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CRICOS #00212K Paraphrasing and Summarising ASC Academic Skills Centre.

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Presentation on theme: "CRICOS #00212K Paraphrasing and Summarising ASC Academic Skills Centre."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRICOS #00212K Paraphrasing and Summarising ASC Academic Skills Centre

2 CRICOS #00212K Overview Paraphrasing Changes the original text into your own words About the same size as the original text (ideally, shorter) Maintains the original meaning Summarising Changes the original text into your own words But includes only the main ideas, key information Much shorter than the original text Maintains the original meaning

3 CRICOS #00212K Original Text (84 words) Language is the main means of communication between peoples. However, so many languages have developed that language has often been a barrier rather than an aid to understanding among peoples. For many years, people have dreamed of setting up an international universal language which all people could speak and understand. The arguments in favour of a universal language are simple and obvious. If all people spoke the same tongue, cultural and economic ties might be much closer, and good will might increase between countries (Kispert, 2005) Paraphrase (63 words, slightly shorter than the original) Humans communicate through language, but because there are so many different languages people around the world have a difficult time understanding one another. Some people have wished for a universal international language that speakers all over the world could understand. Their reasons are straightforward and clear. A universal language would build cultural and economic bonds. It would also create better feelings among countries (Kispert, 2005). Summary (28 words, much shorter) People communicate through language; however, having different languages creates communication barriers. A universal language could bring countries together culturally and economically as well as increase good feelings among them (Kispert, 2005).

4 CRICOS #00212K Before you start Underline the ideas you want to convey, and take notes Understand the text - the main point - the importance of the point (Is it minor or major?) - the author's attitude (supportive, critical, certain, unsure?) Understand your purpose - What point are you trying to prove or support? - How much detail do you need? - Do you agree or disagree with the author?

5 CRICOS #00212K Read until you understand the original text fully Decide what information is important Cover / close the text Use a separate piece of paper Note the source Note useful information in your own words Check the meaning matches the original text Use your notes to paraphrase and/or summarise Take effective notes

6 CRICOS #00212K 1. Dont change common nouns 2. Use appropriate synonyms to replace adjectives, verbs, adverbs, transitions (and nouns) For example; big = large, huge, enormous 3. Change the word form For example; advance - advancement 4. Change the sentence structure For example; the length, complexity, word order 5. Change active to passive/ passive to active sentences 6. Use transitions, signals or signposting to improve coherence 7. Check that the paraphrase matches the original text 8. Maintain academic integrity Strategies for paraphrasing and summarising Simply substituting synonyms is usually not enough!

7 CRICOS #00212K Write a good paraphrase OriginalAvoidGoodComment The mayhem in the south was getting worse because of inefficient policies and abuse of authority. The chaos in the south was worsening due to ineffective policies and misuse of power. Misuse of power and ineffective policies have led to increased chaos in the south. Change the sentence structure as well as synonyms to demonstrate understanding Domestic water use increases as people earn more money Household water use goes up as people earn more. As incomes increase, so too does household water use. Use a range of strategies to write an effective paraphrase Compared with 30 years ago, water usage in Perth has increased 42%. Water use in Perth has increased almost 50% since Water use in Perth has increased over 40% since Choose phrases and words that capture the idea accurately

8 CRICOS #00212K Paraphrasing Examples (Adapted from Unilearning, 2000) Original textNotesParaphrase The education system has performed, on an even wider scale, a major task of social control, training the growing workforce in the discipline and work style necessary in a capitalist economy, and systematically conveying acceptable ie safe social attitudes to the rising generations. Source: Jagtenberg, T. & DAlton, P. (1988). Four Dimensional Social Space. Sydney: Harper & Row. The education system serves two socialisation purposes: providing the necessary skills development to suit the demands of the economy, and teaching the socially acceptable attitudes and values of the day (Jagtenberg & DAlton, 1988). Education System: 1. Social control -Training, developing skills for economy 2. Teaching social attitudes and values

9 CRICOS #00212K Practise and paraphrase A. As a result of the unsound use of land, deserts are creeping outward in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Worse, the productive capacity of vast dry regions in both rich and poor countries is falling (Byrnes, 2007). OR B. Vitamin C in large doses not only protects against the common cold but also offers protection against other infectious diseases, both viral and bacterial. I believe that Vitamin C in adequate amounts could considerably decrease the incidence and severity of the flu (Pauling, 2009). (Adapted from Chulalongkorn University Language Institute and Oshima and Hogue, 1981)

10 CRICOS #00212K Convey the ideas, not the detail Contemporary police practices reflect the push by Police Ministers over the last decade to place policing on a more professional basis. The AFP for example, according to Keelty (2004), has a workforce where the majority of people have tertiary qualifications: From an organisational perspective, the AFPs evolution is also reflected in the changing composition of our staff. More than 70 percent now have tertiary or post-graduate qualifications equipping the organisation with high-level skills in fields as diverse as science and technology, economics, sociology and law (Keelty, 2004, p. 13) Jims (2003) claims that other structural changes have also impacted on the relationship between the media and the police. What point am I making here? How could I summarise it?

11 CRICOS #00212K Convey the main ideas, not the detail* Contemporary police practices reflect the push by Police Ministers over the last decade to place policing on a more professional basis. The AFP, for example, has a workforce where more than 70 percent of the staff have tertiary qualifications in fields ranging from science and technology to economics, sociology and law (Keelty, 2004). Other structural changes have also impacted on the relationship between the media and the police (Jims, 2003). These changes have resulted in a Federal Police force staffed by professionals who are better equipped to engage with both the media and the general public. Cut details, only include the main points, and embed the ideas in your own paragraph

12 CRICOS #00212K Summarising and Paraphrasing Examples (Adapted from Unilearning, 2000) Original textSummary... Statistical analysis of the changes in radiographic parameters of flatfeet at final follow-up demonstrated that the arch improved in each group but that the children who wore special shoes or inserts had no greater improvement than did the control children. We concluded that the natural history of arch development from age one to six years is for significant improvement, but that the amount of improvement is not altered by wearing a corrective shoe or insert. Source: Wenger, D. R. (1993). Flatfoot and Childrens shoes. In D. R. Wenger & M. Rang (eds.). The Art and practice of Childrens Orthopaedics. New York: Raven Press. Wengers (1993) findings indicated that wearing corrective shoes is of no more benefit than ordinary shoes in improving flat footedness in young children.

13 CRICOS #00212K Summarising and Paraphrasing Examples (Adapted from Unilearning, 2000) Original textNotesSummary (includes paraphrasing)... the climate in most groups and organisations does not encourage open expression of feelings. The necessity of hiding feelings, Organisational Development practitioners believe, has a negative effect not only on group members willingness and ability to solve problems constructively, but also on job satisfaction and performance. Source: Stoner, J. A. F. & Wankel, C. (1986). Management. (3rd ed), New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. The emotional suppression encouraged by the workplace negatively affects the problem solving ability, motivation, enjoyment and productivity of employees at work (Stoner & Wankel, 1986). Workplace -Not encourage open expression of feelings -Negatively effects on motivation, enjoyment, productivity.

14 CRICOS #00212K Summarising and Paraphrasing Exercise (Adapted from Purdue OWL) Original textParaphraseSummary Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Source: Lester, James D. (1976). Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. p In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester, p ). Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester, p ).

15 CRICOS #00212K Before you start Underline the ideas you want to convey, and take notes Understand the text - the main point - the importance of the point (Is it minor or major?) - the author's attitude (supportive, critical, certain, unsure?) Understand your purpose - What point are you trying to prove or support? - How much detail do you need? - Do you agree or disagree with the author?

16 CRICOS #00212K 1. Dont change common nouns 2. Use appropriate synonyms to replace adjectives, verbs, adverbs, transitions (and nouns) For example; big = large, huge, enormous 3. Change the word form For example; advance - advancement 4. Change the sentence structure For example; the length, complexity, word order 5. Change active to passive/ passive to active sentences 6. Use transitions, signals or signposting to improve coherence 7. Check that the paraphrase matches the original text 8. Maintain academic integrity Strategies for paraphrasing and summarising Simply substituting synonyms is usually not enough!

17 CRICOS #00212K Practise this... Strictly speaking, American motion pictures today are not a mass medium. As any multiplex marquee attests, theatrical movies cater primarily to one segment of the entertainment audience: teenagers. Without the support of the teenage audience, few theatrical movies break even, fewer still become hits, and none become blockbusters. In America, movies reflect teenage, not massand definitely not adult tastes. Source: Article by John Doherty published in 2002

18 CRICOS #00212K Workshops: For details and registration, Individual consultations: 30 minute consultations, Monday to Friday Drop-in Sessions: 15 minute consultations 11:30 am-12:30 pm, 2:30 pm-3:30 pm: Library Building 8, Level B: 1C34: 1:00 pm-2:00 pm Teaching and Learning Commons Faculty of Health Drop in Thursday 1:00-2:00 pm: Student Resource Centre, Building 6B Online Tutoring Service: Smarthinking Access Smarthinking from LearnOnline (Moodle) site Online resources For more information visit, | | | Building 8, Library Book Individual consultations and Drop-in sessions online


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