stage 2-___________________________ ________________ –Stage 3-___________________________ ________________

32 Chondromalacia Patella Signs and Symptoms –_________________ –May have _________ present on the top of the knee –Pain with __________ after ________ for a _____________ ________ “__________ knee” –Quadriceps atrophy –_________________ Treatment –Ice –_____________ –Knee sleeve –_____________ 32

33 33 Bursa of the Knee Bursa are ___________ _____ sacs located at strategic points Numerous bursa are in the knee region; only a few are typically injured

34 34 Bursa of the Knee Inflammation can be caused by: – __________ – _________________________ The ___________ bursa is susceptible to _____________

35 35 Bursa of the Knee Signs and symptoms: –_________ and __________ at site –Pain when ________ _____________ is applied –Athlete may report direct trauma to knee –Posterior swelling— ____________

36 36 Bursa of the Knee Treatment –Application of _________________ –_______________ for a short time –In chronic cases, ______________ _______ may be helpful

37 Patellar Tendonitis Sudden or _________ ______________ of the knee may begin the inflammatory process that will eventually lead to ________________ “____________” 37

38 Patellar Tendonitis Signs and Symptoms Stage 1—_______________ (tight quads, pulling on the patellar tendon) Stage 1—_______________ (tight quads, pulling on the patellar tendon) Stage 2—___________________ Stage 2—___________________ Stage 3—________, _________ and _______________ (___________) Stage 3—________, _________ and _______________ (___________) 38

39 Patellar Tendonitis Treatment First find cause ________, ______, ____________ First find cause ________, ______, ____________ RICE RICE _________________ and ________ __________ _________________ and ________ __________ Taping and bracing Taping and bracing Do not overuse and stretch Do not overuse and stretch 39

40 40 Osgood-Schlatter Disease (OSD) OSD usually involve _______ of the _________ _______________ May result in an ________________ Occurs during _______________ Signs and symptoms: –Pain and tenderness on the patellar tendon complex –__________ in the area –__________ ability to use the ____________ –If inflammation continues, _______________ ______________________________

41 41 Osgood-Schlatter Disease (OSD) Treatment –Apply ice and compression –_____________ ____________ –Until inflammation subsides, _____ is important

42 Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome (Runner’s Knee) ______________ common in ________ and _________ that can be attributed to _____________ and _________ ____________ of the _____ and ___________ Irritation develops over the _____________ _________ or at the _____________ where the friction is created as the knee ______ and _________ 42

43 Signs and symptoms: –_____________ –______________ –Pain increases during __________ Treatment: –__________________________ –________________________________ –Cold pack or ice massage –________________________________ 43 Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome (Runner’s Knee)

44 Special Tests for Knee –____________________________ Used to assess the integrity of the MCL and LCL respectively Testing at ___________ incorporates capsular testing while testing at ____________ of _______ isolates the ligaments 44 Valgus Stress Test Varus Stress Test

45 45 _________________ –Will not force knee into painful flexion immediately after injury –Reduces hamstring involvement –At _________ of ________ an attempt is made to translate the tibia _________ on the femur –A positive test indicates _________ ____________ Special Tests for Knee

46 Special Tests for the Knee ________________ –Knees are ______ to _________, athlete is __________ –Positive if _________ _________ of the _____ upon the femur 46

47 Special Tests for the Knee _______________ –While knee is flexed, externally rotate the tibia, add valgus force, and extend the knee. Repeat with tibia internally rotated and a varus force –A ______________ is a positive 47

48 48 ________________ –Hard downward pressure is applied w/ rotation –_______________ _______________ _______________ –Used to detect ____________ Special Tests for the Knee

49 _________________ –Athlete remains relaxed with no quadricep contraction, while examiner gently pushes the patella __________ –Positive is if _________ _________ or contracts the ___________ to protect against _______________ 49

50 Special Tests for the Knee _____________ (_______________) –Subject is asked to contract quadriceps muscle while examiner applies downward pressure and inferior pressure on the patella –Positive is __________ ___________________ ___________________ 50


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