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Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training principles, methods of training and exercise physiology knowledge for application in physical activity.

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1 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training principles, methods of training and exercise physiology knowledge for application in physical activity.

2 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Improving performance in a physical activity To improve performance in a physical activity an effective training program is required. To improve performance in a physical activity an effective training program is required. There are many components that must be considered in the planning of a program if improvement is to occur. There are many components that must be considered in the planning of a program if improvement is to occur.

3 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited What is our focus in this module Training principles Training principles Methods of training Methods of training Exercise physiology Exercise physiology Note: there are many more relevant components e.g biophysical aspects such as skill acquisition, anatomy, biomechanics, sports psychology as well as socio cultural such as barriers, enablers etc…However, these three are the focus of this module. Note: there are many more relevant components e.g biophysical aspects such as skill acquisition, anatomy, biomechanics, sports psychology as well as socio cultural such as barriers, enablers etc…However, these three are the focus of this module.

4 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training Principles Training is a systematic process in which athletes improve their fitness to meet the demands of their sport/activity. Training is a long-term process that is progressive and meets the individual at their level of fitness and conditioning. Training uses both general and event-specific exercises to develop individuals for their sport. Training is a cyclical process: tear down, recovery, super-compensation and buildup (adaptation). Training is a systematic process in which athletes improve their fitness to meet the demands of their sport/activity. Training is a long-term process that is progressive and meets the individual at their level of fitness and conditioning. Training uses both general and event-specific exercises to develop individuals for their sport. Training is a cyclical process: tear down, recovery, super-compensation and buildup (adaptation).

5 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training Principles When we train, we do specific damage to some cells, and use up cellular resources (fuel, water, salts). When you finish your workout, you are weaker, not stronger. How much weaker depends on the amount and intensity of the exercise. After the training session, if the body is given proper rest and food, the body will adjust to super-compensate and prepare for the next stress/session. When we train, we do specific damage to some cells, and use up cellular resources (fuel, water, salts). When you finish your workout, you are weaker, not stronger. How much weaker depends on the amount and intensity of the exercise. After the training session, if the body is given proper rest and food, the body will adjust to super-compensate and prepare for the next stress/session.

6 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specificity The specific nature of a training produces its own specific response and adaptations. The specific nature of a training produces its own specific response and adaptations. The training must be specific to both the individual and the demands of their sport/activity. The training must be specific to both the individual and the demands of their sport/activity. Training should use specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination that are used in the sport/activity. Training should use specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination that are used in the sport/activity.

7 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specificity Specific components of fitness that are used in the sport/activity should be trained. Specific components of fitness that are used in the sport/activity should be trained. The programme should also use the specific energy system/s that are used in the sport/activity. The programme should also use the specific energy system/s that are used in the sport/activity.

8 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Health related fitness components Body Composition Body Composition Cardio-respiratory Endurance Cardio-respiratory Endurance Muscular Strength Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Muscular Endurance Flexibility Flexibility

9 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Body Composition Relative amounts of muscle, fat, bone, and other vital parts of the body. There are three general classifications of body type. Relative amounts of muscle, fat, bone, and other vital parts of the body. There are three general classifications of body type.

10 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Endomorphs: Endomorphs: A predominantly endomorphic individual typically has short arms and legs, as well as a large amount of mass on their shorter than normal frame. This hampers their ability to compete in sports requiring high levels of agility or speed. Sports of pure strength, like power lifting, are perfect for an endomorph. Endomorphs: A predominantly endomorphic individual typically has short arms and legs, as well as a large amount of mass on their shorter than normal frame. This hampers their ability to compete in sports requiring high levels of agility or speed. Sports of pure strength, like power lifting, are perfect for an endomorph.

11 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Mesomorphs Mesomorphs: A predominantly mesomorphic individual excels in strength, agility, and speed sports. Their medium structure and height, along with their tendency to gain muscle and strength easily makes them a strong candidate for a top athlete in any sport. Mesomorphs: A predominantly mesomorphic individual excels in strength, agility, and speed sports. Their medium structure and height, along with their tendency to gain muscle and strength easily makes them a strong candidate for a top athlete in any sport.

12 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Ectomorphs Ectomorphs: A predominantly endomorphic individual is long, slender and thin, and therefore power and strength sports are almost totally out of the question. Their slight build also leaves them susceptible to injuries. While they can easily get lean and hard, their lack of musculature severely limits their chances in sports requiring mass. Typically, Ectomorphs dominate endurance sports. Ectomorphs: A predominantly endomorphic individual is long, slender and thin, and therefore power and strength sports are almost totally out of the question. Their slight build also leaves them susceptible to injuries. While they can easily get lean and hard, their lack of musculature severely limits their chances in sports requiring mass. Typically, Ectomorphs dominate endurance sports.

13 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Cardio-respiratory Endurance The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel during sustained physical activity and to eliminate fatigue products after supplying fuel. The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel during sustained physical activity and to eliminate fatigue products after supplying fuel.

14 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Muscular Strength Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle to exert force. Strength is measured by the maximal amount of resistance or force that can be sustained in one single effort. Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle to exert force. Strength is measured by the maximal amount of resistance or force that can be sustained in one single effort.

15 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Muscular Endurance Muscular Endurance is the amount of external force that a muscle can exert over an extended period of time. Muscular Endurance is the amount of external force that a muscle can exert over an extended period of time.

16 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Flexibility The absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment. Flexibility is either static (stationary) or dynamic (moving). The absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment. Flexibility is either static (stationary) or dynamic (moving).

17 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Skill related fitness components Power Power Speed Speed Agility Agility Balance Balance Co-ordination Co-ordination Reaction Time Reaction Time

18 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Power Power is the amount of work done or energy transferred per unit of time. Muscular power is the ability to use strength quickly to produce an explosive effort. Power is the amount of work done or energy transferred per unit of time. Muscular power is the ability to use strength quickly to produce an explosive effort.

19 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Speed Speed relates to the ability to perform a movement within a short time period. Speed relates to the ability to perform a movement within a short time period.

20 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Agility Agility is the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body in space with speed and accuracy. Agility is the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body in space with speed and accuracy.

21 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Balance Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium while static (stationary) or dynamic (moving). Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium while static (stationary) or dynamic (moving).

22 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Co-ordination Co-ordination is the ability for the bodys senses, the nervous system and muscles to work together so that specific movements can be performed smoothly and accurately. Co-ordination is the ability for the bodys senses, the nervous system and muscles to work together so that specific movements can be performed smoothly and accurately.

23 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Reaction time The time it takes for the body to react to a stimulus. The time it takes for the body to react to a stimulus.

24 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ENERGY SYSTEMS During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise: During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise: ANAEROBIC / ATP-CP ANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACID AEROBIC (Anaerobic Glycolysis)(Aerobic Glycolysis) Very rapidRapidSlow Chemical fuel: PCFood fuel: glycogenFood fuels:glycogen, fats, and protein Very limited ATP Limited ATP productionUnlimited ATP Prod. Production Muscular stores limitedBy-product, lactic acid, No fatiguing by-prod. causes muscular fatigue Produces H20, CO2, heat Used with sprint or anyUsed with activities ofUsed with endurance or High-power, short-duration1 to 3 min duration.Long-duration activities. Activity up to 10secsApprox 5mins+ Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book ) Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book )

25 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ATP

26 Anaerobic glycolysis

27 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Aerobic Glycolysis

28 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Energy systems There is a relationship between the energy systems and the graph on the next slide shows the overlap between the systems. Highly trained athletes have increased efficiency of each of the energy systems and this enables a faster transition between each energy system. There is a relationship between the energy systems and the graph on the next slide shows the overlap between the systems. Highly trained athletes have increased efficiency of each of the energy systems and this enables a faster transition between each energy system.

29 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Oxygen consumption

30 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Examples of the overlap of energy systems ATP- CP ANAEROBICAEROBICEXAMPLES 100%0%0% Diving, jumps, throws 80%20%0% Basketball, baseball, fencing, judo 60%20%20% Figure skating, soccer, tennis 0% 20%80% Slalom skiing, 1500m run, 500m kayak 0% 10%90% 3000m run, 800m swim, 5000m skate 0% 5%95% 10,000M skate, 10,000 run 0% 1%99% Road cycling, biathlon, marathon 0% 0%10% shooting, bowls, driving

31 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Specificity Therefore when trying to improve performance it is important to consider training the relevant components of fitness and energy systems. This will differ according to the sport/physical activity that you are training in your programme. Therefore when trying to improve performance it is important to consider training the relevant components of fitness and energy systems. This will differ according to the sport/physical activity that you are training in your programme.

32 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Adaptation One important consideration in planning an exercise program is that conditioning will occur only with regular exercise (frequency). This principal is referred to as the principle of adaptation which means that only regular exercise produces physical gains. Adaptation depends on challenging the physical capability beyond a minimum threshold level. One important consideration in planning an exercise program is that conditioning will occur only with regular exercise (frequency). This principal is referred to as the principle of adaptation which means that only regular exercise produces physical gains. Adaptation depends on challenging the physical capability beyond a minimum threshold level.

33 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Overload If the appropriate type and amount of activity is in excess of this threshold level, a training overload is incurred and physiological gain usually occurs. Regular overloading can lead to increased function and the training workload needs to be increased to ensure overload and progress when the fitness level improves. If the appropriate type and amount of activity is in excess of this threshold level, a training overload is incurred and physiological gain usually occurs. Regular overloading can lead to increased function and the training workload needs to be increased to ensure overload and progress when the fitness level improves.

34 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Progressive overload The progression rate at the start of an exercise program needs to be gradual to best ensure fitness benefits. Fitness should improve only when the appropriate amount of overload is progressively increased. This principle is referred to as the principle of progressive overload. Overload can be an increase in Frequency, Intensity, Distance or Time (duration). To ensure efficiency only one variable should be changed at a time. The progression rate at the start of an exercise program needs to be gradual to best ensure fitness benefits. Fitness should improve only when the appropriate amount of overload is progressively increased. This principle is referred to as the principle of progressive overload. Overload can be an increase in Frequency, Intensity, Distance or Time (duration). To ensure efficiency only one variable should be changed at a time.

35 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Reversibility (detraining) When exercise stops the physical gains can regress to pre-training levels (regression/reversibility). Aerobic endurance losses are quicker than strength (power) losses. Basically, When exercise stops the physical gains can regress to pre-training levels (regression/reversibility). Aerobic endurance losses are quicker than strength (power) losses. Basically, If you dont use it you lose it. If you dont use it you lose it.

36 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Overtraining/Retrogression Retrogression refers to an excessive training overload where improvements have slowed. Retrogression can occur with highly intense single exercise bouts (acute overload) over extended time periods. Excessive overload over time is commonly referred to as chronic overload. Retrogression refers to an excessive training overload where improvements have slowed. Retrogression can occur with highly intense single exercise bouts (acute overload) over extended time periods. Excessive overload over time is commonly referred to as chronic overload.

37 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited

38 Periodisation/training year The year can be divided into 12 months of training. Obviously if the season is shorter, the following principles are applied but over a shorter time period. The first month is the month immediately after the end of the season. Usually the targeted or peak competition concludes the sports season. Therefore, month 12 should be the peak competition, the national championships, the regional championship or the World Championships. The year can be divided into 12 months of training. Obviously if the season is shorter, the following principles are applied but over a shorter time period. The first month is the month immediately after the end of the season. Usually the targeted or peak competition concludes the sports season. Therefore, month 12 should be the peak competition, the national championships, the regional championship or the World Championships.

39 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation/training year The coach should decide on the peak competition for each athlete and count backwards to establish the number of the relevant months of training. If the national or world championships is the peak competition and it is in September, then October is month one. This program divides the year into six main phases. The coach should decide on the peak competition for each athlete and count backwards to establish the number of the relevant months of training. If the national or world championships is the peak competition and it is in September, then October is month one. This program divides the year into six main phases.

40 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation-example PhaseAimMonth Recovery period Active recovery Month 1 Early preparation period General strength and endurance Months 2 and 3 Preparation period Maximum strength and general endurance Months 4 and 5 Pre-Competition period Maximum strength and specific endurance Months 6 and 7 Early competition period Specific endurance and sport technique Months 8 and 9 Peak competition period Race/match prep and peak performance Months 10 through 12

41 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited F.I.T.T Principle Frequency Frequency Intensity Intensity Time (duration) Time (duration) Type (methods of training) Type (methods of training)

42 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Frequency Frequency. The minimum number of workouts for cardio respiratory improvement is 3 times weekly with no more than two days between exercise sessions. You should gradually progress to 5 days per week as your fitness level improves. The benefits of exercising beyond 5 days per week can be negated by an increased injury risk. If you should exercise five days per week, it is important to lower exercise intensity. Frequency. The minimum number of workouts for cardio respiratory improvement is 3 times weekly with no more than two days between exercise sessions. You should gradually progress to 5 days per week as your fitness level improves. The benefits of exercising beyond 5 days per week can be negated by an increased injury risk. If you should exercise five days per week, it is important to lower exercise intensity.

43 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Frequency To improve strength, power and speed has an ideal frequency of 3-5 days per week. Therefore it is important in planning programmes to ensure you know which components of fitness are your focus to ensure gains can be made. To improve strength, power and speed has an ideal frequency of 3-5 days per week. Therefore it is important in planning programmes to ensure you know which components of fitness are your focus to ensure gains can be made.

44 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Intensity Training intensity refers to how hard each training session will be. Intensity measurement is dependant on the type of training used. It can be measured by heart rate or by resistance levels. We will look at both of these separately. Training intensity refers to how hard each training session will be. Intensity measurement is dependant on the type of training used. It can be measured by heart rate or by resistance levels. We will look at both of these separately.

45 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Time (duration) Duration can be used for the length of a training session or the length of a training programme. The minimum length of a training programme for improvement is 6 weeks. However, for real benefits to be seen aerobic programmes should last for 12 weeks and anaerobic programmes should last 8-10 weeks. Duration can be used for the length of a training session or the length of a training programme. The minimum length of a training programme for improvement is 6 weeks. However, for real benefits to be seen aerobic programmes should last for 12 weeks and anaerobic programmes should last 8-10 weeks.

46 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Time (duration) In terms of the length of sessions this should be taken into consideration when using the principle of progressive overload. Therefore duration of individuals sessions can increase over a programme (particularly with aerobic training). In terms of the length of sessions this should be taken into consideration when using the principle of progressive overload. Therefore duration of individuals sessions can increase over a programme (particularly with aerobic training).

47 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Type of training This refers to the methods of training being implemented in a training programme eg continuous training, circuit training etc… We will look at these separately. It can also refer to actual type of activity eg running, cycling, swimming etc… This refers to the methods of training being implemented in a training programme eg continuous training, circuit training etc… We will look at these separately. It can also refer to actual type of activity eg running, cycling, swimming etc…

48 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Intensity by Heart Rate Intensity of training can be measured by a % of MHR (maximum heart rate). Intensity of training can be measured by a % of MHR (maximum heart rate). For training the aerobic systems the target heart rate is approx 70-85% of MHR. For training the aerobic systems the target heart rate is approx 70-85% of MHR. For training the anaerobic systems the target heart rate is approx % MHR. For training the anaerobic systems the target heart rate is approx % MHR.

49 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Putting it all together-by heart rate Training Aspect Endurance (aerobic) training Sprint (anaerobic) training Frequency 4-7 days/week 3-5 days/week Intensity Heart Rate: 70-85% MHR Heart rate:85-100% MHR Sessions per day 11 Duration weeks or longer 8-10 weeks Distance/workout5-8km3-4km (VCE Physical Education Book ) (VCE Physical Education Book )

50 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Intensity by resistance. Intensity can also be measured by resistance. It is measured against your repetition maximum (RM). Eg 1RM is the maximum you can lift in one rep. 10RM is the maximum you can lift in 10 reps. This differs depending on what you are training eg strength, power etc… Intensity can also be measured by resistance. It is measured against your repetition maximum (RM). Eg 1RM is the maximum you can lift in one rep. 10RM is the maximum you can lift in 10 reps. This differs depending on what you are training eg strength, power etc…

51 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Putting it all together-by resistance. Fitness Component Weight 1RM or RM RepsSetsSpeed Rest between Sets Frequency per week Strength Very Heavy 80-95% or 2-6 RM Slow3-5mins3-4 Hypertrophy (bulk) Heavy 70-80% or 6-12 RM Slow1-3mins3-6 Power Medium 60-80% or 8-20 RM Fast3-5mins3-4 Endurance Light % or RM Fast1-3mins3-6 (VCE Physical Education Book ) (VCE Physical Education Book )

52 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Variety Variety adds spice to your programme, and helps you to stay motivated. You ca do this by varying… Variety adds spice to your programme, and helps you to stay motivated. You ca do this by varying… How you train (Methods) How you train (Methods) Where you train Where you train How hard you train (Intensity) How hard you train (Intensity) Who you train with Who you train with

53 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Acute and chronic effects of exercise. These are physiological changes that occur in response to the demands of exercise. Acute effects are those responses that occur while you are exercising and in the recovery period. Chronic effects are long term adaptations that take at least 6 weeks to occur. These are physiological changes that occur in response to the demands of exercise. Acute effects are those responses that occur while you are exercising and in the recovery period. Chronic effects are long term adaptations that take at least 6 weeks to occur.

54 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Acute effects of exercise on the body (Immediate)

55 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Heart Rate When you exercise your heart rate (beats per minute) increases to increase the supply of oxygen to your working muscles. When you exercise your heart rate (beats per minute) increases to increase the supply of oxygen to your working muscles.

56 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Respiration Rate Respiratory rate is the number of breaths taken in one minute. During exercise amounts of carbon dioxide increases as it is a waste product and the respiratory rate increases to increase oxygen and decrease carbon dioxide. Respiratory rate is the number of breaths taken in one minute. During exercise amounts of carbon dioxide increases as it is a waste product and the respiratory rate increases to increase oxygen and decrease carbon dioxide.

57 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Stroke Volume Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of your left ventricle with each beat of the heart. This increases to increase oxygen supply to working muscles. Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of your left ventricle with each beat of the heart. This increases to increase oxygen supply to working muscles.

58 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Cardiac Output- Q Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in 1 minute. Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in 1 minute. Q=stroke volume x heart rate. Q=stroke volume x heart rate. Q=SV x HR Q=SV x HR

59 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased VO 2 Oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) is the amount of oxygen that is taken up and used by the body to produce energy. Oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) is the amount of oxygen that is taken up and used by the body to produce energy.

60 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Tidal Volume Tidal volume is the size of each breath and this increases with exercise as the body tries to increase oxygen flow to the blood. Tidal volume is the size of each breath and this increases with exercise as the body tries to increase oxygen flow to the blood.

61 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Systolic Blood Pressure Systolic blood pressure is the pressure as the left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta. Diastolic is the pressure in the arteries. Only the systolic pressure increases during exercise. Systolic blood pressure is the pressure as the left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta. Diastolic is the pressure in the arteries. Only the systolic pressure increases during exercise.

62 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Arterio-venous O 2 difference This is the difference between the O 2 concentration in the arteries and in the veins. As more O 2 is used during exercise this difference increases. This is the difference between the O 2 concentration in the arteries and in the veins. As more O 2 is used during exercise this difference increases.

63 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Blood to working muscles Due to increased need for O2 during exercise blood is distributed more where it is required in working muscles. Due to increased need for O2 during exercise blood is distributed more where it is required in working muscles.

64 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Decreased muscle Glycogen stores Muscle glycogen stores are decreased while exercising as they are being used by the body for energy production. Muscle glycogen stores are decreased while exercising as they are being used by the body for energy production.

65 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Decreased blood plasma volume Due to increased sweating, the blood plasma volume usually decreases during strenuous exercise and hot weather. Due to increased sweating, the blood plasma volume usually decreases during strenuous exercise and hot weather.

66 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Chronic Effects of exercise on the body (Long Term)

67 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited More efficient use of O 2 because…

68 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Blood Volume and haemoglobin levels Training stimulates an increase in plasma volume as well as in the number of red blood cells (and therefore haemoglobin that carries O 2. Training stimulates an increase in plasma volume as well as in the number of red blood cells (and therefore haemoglobin that carries O 2.

69 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased O 2 carrying capacity of blood This is due to the increase in plasma, haemoglobin as well as increases in blood vessels etc…and overall greater efficiency. This is due to the increase in plasma, haemoglobin as well as increases in blood vessels etc…and overall greater efficiency.

70 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Lungs can take in and distribute more O 2 Increased VO 2 Max. This occurs due to increased tidal volume as well as improved ability to attract O 2 from the alveoli onto the red blood cells. Increased VO 2 Max. This occurs due to increased tidal volume as well as improved ability to attract O 2 from the alveoli onto the red blood cells.

71 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased number of blood vessels Efficiency is also improved as the number of blood vessels is increased. Particularly the capillaries where gaseous exchange takes place. Efficiency is also improved as the number of blood vessels is increased. Particularly the capillaries where gaseous exchange takes place.

72 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased blood supply as increased capillaries

73 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Cardiac Hypertrophy The size of the heart increases. For endurance the chambers get larger (particularly the left ventricle) and for non endurance the thickness of the ventricle walls increases. The size of the heart increases. For endurance the chambers get larger (particularly the left ventricle) and for non endurance the thickness of the ventricle walls increases.

74 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Decreased resting heart rate Your resting heart rate decreases with fitness due to greater efficiency of systems. Your resting heart rate decreases with fitness due to greater efficiency of systems.

75 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Stroke volume at rest The heart develops larger chambers and/or thicker walls and improved efficiency. Therefore the stroke volume increases and this relates to the decrease in resting heart rate. The heart develops larger chambers and/or thicker walls and improved efficiency. Therefore the stroke volume increases and this relates to the decrease in resting heart rate.

76 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited More glycogen stored in muscle Greater amounts of fuel are stored for use in endurance events. (For non- endurance ATP and CP stores are increased. Greater amounts of fuel are stored for use in endurance events. (For non- endurance ATP and CP stores are increased.

77 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased size of muscle In non-endurance athletes the size of the muscle is increased due to hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres, in endurance twitch fibres, increased numbers of capillaries, increased strength in connective tissues eg tendons, ligaments. In non-endurance athletes the size of the muscle is increased due to hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres, in endurance twitch fibres, increased numbers of capillaries, increased strength in connective tissues eg tendons, ligaments.

78 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased strength of muscle In non-endurance athletes the size of the muscle is increased due to hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres, increased numbers of capillaries, increased strength in connective tissues eg tendons, ligaments. In non-endurance athletes the size of the muscle is increased due to hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres, increased numbers of capillaries, increased strength in connective tissues eg tendons, ligaments.

79 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Effects of exercise When completing a training programme both acute and chronic effects of exercise should be monitored this is part of ensuring that improvements are measurable. This can occur through goal setting. Goal setting for programmes should follow the S.M.A.R.T principle. When completing a training programme both acute and chronic effects of exercise should be monitored this is part of ensuring that improvements are measurable. This can occur through goal setting. Goal setting for programmes should follow the S.M.A.R.T principle.

80 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited S.M.A.R.T GOALS

81 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited S.M.A.R.T Goals These may relate to acute and chronic effects of exercise and what you are trying to improve or it may relate to what fitness components you are trying to improve. They could also involve long term achievement. However, these goals should be measurable. These goals will only be achievable if the training principles and methods of training are carefully considered. These may relate to acute and chronic effects of exercise and what you are trying to improve or it may relate to what fitness components you are trying to improve. They could also involve long term achievement. However, these goals should be measurable. These goals will only be achievable if the training principles and methods of training are carefully considered.

82 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training Methods. There are various types of training that can be used in a training programme. These again will relate back to what components of fitness you have chosen/or been given to develop. They will also depend on what energy systems you are trying to develop. The following examples are brief and research will need to occur into developing relevant exercises within these methods. There are various types of training that can be used in a training programme. These again will relate back to what components of fitness you have chosen/or been given to develop. They will also depend on what energy systems you are trying to develop. The following examples are brief and research will need to occur into developing relevant exercises within these methods.

83 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Continuous Training Continuous exercise for minimum of 20mins. Particularly for cardio-respiratory endurance and muscular endurance. Energy system predominantly aerobic glycolysis. Continuous exercise for minimum of 20mins. Particularly for cardio-respiratory endurance and muscular endurance. Energy system predominantly aerobic glycolysis.

84 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Fartlek training This is a type of continuous training that includes bursts of speed so that relevant energy systems are worked. Therefore cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular endurance and speed are all developed. This increases the use of the anaerobic glycolysis system as well as aerobic glycolysis. This is a type of continuous training that includes bursts of speed so that relevant energy systems are worked. Therefore cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular endurance and speed are all developed. This increases the use of the anaerobic glycolysis system as well as aerobic glycolysis.

85 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Circuit training A combination of continuous and resistance training. It can train a variety of fitness components such as cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular endurance, speed agility etc… Therefore depending on how the circuit is set it can work the aerobic glycolysis and anaerobic glycolysis systems. It can be set up specifically to include sports skills and use of relevant muscle groups etc… A combination of continuous and resistance training. It can train a variety of fitness components such as cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular endurance, speed agility etc… Therefore depending on how the circuit is set it can work the aerobic glycolysis and anaerobic glycolysis systems. It can be set up specifically to include sports skills and use of relevant muscle groups etc…

86 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Plyometric training Involves exercises such as bounding, hopping, jumping and medicine ball passing. Plyometrics helps improve power and explosiveness for sports especially sports that involve jumping, throwing and speed. It can train the ATP/CP system and the anaerobic glycolysis sytems. Involves exercises such as bounding, hopping, jumping and medicine ball passing. Plyometrics helps improve power and explosiveness for sports especially sports that involve jumping, throwing and speed. It can train the ATP/CP system and the anaerobic glycolysis sytems.

87 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Swiss ball training Was used at one stage for rehabilitation. However benefits such as improved core stability, prime mover strength, balance, dynamic flexibility and co-ordination have increased use in training programmes. Depending on how these exercises are used all three energy systems can be trained. Was used at one stage for rehabilitation. However benefits such as improved core stability, prime mover strength, balance, dynamic flexibility and co-ordination have increased use in training programmes. Depending on how these exercises are used all three energy systems can be trained.

88 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Resistance training Depending on use in a programme this type of training can develop, muscular strength, power and endurance. See recap on following slide. Muscular endurance works the aerobic glycolysis sytem while the other two work the ATP/CP and anaerobic glycolysis systems. Depending on use in a programme this type of training can develop, muscular strength, power and endurance. See recap on following slide. Muscular endurance works the aerobic glycolysis sytem while the other two work the ATP/CP and anaerobic glycolysis systems.

89 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Putting it all together-by resistance. Fitness Component Weight 1RM or RM RepsSetsSpeed Rest between Sets Frequency per week Strength Very Heavy 80-95% or 2-6 RM Slow3-5mins3-4 Hypertrophy (bulk) Heavy 70-80% or 6-12 RM Slow1-3mins3-6 Power Medium 60-80% or 8-20 RM Fast3-5mins3-4 Endurance Light % or RM Fast1-3mins3-6 (VCE Physical Education Book ) (VCE Physical Education Book )

90 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Flexibility training Used to improve your joint and muscle flexibility. There are 2 major types of flexibility training. Used to improve your joint and muscle flexibility. There are 2 major types of flexibility training. PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) where you take a muscle to its maximum range, then contract the muscle against an immovable resistance eg a partner. PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) where you take a muscle to its maximum range, then contract the muscle against an immovable resistance eg a partner. Static (passive) stretching which involves taking a muscle to its greatest range and holding it for at least 30 secs. Both types improve flexibilty and work the aerobic glycolysis system. Static (passive) stretching which involves taking a muscle to its greatest range and holding it for at least 30 secs. Both types improve flexibilty and work the aerobic glycolysis system.

91 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Interval-sprint training In this type of training work intervals are followed by rest intervals. I t is designed to improve speed, power and agility. Short interval training works the ATP/CP system and long interval training works the anaerobic glycolysis system. In this type of training work intervals are followed by rest intervals. I t is designed to improve speed, power and agility. Short interval training works the ATP/CP system and long interval training works the anaerobic glycolysis system.

92 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Aerobic floor classes Aerobic floor classes are a type of continuous training, but also include callisthenic exercises usually found in circuit training it works cardio –respiratory endurance, strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and agility and predominantly uses the aerobic glycolysis system. Aerobic floor classes are a type of continuous training, but also include callisthenic exercises usually found in circuit training it works cardio –respiratory endurance, strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and agility and predominantly uses the aerobic glycolysis system.

93 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training principles, methods of training and exercise physiology. All of these topics interrelate and should be considered carefully when planning or evaluating a programme. This is relevant whether you are designing or have been supplied with a programme. Look carefully at the focus and intended outcomes of the programme in relation to the specific activity sport or components that are being trained for. All of these topics interrelate and should be considered carefully when planning or evaluating a programme. This is relevant whether you are designing or have been supplied with a programme. Look carefully at the focus and intended outcomes of the programme in relation to the specific activity sport or components that are being trained for.

94 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Application In using the knowledge from this module the application is just as important as the knowledge. Examples of use of training principles, methods of training and exercise physiology knowledge is how these are all applied to your specific situation/sport/activity or component. There is a separate power point on application to physical activity. In using the knowledge from this module the application is just as important as the knowledge. Examples of use of training principles, methods of training and exercise physiology knowledge is how these are all applied to your specific situation/sport/activity or component. There is a separate power point on application to physical activity.

95 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Critical thinking on programmes. We must consider the limitations of the knowledge in this module. This includes ideologies such as healthism.

96 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Healthism Healthism is a set of assumptions based on the belief that health is solely an individual responsibility. It includes the concept of the body as a machine that is influenced only by physical factors. Healthism is a set of assumptions based on the belief that health is solely an individual responsibility. It includes the concept of the body as a machine that is influenced only by physical factors. (Health and Physical Education. The curriculum in action. Making meaning: Making a difference. (2004) (Health and Physical Education. The curriculum in action. Making meaning: Making a difference. (2004)

97 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Biophysical focus. This module has focused on the biophysical aspects of training for performance improvement. This module has focused on the biophysical aspects of training for performance improvement. It should be considered that all of this does consider the body as a machine and has not focused on the environmental and social effects that have influence on an individual. It should be considered that all of this does consider the body as a machine and has not focused on the environmental and social effects that have influence on an individual.

98 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Limitations Contained within what has come to be called the ideology of healthism is a system of beliefs that defines health- promoting activities, such as involvement in some form of physical fitness program, as a moral obligation (Crawford, 1980). Contained within what has come to be called the ideology of healthism is a system of beliefs that defines health- promoting activities, such as involvement in some form of physical fitness program, as a moral obligation (Crawford, 1980). Fitness Programs.pdf

99 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Limitations Perceptions of health and the body are a social construction. In contemporary Western culture, physical and health ideals are congruent and emphasize both slimness and muscularity, but do so differently for men and women. Perceptions of health and the body are a social construction. In contemporary Western culture, physical and health ideals are congruent and emphasize both slimness and muscularity, but do so differently for men and women. Fitness Programs.pdf

100 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Limitations For women, slimness is believed to be an unmistakable sign of self-restraint, and discipline. The thin person is an exemplar of mastery of mind over body and virtuous self-denial (Crawford, 1984). For men, muscular bulk carries significant social value, so long as it is not accompanied by visible fat. Fat signified the loss of control, a moral failure, a sign of impulsiveness, self-indulgence and sloth. For women, slimness is believed to be an unmistakable sign of self-restraint, and discipline. The thin person is an exemplar of mastery of mind over body and virtuous self-denial (Crawford, 1984). For men, muscular bulk carries significant social value, so long as it is not accompanied by visible fat. Fat signified the loss of control, a moral failure, a sign of impulsiveness, self-indulgence and sloth. Fitness Programs.pdf

101 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Limitations The real champions of the ideology of healthism have been the educated middle-class. Fitness and fitness education are geared towards the middle-class who are predisposed to regarding the body as a project to be managed and improved through self- improvement as an integral means to structure identity and social mobility (Bourdieu, 1984; Crawford, 1984). The real champions of the ideology of healthism have been the educated middle-class. Fitness and fitness education are geared towards the middle-class who are predisposed to regarding the body as a project to be managed and improved through self- improvement as an integral means to structure identity and social mobility (Bourdieu, 1984; Crawford, 1984).

102 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Limitations Programs have become an exercise in human engineering aimed at transforming the human body into an efficient, inexhaustible machine. Like any finely tuned machine, it must be managed, maintained, conditioned, and fueled. Programs have become an exercise in human engineering aimed at transforming the human body into an efficient, inexhaustible machine. Like any finely tuned machine, it must be managed, maintained, conditioned, and fueled. Fitness Programs.pdf

103 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How can we use the limitations in our application. In writing our programmes we can use different dimensions of hauora to develop our goals and outcomes. If we take into consideration Taha whanau (social/family), Taha hinengaro (mental/emotional), Taha wairua (spiritual), as well as Taha tinana (physical) and what these mean to us individually then we are looking beyond the body as a machine. In writing our programmes we can use different dimensions of hauora to develop our goals and outcomes. If we take into consideration Taha whanau (social/family), Taha hinengaro (mental/emotional), Taha wairua (spiritual), as well as Taha tinana (physical) and what these mean to us individually then we are looking beyond the body as a machine.

104 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How can we use the limitations in our application. We can also consider the barriers and enablers that may effect our programme. These will also be beyond just the physical and will consider social, environmental, and cultural influences. We can also consider the barriers and enablers that may effect our programme. These will also be beyond just the physical and will consider social, environmental, and cultural influences.

105 Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Bibliography Websites Websites Books Books Fitness Programs.pdf VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999) VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)


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