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1 The African Bio-Carbon Initiative Dr Charlotte Streck.

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1 1 The African Bio-Carbon Initiative Dr Charlotte Streck

2 2 What are we talking about? Acknowledging African interests in the context of climate change negotiations Recognizing the importance of agriculture, forestry and other land-use for Africa Bringing together adaptation and mitigation Supporting sound government policies Mobilizing funds from global markets and industrialized governments for sustainable agriculture and forestry The Bio-Carbon/Terrestrial Carbon/REDDplus Agenda

3 3 Why does Bio-Carbon Matter for Africa? Africa’s poor are badly equipped to deal with climate change and particularly vulnerable to its effects. Climate change will add to the already existing pressure on the livelihood of Africa’s rural communities. Low investment has led to agricultural productivity in sub- Saharan Africa being the lowest in the world. Funding under the UNCCD and UNFCCC is inadequate to finance adaptation to a changing climate. Recognizing the urgent need to assist Africa’s rural poor, a future climate regime should make full consideration of the adaptation needs and mitigation potential of Africa’s forest and agricultural systems.

4 4 Africa will be hardest hit by Climate Change Climate Change Index on a Country Basis Baettig et al, 2007, A Climate Change Index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34

5 5 UNFCCC and Bio-Carbon UNFCCC: Refers repeatedly to emissions by sources and removals by sinks. LULUCF and industrial emissions regarded of equal importance. Call to promote sustainable management, conservation and enhancement of sinks. Kyoto Protocol: Instrument to reduce combustion related emissions. –Accounting for LULUCF (after a lot of controversy) for A/R/D based on “gross-net” approach with the limitation that activities need to be human induced and take place after 1990 [Art. 3.3]. –Accounting for other LULUCF activities optional in the first CP [Art. 3.4] –asd The KP deals with LULUCF only partially by including some parts while leaving others out. This leads hardly to a satisfactory system of accounting for LULUCF emissions.

6 6 IPCC 4 th Assessment Report Emission reductions of 0.8-2.1GtCO2eq/year can be achieved through forestry based GHG emission mitigation options for less than USD20/tCO2eq (with large variations between regions) Forestry can make a very significant contribution to a low- cost global mitigation portfolio that provides synergies with adaptation and sustainable development. However, this opportunity is being lost in the current institutional context and lack of political will to implement and has resulted in only a small portion of this potential being realized at present (high agreement, much evidence).

7 7 7 CDM – A Missed Opportunity for Africa Registered CDM projects by Region 63.90 Asia and the Pacific 33.00 Latin America and Caribbean Africa Exc. SA: 0.70 Source: Africa accounts for less than 3% of total CDM projects 90% of those projects are in South Africa 2.31

8 8 Difference to 1997 Scientific basis more robust Political will to address the problem of GHG emissions from deforestation Acknowledgement of the opportunity provided by the carbon market Private financing necessary to mobilize the required amount of funding Acknowledgement of country specific circumstances Active discussion of various proposals

9 9 Special Considerations For Africa Sub-Saharan Africa so far bypassed by international carbon markets (discounting RSA less than 1% of all CDM projects) Carbon market so far energy and industry centric Little benefits for economies based on agriculture; no benefits for rural poor REDD relevant for some African countries; agriculture and land management relevant for all African countries Rewarding sustainable agriculture, watershed, soil and forest management brings together adaptation and mitigation agendas Post-Kyoto negotiations provide an opportunity to make the voice of Africa heard and correct some of the bias of the Kyoto Protocol. Time to call for a BioCarbon Initiative which creates incentives to enhance carbon storage in all agricultural ecosystems.

10 10 Bio-Carbon Principles Africa commits to climate change mitigation. Full inclusion of terrestrial carbon Simplicity and transparency Financing sustainable and adequate Capacity building Prompt start Mitigation and adaptation.

11 11 Post-Kyoto negotiations Need to create a comprehensive system that rewards –Decreasing deforestation –Sustainable forest management –Restoring forests –Sustainable production and use of biomass –Sustainable agriculture Scientific basis more robust Political will incl from developing countries to address the problem of GHG emissions from deforestation Acknowledgement of the opportunity provided by the carbon market Support from Annex I governments

12 12 More info Contacts: Charlotte Streck Phone+31 10 217 59 94

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