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Paraphrasing Dr Gina May Student Learning Advisory Service.

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Presentation on theme: "Paraphrasing Dr Gina May Student Learning Advisory Service."— Presentation transcript:

1 Paraphrasing Dr Gina May Student Learning Advisory Service

2 What is ‘paraphrasing’? One of the legitimate ways of ‘borrowing’ from a source (others are quoting and summarising) The expression of someone else’s ideas in your own words An accurate and complete re - presentation of ideas/words

3 When to paraphrase When you want to re-produce the idea of the author rather than the style When the original idea/language is complicated and difficult to understand (e.g. full of jargon or complex and elaborate) When wanting to refer to an idea rather than go into great depth about it

4 Why paraphrase? Because it can be better than quoting in some instances and does not break up your style Because it demonstrates that you have fully understood the issues or the topic Because it helps you to understand the topic or issues

5 How to paraphrase Understand the original Take notes in bullet points ‘Report’ what you have understood Compare your notes with the original Put any ‘unique terms’ into quotation marks Cite the source accurately and fully

6 Checking the paraphrase Make sure: You have not copied any text word for word The meaning is the same as the original The style of writing is your own Your paraphrase is the same length as the original (or shorter) You have referenced accurately

7 Useful phrases The work of **** reveals/indicates/suggests/shows that … In an article by **** …. As **** has indicated … A study by **** indicates … **** has drawn attention to … **** argues that …. Research by **** suggests that …

8 Example (Taken from OWL – Online Writing Lab Purdue University, Australia, 2006) Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47). Okay

9 Example (Taken from OWL – Online Writing Lab Purdue University, Australia, 2006) Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about one tenth of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. Plagiarism

10 Example (Taken from OWL – Online Writing Lab Purdue University, Australia, 2006) Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). Good

11 Working from the Original Change the overall word order Change active sentences to passive sentences Change the order of the subjects in sentences (with several clauses) Change negative to positive Change linking words Change sentence length by joining or splitting ideas Will lead to changes in grammar and syntax (but should not alter meaning)

12 Working from the Original Change active sentences into passive sentences At the University of Kent, students write their exams in May. (active) At the University of Kent, exams are written in May by students. (passive)

13 Working from the Original Change the words Use synonyms (but be careful!) Change nouns into verbs Change adjectives into adverbs Will leads to changes in grammar and syntax (but should not alter meaning)

14 Step by step approach Since the time of Descartes, it is estimated that no fewer than five hundred attempts have been made to create artificial languages for international use. The most successful by far has been Esperanto, a language constructed around the end of the nineteenth century by Dr. Zamenhof of Poland. (Pei 1993: 3) Changing words/ terms Since the early seventeenth century, an estimated five hundred artificial languages have been invented for international communication. The most used is Esperanto, invented by a Polish linguist during the late 19th century. Plagiarism

15 Step by step approach Since the early seventeenth century, an estimated five hundred artificial languages have been invented for international communication. The most used is Esperanto, invented by a Polish linguist during the late 19th century. Change sentence structure Esperanto is the most used artificial language of the 500 or so attempts at creating a verbal communication tool for international use. Ok but ….

16 Step by step approach Since the time of Descartes, it is estimated that no fewer than five hundred attempts have been made to create artificial languages for international use. The most successful by far has been Esperanto, a language constructed around the end of the nineteenth century by Dr. Zamenhof of Poland. (Pei 1993: 3) New version Pei (1993) pointed out that Esperanto is the most used artificial language of the 500 or so attempts at creating a verbal communication tool for international use. Paraphrased

17 Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): Which of the passages below do you consider to be: A legitimate paraphrase: A plagiarized version: An acceptable summary: Why? In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47). Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.

18 The original passage: Wines drunk at Greek tables did not always come from Greece itself. The wine snobbery of the time extolled the merits of wines from the slopes of Mount Lebanon, from Palestine, Egypt and Magna Graecia-Greater Greece, i.e., southern Italy. The ten litres a day drunk by the famous wrestler Milo of Croton was a wine famous in Calabria, where Milo lived: this wine, Ciro, is still made. Which of the following is a legitimate paraphrase and which is plagiarism? Wines drunk by Greeks were not always made in Greece itself. The wine snobs of that period celebrated wines from Mount Lebanon, Palestine, and Egypt. The famous wrestler Milo of Croton, who consumed ten litres of wine a day, drank wine made in Calabria outside of Greece; this wine, Ciro, is still made. (Toussaint-Samat, 263). Although Greeks were picky about their wine, they enjoyed wine from outside Greece. Upstanding Greeks enjoyed wine from many of Greece's local trading partners—including Palestine, Egypt and southern Italy. One story tells of the famous wrestler Milo of Croton, who consumed ten litres of foreign wine daily (Toussaint-Samat, 263).

19 Original passage: Up, up, up, groping through clouds for what seemed like an eternity....No amount of practice could have prepared them for what they encountered. B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds all over the sky. As used: Up, up, up he went, until he got above the clouds. No amount of practice could have prepared the pilot and crew for what they encountered-B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds over here, over there, everywhere. (There followed a citation to the original quotation later in the passage). Does the reproduction represent a legitimate paraphrase or is it plagiarism?

20 True or False? For a good paraphrase… Remove or replace unusual words Adopt the same structure as the source Keep the paraphrase as simple as possible Express the main idea concisely Use the same words as the original Reformulate the main ideas in your own words Copy useful pieces of the original text Use a suitable reporting verb Provide in text referencing detail Retain unique terms but highlight them as ‘quotes’ T F T T F T F T T


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