2Objectives of session Definitions: Monitoring and Evaluation Rationale for M&EReview elements of an M&E planSteps toward constructing the M&E planImplementing the M&E plan
3Monitoring - Evaluation Evaluation is the use of specific study designs and special studies to measure the extent to which changes in desired health outcomes are attributable to a program’s interventions.Monitoring is the routine process of data collection and measurement of progress toward program objectives.InterventionsOutcome
4Rationale for M&EM&E help to make informed decisions regarding ongoing programsThey facilitate effective and efficient use of resourcesThey determine whether a program is right on track and where changes need to be consideredM&E help stakeholders conclude whether the program is a successM&E preserve institutional memory
5Three Primary Uses of Evaluation Findings Rendering judgmentsSummative evaluations of program’s overall effectivenesse.g., audit, renewal, quality control, accreditationFacilitating improvementsFormative evaluation to improve programe.g., program’s strengths/weaknesses, progressGenerating knowledgeConceptual use of findingse.g., generalization, theory building
6What is an M&E Plan?An M&E Plan is a document that describes a system which links strategic information obtained from various data collection systems to decisions that will improve health programs.Fundamental document to ensure:AccountabilityMeasure of successSpeaker NotesThe M&E plan describes the strategic information your program will gather and use for decision making that will lead to improved health programs and ultimately to improved health status. It is also the fundamental document that will hold the program accountable and tell you whether you succeeded or not.
7Functions of an M&E Plan State how the program is going to measure what it has achieved (ensure accountability)Document consensus (encourage transparency and responsibility)Guide M&E implementation (standardization and coordination)Preserve institutional memoryM&E plan is a living document and needs to be adjusted when a program is modified.Speaker NotesIn addition to stating how the program is going to measure what it has achieved, an M&E plan functions to document consensus, guide implementation, and preserve institutional memory.Remember that an M&E plan is a living document and needs to be adjusted when a program is modified or new information is needed.
8Functions of an M&E Plan: by level of the health system Facility (primary data collection):Manage patients/clientsSupervise providersManage logisticsReport to district HIS and vertical programs and communityDistrict:Allocate resourcesReport to provincial/nationalNational (Comprehensive vs. Vertical Programs)Collect national dataReport to international donors and other stakeholders
9Elements of M&E Plan Brief project description Purpose(s) of M&E plan Brief history of M&E plan developmentEvaluation frameworkIndicator systemInformation system (data sources)Impact evaluation designDissemination and utilization planAdjustments to M&E plan
112. Purpose(s) of M&E plan Specify purpose for: performance (process) monitoringimpact evaluation
123. Brief history of M&E plan development Helps to define:shared vision (internal/external)source and extent of interest/commitment
134. Develop Evaluation Framework (Log Frame, Results, Conceptual) Show:Primary componentsLevels and units of actionCausal sequenceComponent-related indicator(s)
145. Develop Indicator system Organized by framework componentAttributesName of indicatorDescription/definitionUnit of measurementData source (primary/secondary)Baseline/target value(s) by year(s)Frequency of data collectionResponsibilityReporting plan and frequency
156. Information Systems (Data sources) Develop:Information systems for collecting data for indicatorsDiagram data collection, processing, analysis, and reporting systemData collection tools (routine vs. non- routine)patient recordsregisterssurvey instruments
167. Select impact evaluation design Decide on design:Experimental vs. observationalQuasi-experimental (post-test, pre- and post-test with no control)Implementation planExecution responsibility (internal/external)
178. Dissemination and utilization plan Decide on:Databases for information storageClearly defined usersSchedule and timelinessDissemination methodsReports (schedule and audience)MediaSpeaking eventsInformation-utilization models
189. Adjustments to M&E plan Program changes can occur, affecting the original M&E plan for both performance monitoring and impact evaluationM&E plan is a living document and needs to be adjusted when a program is modified.
19Steps toward constructing the M&E plan Preparing to build the planConstructing the evaluation frameworkIdentifying potential data sourcesSelecting and defining indicators and their valuesDesigning the impact evaluationDeveloping a reporting schedule and systemPlanning for mid-course adjustments
20In implementing the M&E plan Utility - serve practical information needs of intended usersFeasibility - be realistic, prudent, diplomatic and economicalPropriety - conducted legally, ethically, and with regard to those involved in and affected by the evaluationAccuracy - reveal and convey technically accurate informationIn implementing the M&E plan think of the following important issues:Utility - serve practical information needs of intended users.Feasibility - be realistic, prudent, diplomatic, and economical.Propriety – conduct M&E legally, ethically, and with regard to those involved in and affected by the evaluation.Accuracy - reveal and convey technically accurate information.Propriety- conduct M&E in a respectful and honest manner.