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Engineered for flexibility and performance | Hybrid Geothermal Systems And Possible Applications in Sporting Venues IGSPHA 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Engineered for flexibility and performance | Hybrid Geothermal Systems And Possible Applications in Sporting Venues IGSPHA 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Hybrid Geothermal Systems And Possible Applications in Sporting Venues IGSPHA 2008

2 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Jay Ramkumar Applications Engineer – Geothermal Systems McQuay International /Daikin

3 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Topics What is a Hybrid design? Designing a Hybrid system DOE study / simulation Hybrid examples Biggest market in construction is sports and health care Using BIM model for geothermal HVAC in sports arenas Templifiers and other heat pumps can be use for sport arenas, corridors and hallways Summary and conclusion

4 Engineered for flexibility and performance | What Is A Hybrid Design? Low cost alternative to a full GHP design –Southern applications – Loop matches heat load and a cooling tower added to assist rejection load –Northern applications – Loop matches cooling load and a boiler is added to supplement heating load

5 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Why Use A Hybrid Design? Total GHP loop field design may be higher first costs, unattractive short term economics. Southern applications can reject 40 to 50 times more heat than extracted during heating. Extreme northern applications can extract 30 to 40 times more heat than rejected during cooling Technology Installation Review - DOE

6 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Why Use A Hybrid Design? Imbalanced heating / cooling load may not recharge a geothermal loop field and cause long term thermal build up / pull down. Hybrid designs can shorten loop lengths by % and only increase operating costs by 0% – 20% Some sites have unfavorable geological conditions or available surface area is limited Hybrid projects are normally over 100 tons *

7 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Hybrid loop sizing software has been developed by GLD (Ground Loop Design) 1)Geo software determines total loop length for cooling and heating 2)Hybrid Option determines new shorter loop length for total cooling and sizes boiler 3)Antifreeze added to loop / or bypass geo loop when boiler is operated Designing A Hybrid System

8 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Designing A Hybrid – Boiler

9 Engineered for flexibility and performance | GLD software (Ground Loop Design) has hybrid geothermal software. eQUEST (DOE2.2) and Energy plus will not size a hybrid loop field or model a hybrid geothermal system. Professor Bernier and ASHRAE are developing a hybrid geothermal economics modeling program. Available in few weeks OCAST (OK State) is developing a new program that will simulate loop / boiler (HVACSIM+). Will offer optimized control strategies - available 1 year + Designing A Hybrid - Software

10 Engineered for flexibility and performance | DOE – Assessment of Hybrid Geothermal Heat Pump Systems (December 2001)* Houston office building - 14,025 ft 2 (40 ton) – 1,434 heat degree days / 2,889 cool degree days – Annual heating load = 7.5 million BTU – Annual cooling load = million BTU – 36 bore 250 feet deep – 71ºF ground water temperature Tulsa office building - 14,025 ft 2 (40 ton) –3,680 heat degree days / 1,949 cool degree days –Annual heating load = 50.1 million BTU –Annual cooling load = million BTU –16 bore 250 feet deep –62ºF ground water temperature * US Department Of Energy Study

11 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Annual System Energy Use (kWh) * Full GHP No Tower Case 1Tower on when exiting heat pump LWT is 96.5ºF Case 2Tower on when LWT to air wet bulb temp exceeds 3.6ºF diff. 2.3ºF Case 3 Tower on operates midnight to 6:00 a.m.(max LWT 96.5ºF) * Developed using TRNSYS module

12 Engineered for flexibility and performance | From This We Developed A Design Full GHP No Tower Case 1Tower on when exiting heat pump LWT is 96.5ºF Case 2Tower on when LWT to air wet bulb temp exceeds 3.6ºF diff. 2.3ºF Case 3 Tower on operates midnight to 6:00 a.m.(max LWT 96.5ºF) * Developed using TRNSYS module

13 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Cooling Tower Project name:NewBridge on the Charles; Hebrew Senior Living Community Location:Dedham, Mass. USA Mechanical engineer: Howard Alderson, P.E. Alderson Engineering, Southampton, PA Description: Senior living community campus 921,000 sq. ft. Vertical loop w/ cooling tower Ground water temp:52ºF Cooling load: 20,456,000 BTU/H (1,700 tons) EFLH (cooling):1,235 Heating load: 11,221,000 BTU/H EFLH (heating):825

14 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Full Loop Field Design Loop Details: Number of bores:715 Depth of bores:500 feet deep Bore hole spacing:15 feet on center Loop field installed costs:$ 10,000,000 Building energy consumption / yr:$ 2,302,500 Maintenance costs / yr:$ 73,700

15 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Hybrid Loop Field W/ Cooling Tower Loop Details HybridFull Geo Number of bores: Depth of bores:500 feet500 feet Bore hole spacing:15 feet15 feet Loop field installed costs:$ 5,600,000$ 10,000,000 Building energy consumption / yr:$ 2,394,600$ 2,302,500 Maintenance costs / yr:$ 80,000$ 73,700 Summary Loop (tower) installed costs reduced by $ 4,400,000 Operating costs increased by$ 92,100 / yr. Maintenance increase$ 6,300 / yr.

16 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Why HyGSHP Can Be Used In Sports Venues Sports venues have enormous budgets Minnesota Twins Ball Park - $ 522 Million New York Yankees Stadium - $1.3 Billion New York Mets Citifield - $610 Million Wembley Soccer Stadium - $1.5 Billion Melbourne Cricket Ground - $410 Million

17 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Challenges On Big Projects Set completion date so geothermal installation must be expedited Large liquidated damages claim if project completion is delayed Where to put geothermal loop for lay down area is large Large load – larger loop than normal thus hybrid geothermal

18 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Advantages In HVAC Construction Today BIM modeling can be used to reduce time in geothermal and HVAC construction BIM modeling can be used to prefab geothermal pipes and for layout and field work BIM modeling with scheduling software to keep track of geothermal and HVAC scope in a stadium

19 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Advantages In HVAC Construction Today

20 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Why HyGSHP Can Work In Sports Arenas Rising cost of fuel prices has caused significant increases in HVAC bills With the exception of service and mezzanine level. Club levels, press levels and suite levels is where teams make the most profit.

21 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Why HyGSHP Can Work In Sports Arenas Club levels, suite levels and press levels are where most executive suites are located. By using heat pumps one could have different temperatures in each space without affecting the other.

22 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Estimate Range Of Heating And Cooling Load Different loads for different sports venues Baseball stadiums probably has most load because of the 81 home game season H.O.K Sports largest sports A/E firm reported that cooling loads range for stadiums they designed: Cooling Loads Service levels: 1896 MBH MBH (158 – 292 tons) Suite levels: 1680 MBH – 3120 MBH (140 – 260 tons) Press box and exec levels : 780 MBH – 2220 MBH (65 – 185 tons) Mezzanine level : 708 MBH – 1308 MBH (59 – 109 tons) Heating Loads Service levels: 900 MBH – 1800 MBH Suite levels : 1200 MBH – 2376 MBH Press box and exec levels : 540 MBH – 2040 MBH Mezzanine levels MBH – 1008 MBH Courtesy of H.O.K Sports

23 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Typical Layout Of Suite/Press Boxes

24 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Designing HyGSHP For Stadiums The ground loop will be placed under the large parking lots made of permeable material to allow heat transfer Vertical stack units will be placed in suite, club level and press box which are the most expensive seats in a stadium From Dr. Steven Kavanaugh design of geothermal system book. Required loop length are 150 ft/ton (up North) to 250 ft/ton (down South) Taking the worst case scenarios using Dr. Kavanaugh required loop length and HOK Sports maximum loads 445 tons for suite, press and executive lounge.

25 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Designing HyGSHP For Stadiums Bore holes can go up to 500 ft for 1 ¼ inch U tubes Lets assume for this design we use 350 feet boreholes at 250 ft/ton That is approximately 318 boreholes in a parking lot which is very realistic

26 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Designing HyGSHP For Stadiums Vertical units that McQuay and other firms produce are easy to install because they are stacked one above the other and will give the high-end customer who is using the suites and executive lounge the ability to adjust room temperature without affecting the neighboring suite Vertical units can also be used to produce hot and cold water that can supply sinks that are usually in these rooms Cooling tower or boiler is used to produce the additional heating or cooling

27 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Larger Units Can Be Used In Hallways Product Capacity (MBH) Max Temperature THR 040 – 210 E (Recip) TSC 063 – 126 (Centrifugal) 500 – 3,000 3,000 – 24, ° F 140° F

28 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Templifier Application Replaces steam boilers to produce process hot water, and simultaneously chilled water for space cooling. SACI applied dual-mode TDC Templifier: Winter Heating (21840 MBH) Evaporator 10 5 Condenser COP : Summer Cooling (18120 MBH) Evaporator 10 5 Condenser COP : McQuay model TDC ( x 1) Dual-Compressor Templifier, Dual-Mode Application Case Studies - Samsung Electro-Mechanics (Pusan)

29 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Applications The McQuay TSC Templifier replaces steam boilers, to produce process hot water, reclaiming waste heat from plant process cooling towers. Winter Heating (17160 MBH) Evaporator Condenser COP : Summer Cooling (18720 MBH) Evaporator 12 7 Condenser COP : McQuay model TSC ( x 2) Single Compressor Templifier, Dual-Mode Application Case Studies – Hyundai Motors

30 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Environmentally Friendly n Non-ozone depleting R- 410A Refrigerant – Refrigerant of the future –Good for the environment –Qualifies for LEED credit

31 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Summary Total GHP loop field designs will be too large for sports arenas Imbalanced heating / cooling loads may not recharge a geothermal loop field and cause long term thermal build up / pull down. Hybrid designs can shorten loop lengths by % and only increase operating costs by 0% – 20% Existing loop software programs can size Hybrid designs – GLD,GEOKISS will design hybrid applications. Economics modeling programs are being developed for tower and boiler hybrids – available in 1 year will make designing easier.

32 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Expanding Your Knowledge Resources available for hybrid geothermal design: –McQuay.com – Greenway HVAC system solutions and Geothermal Heat Pump Resource Center –McQuay geothermal design manual – (AG ) –WSHP design manual (C: 330-1) –Geothermal organizations International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA) Geothermal Heat Pump Coalition (Canada) Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium (DC Lobbyist group)

33 Engineered for flexibility and performance | SHOCK ON YOUR GAS BILL LATELY?

34 Engineered for flexibility and performance | Thank You - Questions


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