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Developing and Implementing a Monitoring & Evaluation Plan

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1 Developing and Implementing a Monitoring & Evaluation Plan
Speaker introduces him or herself if new to the group. As a way of introduction to this topic, I’d like to get a sense as to the participants’ experience with the process of developing and implementing M&E plans. Raise your hand if you have been involved in the development of an M&E plan. Participants raise hands. Speaker counts the number of hands and announces the number. Keep your hand raised if you started developing the M&E plan at the start of the program. Some hands should remain. Speaker counts the number of hands and announces the number. If any hands remain, continue: Keep your hand raised if an M&E plan document was published. Some hands may remain. Speaker should count the number of hands and announce the number. If any hands remain, ask the participant how long it took from the start of the process to the publication of the document. As we will see in this module, developing an M&E plan in a timely fashion is difficult but can be done. If the results of this informal survey are favorable, the speaker may continue. Back to those who were involved in the development of an M&E plan. Please raise your hand again. Keep your hand up if you believe that that M&E plan is being (or was) implemented. Speaker announces the results: “of the ## of people who have had experience writing M&E plans, ## or ##% think that the plan was implemented. There may not be many implemented. With that our informal survey, let us begin this module. DRAFT

2 Objectives of the Session
By the end of this session, participants should be able to: Describe the resources and capacity necessary for developing and implementing an M&E plan Understand the key steps in the process of developing & implementing an M&E plan Describe how M&E findings can be effectively disseminated and utilized Assess how an M&E plan is working The goal of this session is to build your skills in developing and implementing monitoring and evaluation plans for your health programs by focusing on the process. At the end of this session, participants should be able to describe the resources and capacity necessary for developing and implementing an M&E plan. You should understand the steps in the process of developing and implementing the M&E plan and be able to describe how M&E findings can be disseminated and utilized. Finally, you should be able to assess how well an M&E plan is working. DRAFT

3 Overview of the Session
Standards for an M&E plan Resource & capacity for an M&E plan Steps in developing &implementing an M&E plan Disseminating and using M&E findings Assessing how well the M&E plan is working You have already covered the components of an M&E plan and you have practiced drafting many of those elements (e.g., problem statements, program goals and objectives, conceptual frameworks, indicators, etc). During this session, we will focus on the process involved in pulling those components together to develop and implement a successful M&E plan. We will begin by discussing the standards that all M&E plans should adhere to no matter what the scope of the M&E activities. We will talk about resource and capacity considerations when developing and M&E plan. We will go through the steps that should be followed to develop an appropriate and effective M&E plan. We will discuss different ways for disseminating and utilizing M&E findings. Finally, we will discuss how to go about assessing how well the M&E plan is working. DRAFT

4 Standards for an M&E plan
Before we begin discussing the standards to which the M&E plan should be held, we will have a class activity: Class Activity: You will often find opportunities for developing an M&E plan for your program, projects or interventions. You will also encounter barriers to conducting M&E activities. As a group, we would like you to identify opportunities and barriers with a view toward problem-solving and maximizing opportunities. When you identify barriers, you should also think of potential solutions, that you can design into your workplan, so that you can make adjustments to account for some of the issues that may arise during the M&E process. We will break up into four groups of about 5 people each. You will have 15 minutes to discuss and prepare and then each group will have 5 minutes to present. Each group should select one barrier and propose a way to overcome it. After each presentation, we will open the floor for comments and discussions. Additional Notes: You can help the groups create and prepare their lists in a timely manner by walking around and visiting the different groups and asking them how they’re doing (“Have you decided on the opportunities?” “Have you decided on the barrier?” “Have you begun your list?”). If a group is falling behind the other groups, encourage them to move onto the next step, reminding them that this is an example of what they might include, but that it is not necessary to provide an exhaustive or extensive list. Convene the full group and give each group five minutes to demonstrate the barrier and the solution that they identified. After each group’s presentation, encourage the full class to note what they saw and learned. DRAFT

5 Standards for an M&E Plan
Utility - serve practical information needs of intended users Feasibility - be realistic, prudent, diplomatic and frugal Propriety - conducted legally, ethically, and with regard to those involved in and affected by the evaluation Accuracy - reveal and convey technically accurate information Regardless of whether your program is a comprehensive national health program or a sub-national vertical program, an M&E plan should abide to these standards. It must be useful and serve the practical and strategic information needs of the intended users for decision making purposes (from assessing program performance to allocating resources, etc.) Intended users may include those at the highest central levels making decisions about national programs to those making decisions to improve programs at the district level. The M&E plan should be realistic and practical. To the extent possible, it should make the best use of existing data collection systems. If new data collections systems or studies are involved, resources (cost and technical capacity) must carefully be considered. Data collection, special studies included in the M&E plan must abide by regulations and protocols that consider the rights of those involved in and affected by M&E activities. Finally, the M&E plan should provide technically accurate and useful information for decision making and program improvement. DRAFT

6 Capacity and Resources for M&E
Before we get into the key steps in the process of developing the M&E plan, let’s focus on the capacity and resources necessary for M&E. This is something you will need to consider throughout the process of developing your M&E plan. DRAFT

7 Capacity and Resources for M&E
Technical capacity for M&E M&E unit Strategically located individuals who are motivated, committed, competent and interested in M&E Scale of program funding and resources for M&E 10 percent of resources devoted to M&E Costs related to data collection systems & information dissemination Costs may be higher during the first year Other resources include indicator guides, manuals, communication tools Something that often is neglected when preparing to develop an M&E plan is to assess the M&E technical capacity of a health program/project. When preparing the M&E plan, you must at least consider the existing data collection systems and staff capacity in M&E. The program may have an M&E unit with staff trained in M&E methods that will be responsible for leading the development and coordination of the M&E plan. If not, there may be strategically located individuals who are motivated, committed and competent and have an interest in M&E. It is important to identify those people even if they do not have a formal M&E position. The scale of program funding and the proportion of resources devoted to M&E is another important consideration when you start to develop your M&E plan. Obviously, the M&E effort should not be more costly than the program itself. One rule that has been suggested is that 10% of resources should be devoted to M&E. Costs that should be considered are those related to the cost of data collection systems and information dissemination and use of those for M&E coordination. M&E expenses may be higher in the first year because of the resources needed to improve or establish information systems. If new systems or special studies are to be conducted by outside agencies, these costs and their timeline must also be considered Those developing the M&E Plan also need resources such as indicator guides, M&E guidelines (manuals, textbooks, etc), communication tools. These factors must be considered throughout the development of your M&E plan so that it is realistic and appropriate for your program’s needs. DRAFT

8 Key steps in developing an M&E plan
We will now review the key steps involved in the process of developing an M&E plan. I focus on the word “process” because developing and implementing an M&E plan is a fluid process; program changes can and will occur and this will affect the M&E plan and will require periodic adjustments to it. DRAFT

9 Key Steps in Developing & Implementing an M&E Plan
STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATION & PARTICIPATION - Define process for stakeholder involvement Translate problem statement, program goals and objectives into M&E frameworks Establish scope of the M&E plan Develop M&E Framework Determine elements to be monitored and evaluated Define indicators and identify data sources Determine M&E methods for data and information collection Develop data collection plan Determine M&E responsibilities Set targets Define reporting system, utilization and dissemination of results Plan for mid-course adjustments Developing an M&E plan should be done during the initial stages of the development of the health program/project. The reality, however, is that often M&E plans are developed after the program is already in place. Here we present the steps that should be followed when drafting the M&E plan. These steps are not necessarily independent from each other, rather many may be developed or need to be considered in conjunction with others. Stakeholder consultation and participation is on the top of this list because it is crucial throughout the entire process of developing and implementing your M&E plan. The other steps correspond to the elements presented in Intro to M&E Plans and we will review each step in detail. DRAFT

10 Stakeholder Consultation
Advocate for the need for M&E Understand program goals and objectives Identify user needs and perspectives Learn about existing data collection systems & their quality Understand indicators that are being collected and used (or not used) Determine capacity for collecting and using data The process of developing and implementing an M&E plan may actually need to begin with advocating for the need for M&E. This is especially true if M&E is not valued or there is no authority to do it. Consistently promoting the message that an M&E plan is designed to demonstrate the extent to which a program is achieving its objectives and ultimately improve the program, may help keep people on track. Stakeholders include everyone who will use the information generated from the M&E plan. This may include several levels of stakeholders from the international (e.g., donors) and national levels (e.g., Ministries) to sub-national (e.g., provinces, districts) and program levels (e.g., program managers and service providers). It is important that they be consulted from the outset to ensure a clear understanding of the program’s goals and objectives, to ensure that their perspective and user needs will be met, to learn about existing data collection systems and their quality, to understand what indicators are being used currently and to determine the capacity for data collection and use. DRAFT

11 Stakeholder Participation
Developing M&E framework Selecting indicators Setting targets Reviewing results ► Requires building consensus & commitment and maintaining effective relationships with intended users What are the actual activities/tasks that stakeholders should be involved in? They should participate in developing the M&E framework. This way everyone involved will have a clear understanding of the goals and objectives of the program and how these will be measured. By participating in the design of the framework, stakeholders can help select appropriate and useful M&E indicators. They should participate in setting program targets and regularly review M&E findings. Taking extra measures to promote stakeholder participation involves building consensus and commitment among them. By doing this , you will create a sense of ownership among partners and a feeling of responsibility for doing their part. It will ensure that the information and results guided by your M&E plan are consistent with their expectations. It is a continuous activity that requires coordination between all stakeholders including staff from various program components (in other words, the M&E unit – if there is one- will need to consult with program managers to see if the indicators in the M&E plan reflect actual data being collected and whether that information is the most useful for them in order to make decisions for program improvement). Throughout the process of developing the M&E plan, the end users must be kept in mind and involved to ensure utilization of the M&E plan. It is therefore vital to maintain effective relationships with the intended users. DRAFT

12 Exercise: Describe a Process to Involve Stakeholders
Who are the stakeholders? When will they be involved? How will they be involved? What challenges might arise? How will you address those challenges? Now we are going to do a short exercise on defining a process to involve stakeholders in your M&E plan. Break up into groups according to your group project and list all the stakeholders implicated by your M&E plan. Come up with specific activities or ways on how & when they will be involved in the process of developing and implementing the M&E plan. Identify some of the challenges that might arise when trying to involve stakeholders and how you will address them. Remember, the quantity, quality and timing of interactions with the intended users of information is crucial and you must maintain effective relationships with them. Note on exercises: Multiple levels of stakeholder involvement can be cited (donors, national programs, sub-national, program managers, etc.) Stakeholders should be involved from the beginning (design of M&E plan) and throughout the development, implementation and use of results Involvement may include: participation during the initial program design with session on M&E, meetings with program staff, strategically timed workshops/meetings, annual reviews Challenges: coordinating schedules, commitment of stakeholders to meet, getting everyone to sit together, achieving consensus on priorities DRAFT

13 Translating Program Goals and Objectives  M&E Frameworks
Translate problem statement, program goal and objectives into frameworks that can be objectively measured What do we want to know at the end of the program? What do we expect to change by the end of the program? M&E framework outlines the scope of the M&E plan Links program activities to expected outputs, outcomes, and population-level impacts Informs types of information to be collected/used by different levels of the health system Identifies what needs to be measured to guide indicator selection As you saw during the first session, Intro to M&E plans, the Problem Statement is a description of the health problem your program will address. One of the first tasks in developing your M&E plan is translating the problem statement and your program’s goals and objectives into frameworks that can be objectively measured. Consensus should be reached on your evaluation questions in the following areas: “What do we want to know at the end of the program?” and “What do we expect to change by the end of the program?” This will also determine the scope of the M&E system for your program. For example, if the goal of the program/objectives is/are to improve health status, quality of life, you will need population-based measures. Experimental design (pretest post test control group design), longitudinal multivariate analysis…The rigorousness and scope of your M&E plan will depend on what you commit to and what your program will be accountable for. As you already know, developing the M&E framework provides your team with a clear picture of how program activities are linked to expected outputs, outcomes and population-level impacts. It also informs the different types of information that will be collected and used by different levels of the health system. Programs at different levels of the health system will collect and analyze different types of data and information because they use information differently. The different levels also determine the quantity of information that is collected and used. Finally, the M&E framework helps to identify what needs to be measured and ensures that appropriate indicators are selected. DRAFT

14 Elements to be Monitored & Evaluated
Monitoring: Resources (inputs) Quality of service Service statistics Service coverage Client/patient outcomes (behavior change/morbidity) Impact evaluation: Attributing the change in outcomes to the program Here are some program elements that are often considered when developing areas for monitoring and evaluation. These elements will guide indicator selection. Several program components can be monitored such as: Resources which include the human resources, the management and administrative structure, the infrastructure, and equipment and supplies needed to perform a service. The quality of the service (because service statistics and service coverage do not alone guarantee a favorable outcome). The outcomes of the service whether in terms of behavior change or disability-related to the disease should be monitored. When developing the M&E framework, you should discuss and reach consensus on the expected impact your program will have. Again, answering the question of what you expect your program to change will guide decisions about what strategic information is needed for program management decisions and what elements should be monitored and evaluated. DRAFT

15 Developing M&E Framework
Review program documents with stated goals and objectives Ensure that key factors that may influence program implementation and success are identified Achieve consensus among stakeholders Based on the elements that should be monitored and evaluated, how do we actually go about the process of developing the framework? We need to review documents that stipulate the program’s goals and objectives. If part of a larger plan, we should review program strategy documents (for example, national AIDS strategy). When developing the framework, the team should consider the factors that may influence the success of the program because this will help in the selection of indicators and setting realistic targets. Stakeholder consensus on the M&E framework is key to ensure that all parties have a clear understanding of the program’s goals and objectives and how progress towards them will be measured. This in turn will help determine the appropriate methods and data sources for collecting and analyzing the data necessary to measure those indicators. Part of developing the M&E framework includes defining the indicators that will measure your program’s progress. DRAFT

16 Defining Indicators & Identifying Data Sources
Indicators must be: SMART Linked to M&E framework Useful for program decision-making Consistent with international standards & other reporting requirements (as appropriate) Realistic to collect (feasible) Data sources: Existing vs. new You are already experts on indicators but let’s quickly review some of the key points when developing your indicators. SMART= Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bound The M&E plan must include useful M&E indicators and data collection systems so that it will contribute to effective program management and be useful for program decision-making. Indicators should be consistent with international standards and your program’s reporting requirements (e.g., PEPFAR, UNAIDS). Indicator selection should consider what is feasible and realistic to collect, this includes considering data availability and identifying data sources. The data sources identified must provide you with the information you need to measure your indicators. You are already familiar with different types of data sources (which we will touch upon in the next slide), however, it is important to consider those data sources that exist at the time you are developing your M&E plan and whether or not new data sources/collection mechanisms need to be developed (and whether or not that is feasible, practical & realistic). DRAFT

17 Determining M&E Methodology
Assess information systems capabilities to address strategic information needs Determine methods by which data will be collected, analyzed and reported E.g., RHIS, surveys, sentinel surveillance systems, project information systems/records, new data collection Determine whether any special studies will be conducted and what design will be used E.g., Qualitative, quantitative or combination of both Once you have developed the M&E framework, defined indicators, and identified the data sources necessary, the M&E team should determine the appropriate methods by which data will be collected and analyzed. During this process, the M&E team should assess the strategic information needs and the existing information systems capabilities to address those needs to determine what is feasible and what is not. At this point, some adjustments to your M&E framework and indicators may be needed. You must identify how to collect the information necessary to measure your program indicators, whether it will be through existing data collection systems or whether new systems will be developed. You must determine how information will be recorded and reported. You should identify any tools or forms that will be needed. You will also need to determine whether any special studies will be conducted and what study design will be used. You should also carefully consider the internal and external capacity to conduct any special studies (this includes technical capacity as well as cost considerations). DRAFT

18 Assigning M&E Responsibilities: Implementing the M&E Plan
Monitoring data Who will collect data? Who will analyze data? Who will report data? Special studies Who will oversee data collection? Who will conduct analysis and reporting? Is anyone else planning a similar evaluation? We have discussed several components of developing the M&E plan, now we need to focus on WHO will be responsible for carrying out the various data collection activities. This will determine how your M&E plan is implemented and the reporting system and the reporting hierarchy. For example, a service outlet may collect client information and report it monthly to the district level who will report it trimestrally to the central level. Here you must consider one of the factors we presented earlier in this presentation – the internal and external capacity to carry out monitoring and evaluation activities. This includes identifying and assessing existing data sources and other M&E activities, whether they were done in the past, are ongoing, or were sponsored by other donors. A GROUP EXERCISE OR CLASS DISCUSSION HERE COULD BE TO HAVE THE CLASS GET INTO THEIR GROUPS AND MAKE A TABLE/LIST OF WHO WILL COLLECT DATA, ANALYZE AND REPORT THE DATA FOR THEIR PROJECT. INCLUDE REPORTING HIERARCHY. DRAFT

19 Role of the M&E Unit Consensus building among all stakeholders
Coordination between various program components between other stakeholders (avoid duplication of data collection) Data manipulation Reporting Information dissemination and review Having an M&E unit or team, can greatly facilitate the implementation of an M&E plan. Here we present some of the tasks that are often conducted by an M&E unit. The unit itself may be responsible for actually developing (i.e., writing the M&E Plan) but doing so requires building consensus stakeholders and coordinating multiple activities. What is meant by coordination? - coordinating between various program components (e.g., meeting with staff from different program areas even within the same program. For example, within HIV/AIDS, meeting with staff from VCT, PMTCT, ARV, CS, etc. to review the indicators that will be used to monitor and evaluate their programs) Coordinating between other stakeholders to avoid duplication of data collection efforts Coordinating some data collection efforts (e.g., special surveys/studies) Data manipulation might include actual data entry and analysis. Reporting would include actual writing of a regular M&E report or updating on indicators. The M&E unit might be responsible for disseminating an annual M&E report to all stakeholders and coordinating a review of results to assess program performance and make adjustments. Class Discussion: What are some of the roles/tasks you see as the responsibility of this unit? DRAFT

20 Data Collection Plan/Matrix
Indicators Who responsible Timing Data quality notes The data collection plan (or matrix?) summarizes the data sources needed to implement the M&E plan. For each data source, the plan should identify the indicators and information that will be obtained, who will be responsible for collecting the information, the timing of data collection and any notes on data quality issues. SHOULD THIS SLIDE BE INCLUDED? IF SO, A GROUP EXERCISE COULB DE TO DEVELOP A DATA COLLECTION MATRIX FOR THEIR PROJECT– INSTEAD OF THE EXERCISE PROPOSED ON SLIDE 18. DRAFT

21 Class Activity: Data Collection Plan
DEVELOP A DATA COLLECTION MATRIX FOR YOUR PROGRAM. CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: Who will be responsible for data collection and its supervision? Who will be responsible for ensuring data quality at each stage? How will data quality be checked at every stage? How often will the data be collected, compiled, sent, and analyzed? What indicators will be derived from each data source? How will the data be sent (raw, summary)? What tools/forms will be used, if any? What resources (staff, office supplies, computers, transportation) will be needed at each stage? Who will analyze the data? How often will analysis occur? How often will the results be compiled into reports? To whom and how often will the results be disseminated? Class Activity: Get into your groups and develop a data collection matrix for your project. Please consider the issues listed above. You have 30 minutes for this group exercise. Then each group will have 7 minutes to share their results with the rest of the class. DRAFT

22 Setting Targets Focus on what the program should achieve
Orient stakeholders to the task to be accomplished Motivate individuals Monitor whether anticipated progress is being made You may wonder why we did not bring up setting targets earlier, for example, after the discussion on indicators. The reason is that often targets are set after there is a cohesive draft of the M&E plan. However, setting targets may be done earlier (again, each step is not necessarily independent from the next). Regardless of when it occurs, it should be done in consultation with all stakeholders so that everyone understands what the program is committed to achieving. The process of setting targets will orient stakeholders to the tasks that you expect your program to accomplish and should motivate everyone involved. By setting targets, you will have a concrete measure by which to judge whether your program is progressing as it should. DRAFT

23 Factors to Consider When Setting Targets
► What can realistically be achieved given the resources and the program context? Baseline levels Past trends Needs and gaps in services capacity and logistics During the process of setting targets, you must focus on answering the question of “what can realistically be achieved given the resources and the environment in which the program operates?” Factors to consider include: baseline levels, past trends, needs and gaps in services and the capacity and logistics to achieve targets. When setting specific program targets, you must decide on the direction of change that is desired over time. DRAFT

24 Approaches to Setting Targets
Establish final target then plan progress in between Establish annual/intermediate targets ► Assess progress in attaining targets and readjust, if necessary There are a few approaches that can be followed when going through the process of setting targets; here we present two of the more common approaches. Often stakeholders will determine the final targets they expect their program to achieve and then decide on specific targets to be achieved at specific time periods (intervals/phases) throughout the life of the program. Another method is to establish annual or intermediate targets. This implies that you are resetting new targets each time based on the progress your program has made. Regardless of which approach is followed, it is important that stakeholders regularly review progress and readjust targets, if necessary. This may occur once a year or at a mid-project review time. DRAFT

25 Useful Information for Setting Targets
Past trends Expert opinions Research findings What has been accomplished elsewhere Client expectations What information should you consult when setting targets? SHOULD THIS BE A CLASS DISCUSSION AND INSTEAD HAVE THE CLASS COME UP WITH THE TYPES OF INFORMATION? DRAFT

26 Developing a Data Dissemination & Utilization Plan
Define users of M&E findings Define feedback mechanism to meet user needs Strategically timed user meetings/workshops Annual report and review meeting Database to manage data and facilitate access and use (e.g., PIMS, DSS) Throughout the process of developing the M&E plan, the end users and their information needs must be addressed (fulfilled?) to ensure utilization of the M&E plan.. If you have involved stakeholders from the beginning in the development of your M&E plan, you will have a clear understanding of who the users of M&E findings are and what their information needs are. In the M&E plan, you should articulate a plan for disseminating and utilizing M&E findings. Program information/data may be prepared and presented during strategically timed user meetings and/or workshops. You should consider who would attend these meetings/workshops and tailor the information to their information needs for decision-making/program improvement. Annual report and review meetings are also effective ways to review program progress and to use results to identify areas for improvement and/or program adjustments and to see which aspects of the program are most successful. Databases can also provide easy to access and current program information and can generate data tables tailored to respond to specific information needs. DRAFT

27 Planning for Mid-Course Adjustments
Program changes can affect the M&E plan performance monitoring and impact evaluation Internal M&E capacity facilitates adjustments Flexibility and regular review of program results necessary Program changes can and will occur. You must be prepared for them and be able to adjust your M&E plan accordingly. When developing the M&E plan, you should be aware that program changes can affect the way activities are monitored. It can also affect the integrity of your impact evaluation design. Having internal M&E capacity will facilitate adjustments to your M&E plan because changes can be made internally rather than depending on external capacity which would be expensive (require additional costs). By regularly reviewing program progress and results with stakeholders, you will be able to identify areas for adjustment in a timely way. Remember to be open and flexible and able to make tradeoff when necessary. Class Activity: Ask participants to note changes that have taken place within and outside the parameters of their programs and how this is affecting their M&E plan. • Example: Another donor is funding a new international NGO to work within the same sites and target groups in a district in Malawi. How will this affect the existing M&E plan? Take comments from the participants and sum up using the overhead on “Assessing How Well the Evaluation Plan Works.” DRAFT

28 How Well is the M&E Plan Working?
Are M&E activities progressing as planned? Are the evaluation questions being answered sufficiently? Have other evaluation questions been raised and should they be incorporated into the plan? Are there any methodological or evaluation design issues that need to be addressed? Are there any outside factors (political, environment) that are affecting the plan? Are appropriate staff and funding still available to implement the M&E plan? Are M&E finding being disseminated and used by stakeholders for decision making and program improvement? How do we determine whether our M&E plan requires adjustments? We need to periodically assess the M&E plan by focusing on the following questions. * FROM FHI module. DRAFT

29 Remember that an M&E plan is a living document and needs to be adjusted when a program is modified
As a program is subject to changes during its lifetime, so is an M&E plan. There needs to be a mechanism for reviewing the M&E plan to ensure that it remains relevant to the needs of the program. DRAFT

30 Developing & Implementing an M&E Plan: Logic Model
Outcomes Inputs Human resources Understanding of the program Authority and mandate Stakeholders Processes Advocate Assess strategic information needs Assess information systems capabilities Achieve consensus and commitment Develop mechanism for M&E plan review Prepare document for final approval Output M&E Plan Document Short-term M&E System for obtaining Strategic Information decision making Long-term Evidence-based decisions for improving programs We’ve covered the key processes for developing and implementing an M&E plan. Here we present a logic model depicting the development & implementation of the M&E plan. Throughout this module and previous ones, you have discussed the elements that comprise the inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes of developing an M&E plan. In keeping with the ‘Logic Model,’ the output of those processes is a comprehensive document that describes the M&E system of the program. The document may be organized according the elements of an M&E plan as provided in the Introduction to M&E Plans module and should follow the processes we discussed during this session. The M&E plan must have the approval of the governing authority and the consensus of the primary stakeholders. In terms of outcomes, the output should lead to the creation of an M&E system for obtaining strategic information for decision making. In turn, these decisions should improve programs with the ultimate impact being improved health status of the individual and population. Small Group Exercise – SHOULD WE KEEP THIS? Within small groups, list the inputs, processes, and outputs for the activity of implementing an M&E plan. Share partial logic models with the group. Some things that should be included: Infrastructure for information collection Training Information storage Information reporting and dissemination Information using Impacts Improved health status DRAFT

31 Summary: The Basics Start early
Involve stakeholders at all stages in the process Assess strategic information needs for intended users Assess current capacity and use what is already available Avoid duplication of data collection and reporting Do not collect information that will not be used Review progress/results regularly and make adjustments to M&E plan, if necessary Here we summarize the basic points when developing and implementing your M&E plan. Remember, a well-designed M&E plan can be invaluable to program managers; monitoring results facilitates program planning while the results of evaluation facilitate resource decisions. What else can you add to this list? DRAFT

32 References Adamchak S et al. (2000). A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Adolescent Reproductive Health Programs. Focus on Young Adults, Tool Series 5. Washington D.C.: Focus on Young Adults. Bertrand J et al. (1996). Evaluating Family Planning Programs. The Evaluation Project. Curtis, S (YEAR?). Building M&E Plans. FHI (YEAR?). Core Module 3: Developing a Monitoring and Evaluation Work Plan. Rommelmann V, P Setel, Y Hemed, H Mponezya, G Angeles, T Boerma (2003). Costs and Results of Information Systems for Poverty Monitoring, Health Sector Reform, and Local Government Reform In Tanzania. DRAFT

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