Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Financing Climate Resilient Development A World Bank Perspective

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Financing Climate Resilient Development A World Bank Perspective"— Presentation transcript:

1 Financing Climate Resilient Development A World Bank Perspective
Marjory-Anne Bromhead The World Bank

2 Some Guiding Principles from African Leaders
Implement climate change programs to achieve sustainable development Food security and poverty alleviation are overriding Richer countries have financial obligations to help others achieve resilient growth

3 World Bank Strategy for Climate Resilient Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
Adaptation and disaster risk reduction are an integrated agenda Climate variability creates annual losses of 1-2% of GDP, increasing floods and droughts, adaptation could cost 5-10% of GDP There are mitigation and adaptation synergies Better land, water & forest management are key to adaptation but deforestation and land degradation are 65% of Africa‘s CO2 emissions Mitigation presents opportunities but increasing energy access is key: Only 8% of hydro potential realized , ample solar, cleaner coal is part of the solution, wood fuels and biomass are key Knowledge, capacity building & new technologies are key Improved climate knowledge, analysis & strategy risk insurance, new technologies for energy, agriculture .. Scaled up finance is necessary Urgent action is necessary

4 Development Reduces Vulnerability
Diversified economies, strong institutions, sound land and water management and urban planning, as well as educated, healthy people reduce country vulnerability For e.g. rich Slovenia is more exposed but less vulnerable than Albania; Richer Botswana is more exposed but less vulnerable than Ethiopia… Relative change in length of growing period (LGP) by 2050 compared to present Source: Thornton et al. (2006)

5 World Bank & Climate Finance: Guiding Principles
Primacy of UNFCCC process in design of climate finance models Supports governance reform to increase developing countries voice Our role: help developing countries access and lend development/private sector finance and new climate finance for sustainable development with adaptation and mitigation benefits Our collaboration is through country-led programs

6 Sources of Finance IDA 15 was scaled up in part to help address climate change Disbursements in agriculture, water supply, flood management & health were 17% higher 2008 than New instruments complement development & private sector finance

7 Climate-Resilient Development with IDA/IBRD
Agricultural development policy loan in Ghana (2008) supports integration of climate risk/adaptation into development agenda Himachal Pradesh DPL in N. India supports renewable energy & adaptation strategies for glacier melt Credit to improve transmission of energy from Inga in DRC is ongoing (more than US$ 200 m) Support to sustainable land management, irrigation, safety net/improved watershed management in Ethiopia (over US$ 300 m) Arid lands, flood management & natural resource management programs in Kenya Drought risk insurance in Malawi

8 Financing: New Instruments
WB/MDB Supported Instruments Climate investment funds (CIFs) Carbon Funds Gas-flaring Reduction Initiative Global Fund for Disaster Risk Reduction (GFDRR) Others Adaptation Fund (2% tax on CDM & voluntary contributions) Bi-laterals donors UN agencies (e.g., UNDP $90M Africa adaptation Program) African-Union/AfDB/EU (ClimDev Africa) Norwegian Funding for Avoided Deforestation

9 Climate Funds Overall aim: to pilot new financing instruments and help prepare countries to take advantage of post 2012 financial architecture, country-driven, cooperation between MDBs and development partners, learning is key

10 Pilot Program under preparation
Climate Funds Scaling-up Renewable Energy Program for Low-Income Countries (SREP) Target: $250Million Mitigation Pilot Program under preparation The BioCarbon Fund: A public/private initiative mobilized to demonstrate projects that sequester or conserve carbon in forest and agro-ecosystems. Aims to deliver cost-effective emission reductions, while promoting biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation. The portfolio includes Afforestation and Reforestation, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation and is exploring innovative approaches to Agricultural Carbon.

11 Mobilizing, Delivering and Leveraging Climate Finance
CDM & carbon offset markets, sector crediting Carbon taxes Auctioning of emission rights Emission cap and trade General taxes and other taxes, special funds “Baseline” Private and public investment Catalytic climate finance Possible sources Median: $400 billion Current (2009) funding ~ $10 billion Mitigation (2030) $ billion Adaptation (2030) $30-90 Median: $75 billion A huge gap: estimated needs vs. current resources Mitigation ~ US$9+bln p.a. Adaptation ~ US$1+bln p.a. What is climate finance? This is a catalyst to re-orient a much larger volume of public and private development investments to climate-friendlier options by: Facilitating enabling policies, regulatory frameworks, institutions and markets in support of adaptation and mitigation Catalyzing transformational private and public investments and development programs low-carbon technologies (renewable energies, energy efficiency in industry, water use, transport, buildings...) terrestrial carbon (agriculture and forestry) climate resilience (change practices and factor-in climate vulnerability in infrastructure planning, in agriculture...) Supporting research, development and deployment of new technologies Following preliminary and incomplete estimates, additional needs for low-carbon investments in developing countries could reach (median) $400 billion per annum by 2030 (range $140 billion to $675 billion a year) and $75 billion per annum by 2030 (range: $30 billion to $90 billion a year). Investment expected to be mostly of private origin. Those are estimates of upfront incremental capital needs and not abatement costs (the additional costs of a low-carbon project over its lifetime). While the economics of some low-carbon investment looks compelling (typically fuel saving, local health benefits, etc…), the upfront investment may still act as a barrier to climate action. Main reasons for differences in estimates Mitigation: ambition of targets, nature of policies to curb down GHG emissions (degree of participation, mechanisms), role of sectoral potentials (EE + forestry and land-use, included or not) and scope for technology. Adaptation: magnitude of climate change severity of its impacts (huge variation on CC scenario and regional picture) + mostly estimates for climate-proofing future investments – which tend to overlook other forms of adaptation (changes in behaviors, adjustments in operational practices or relocations of economic activity). The Economics of Adaptation to CC considers these other adaptation options (see presentation on Sept 30 th). Current dedicated resources in developing countries cover less than 5% of the future needs. - GEF (long the only instrument to address climate change, mostly through grant); - CDM (a market mechanism, potentially the largest channel to catalyze low-carbon investment), - Clean Technology Fund (CTF) under the Climate Investment Funds (CIF) (the most recently established highly concessional resources) [Over the past few years, DAC donors have allocated between US$3-4 billion for climate-change-related aid or about 3-4% of total ODA.] Support for adaptation (mostly from bi- and multi-lateral donors), though growing, is really lagging behind. The first two funds under the UNFCCC, administered by the GEF Secretariat, are the Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) and Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF). The Adaptation Fund, whose funding mainly comes from a 2% share of proceeds on CERs issued to CDM projects, has been agreed at COP13 in Bali and is a new and additional source of funding that can eventually bring US$ bln p.a. but it is not yet operationalized. The Pilot Program for Climate Resilience is the first program under the Strategic Climate Fund of the CIF that will support strengthening climate resilience in core development and planning processes of select low income countries. Huge challenge in mobilizing adequate resources Fragmentation (and diversity) of existing resources may quickly increase transaction costs for any applicant project or program. US$ 4,620 bln p.a. (2008)

12 World Bank Carbon Funds & Facilities
Total funds pledged = US$ 2.1 billion (16 governments, 67 firms) Prototype Carbon Fund. $180 million (closed). Multi-shareholder. Multi-purpose. Netherlands Clean Development Mechanism Facility. (closed). Netherlands Ministry of Environment. CDM energy, infrastructure and industry projects. Community Development Carbon Fund. $128.6 million (closed). Multi-shareholder. Small- scale CDM energy projects. BioCarbon Fund. $91.9 million (Tranche 1 and 2 closed). Multi-shareholder. Mainly CDM LULUCF projects; some REDD and soil carbon. Italian Carbon Fund. $155.6 million (closed). Multi-shareholder (from Italy only). Multipurpose. Netherlands European Carbon Facility. (closed). Netherlands Ministry of Economic affairs. JI projects. Spanish Carbon Fund. $282.4 million (closed). Multi-shareholder (from Spain only). Multipurpose. Danish Carbon Fund. $69.4 million (closed). Multi-shareholder (from Denmark only). Multipurpose. Umbrella Carbon Facility. $737.6 million (Tranche 1 closed – 2 HFC-23 destruction projects in China). Carbon Fund for Europe. $65 million. Multi-shareholder. Multi-purpose. Managed with EIB.

13 Clean Technology Fund Aim is to help high emitting countries transform to lower carbon growth: US$ 5 billion raised so far Programs of about US$ 0.5 billion each approved for Turkey, Egypt, Mexico & under preparation for Nigeria and South Africa Part of broad-based energy transformation programs Focus on energy efficiency, renewables, transport shifts, urban planning

14 Pilot Program for Climate Resilience
Aim is to help vulnerable countries mainstream climate resilience into development planning: US$ 0.5 billion raised 9 countries & 2 sub-regions selected by independent panel Niger, Zambia and Mozambique; each country to get US$ 40 to US$ 70 million, with preparation grants of US$ 1-2 million depending on readiness. Likely to focus initially on key priority sectors (e.g. agriculture, coastal/urban flooding, watershed management, capacity building) Programs still under early preparation (early lessons learnt session in late October)

15 Forest Investment Program
Aim is to catalyze practical measures and funding for Reduction of Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD), and promote sustainable forest management US$ 260 million raised so far Country selection process has not yet started: will include range of forest systems & biomes and willingness to participate in REDD Operational in 2010

16 Scaling up Renewable Energy
The aim is to pilot new approaches to renewable energy in low income countries Fund-raising and design still ongoing

17 Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
Aim is to build capacity and prepare countries to access large-scale REDD post 2012: US$ 107 million raised so far (UNDP and bank have complementary programs) Countries prepare readiness plan idea notes then Readiness plans with grants of US$ 1-3 million (ethiopia, kenya, uganda, cameroon, gabon, Congo, DRC, CAR, Ghana, Madagascar, Liberia)

18 Carbon Partnership Facility
Aim is to support strategic programs that move to low carbon investments Target US$ 350 million No African countries yet!

19 Disaster Risk Reduction Facility
Supports disaster preparedness and disaster recovery Grants in CAR, Ethiopia, Ghana, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Madagascar, Namibia, Burkina, Seychelles

20 Blending of Climate Financing Instruments Necessary
Year Cash Flow w (-) (+) Grant Funds CF CTF CF: Carbon Finance; CTF: Clean Technology Fund Grant funds for initial breakthrough Existing financing instruments need to be deployed and packaged at scale to successfully support scaling up mitigation action and technology development and dissemination. The instruments are designed in such a way that they are best suited to assisting with different stages of the commercialization process. For example the GEF could be used to pilot a new technology (grant subsidy for a public good), with the Clean Technology Fund supporting in subsequent stages to have broader demonstration of the technology (concessional investment finance) backed by carbon finance payments (cash-flow payment for climate service). Synergies between climate financial instruments can be exploited through simultaneous or sequential programming. Requires forethought and understanding. Improves both efficiency and impact of financing. Efficient and effective use of innovative financing instruments requires: A strategy for bundling and processing of financial flows from different sources; Consideration of, and funding for, public co-benefits; Integration of innovative financing instruments (e.g. climate finance) with development planning, policy making and financing for sustainable development; Cash flows These three mitigation financing tools provide support of a slightly different nature to different stages of market development and transformation. If used together, they can bring the adoption of the new technology nearer to the present and possibly increasing its penetration. The three climate-change financing instruments can also be used to make a single project more cost-effective, and accelerate the growth of these markets in which they take place. Given the relatively high costs of the investment and the up-front risks associated with e.g. developing a geothermal resource, such a project would have greater costs and possibly smaller revenues. This chart represents the cash flow of this re-designed low carbon development project. The expensive geothermal project can be made both more profitable and more effective, through structuring of the project financing around the three mitigation financing instruments. In the case of a geothermal project, GEF grant resources can be utilized to facilitate policy changes to make geothermal investments more attractive and to cover the heavy expenses associated with the up-front risks of resource confirmation. CTF funds can help defray the high capital costs of geothermal development, which may be preventing such projects from being more attractive than conventional fossil-fuel generation plants. Additional revenues through carbon finance provided to the project implementers once the emissions reductions are certified serve as an extra cash flow, making an investment project more profitable than it would have been otherwise. However, these funds are not available until the investment is in operation and therefore serve as a performance incentive to the project implementers. for example, the Bank is working on a carbon finance operation in India to stimulate the accelerated replacement of chillers (through the CDM's programmes of activities).  That project is designed - and made feasible - by combining GEF funding, the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol and carbon finance. Each mechanism brings a critical support to the financial structure of the programme.

21 Blending of Financial Sources and Policy Instruments Necessary
Lighting switch Policies and Regulations; Incentives for Barrier Removal Technical Assistance; Capacity Development Carbon finance Support for R&D Private investments Public financing Industry: EE in cement Power generation from landfill gas Grassland management Development Financing Reforestation Enabling environment is crucial both generally and for individual programs/projects. It is analytically elegant to portray one instrument or financial vehicle for one project, but it is important to recognize that reality is more complex.  More and more, we focus on building synergies between different instruments to reach financial closure and make project and program ideas a reality - and this is true for different technologies: from efficient lighting programs to wind farms.     Current initiatives targeting REDD illustrates how a mix of instruments is required to steer a transformation of behaviors and investment decisions: a combination of upfront finance (concessional and innovative finance -- notably through FIP) and performance-based incentives (FCPF) are needed to promote policy reforms, build capacity, and undertake investment programs. The example also highlights the crucial role of public finance as a catalyst for climate action. The Senegal Rural Energy Efficient Lighting program combines an IBRD loan for rural electrification with carbon finance for demand-side energy efficiency.  Both go hand in hand. It is important to recognize the opportunities for building synergies between different financial instruments. “Blending” is critical to leveraging maximum mitigation potential. Wind Solar Project/program needs to be financially solid to be able to deliver real, measurable and long-term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change

22 Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into CAS
Ongoing process: Ethiopia, Malawi, beginning in Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Kenya, Namibia … Climate resilient development and long term sustainable development are one and the same!

23 Thank you!

Download ppt "Financing Climate Resilient Development A World Bank Perspective"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google