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Problems in Sport Stress, Injury, PEDs and Burnout.

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Presentation on theme: "Problems in Sport Stress, Injury, PEDs and Burnout."— Presentation transcript:

1 Problems in Sport Stress, Injury, PEDs and Burnout

2 Stress and Injury – Stress is leading cause of injury, misuse of PEDs and burnout – Finch et al (1998): 20-30% of total injuries in a given population are sports related – Research: increased stress in life = increased injury in sports Smith et al (1990): 452 m/f high school athletes, assessed stress, social support, coping skills and # of days off related to injury – Results showed a correlation between stressors and injury, other factors included low social support and low coping skills

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4 Explaining the Relationship Between Stress and Injury Williams et al (1991); stress disrupts attention, reduces peripheral awareness Anderson & Williams (1999): negative life event stressors were the only significant predictor of injury in 196 college athletes Smith et al (2000): muscle tension caused by stress interferes with normal coordination, thus increasing rick of injury

5 Stress and Recovery – Cramer et al (2000): natural healing disrupted by high glucocorticoids, impairing the immune response and inhibiting production of growth hormones » Cortisol inhibits recovery of damaged tissues – Perna et al (2003): stress caused impaired sleep patterns and protein synthesis- essential for recovery process

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7 Responding To Injury Grief Response Model (Hardy, Crace, 1990) Coping with 3 stressors (Physical, Psychological and Social) essential to rehab process takes one of 2 forms Denial: injured players pushes it and make it worse Anger: about injurys impact on ability/career Bargaining: deal making to mitigate the injury Depression: reality of injury Acceptance/reorganization: coping can begin Similar to Kubler-Ross 5 Stages of Grief Petitpas & Danish (1995): Identity Lossinjury low self –efficacy depression low self confidence low status and motivation identity loss

8 Cognitive Appraisal Model (Urdy et al, 1997) Information Processing About Injury (Urdy et al) – Stage 1: Amount/type of pain, how/why it happened, consequences and rehab options – Stage 2: emotional upheaval, reactive behaviorsanger, frustration – Stage 3: Developing, outlook and coping

9 Cognitive Appraisal Model (Wiese, Bjornstal, 1998) Primary Appraisal: what is at stake, challenge, threat, benefit or loss Secondary Appraisal: how can you cope, options available

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11 PED use in last 20 Years – Physical considerations Strength, endurance, alertness, aggression, fatigue, anxiety, wt. gain/loss all can be impacted by PEDs – Psychological considerations Coping w/stress, self esteem, confidence, respond to external pressures

12 – Social considerations Social learning theory: see model (Bonds, Canseco, Ben Johnson) do it without getting caught (Bandura; Anshel, 1998) Conformity, coercion, peer pressure Game Theory (Axelrod, 1984): if you dont use you will be left behind by the using competition (e.g. EPO doping in the Tour de France, roids in MLB), leads to cognitive rationalization that the rewards outweigh the risks of getting caught

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14 Physical Effects of Steriods synthetic derivatives of testosterone, anabolic effects retention of protein to build muscle stacking: combo of different types can be permanent Injections increase risk of Hepatitis B, HIV Damage may take years to see (Lyle Alzado) Feminization Effect in men Women have Masculinization Effect Acne, wt. gain, liver damage, heart attack, stroke, increased cholesterol, weak tendons (see Bo Carrol), permanent growth halt in teens in both males and females

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16 Psychological Effects of Steroids Mood swings, extreme irritability/aggression (roid rage), addiction and withdrawal issues

17 Effects of Other PEDs Beta blockers: reduce anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate, depresses CNS Diuretics: wt. loss, dehydration, cramping, kidney stones, increased cholesterol EPO (erythropoietin): increased oxygen and stamina, risks for blood clots, heart attack, stroke Narcotics: mask pain, failure to feel injury, overdose threat

18 Causes of Burnout – Cognitive-Affective Stress Model (Smith 1986) how thoughts and feelings influence athletes burnout Stage 1: Situation Demands: demands exceed resources = stress Stage 2: Cognitive Appraisal: threat vs. challenge appraisal of situation = anxious or excited Stage 3: Physiological Responses: fight or flight due to appraisal Stage 4: Behavioral Response: performance issues, cohesion problems, withdrawal

19 – Hardiness (Kobasa, 1986) is the key factor to overcoming stressors and resisting burnout; based on 3 factors Control: persons ability to influence events Commitment: persons refusal to give up Challenge: persons willingness to change

20 Mental Toughness Model (Clough and Earle, 2001) Mental toughness questionnaire resulted in a group of mentally tough subjects and non mentally tough who then did 3 30 minute cycling trials at 30, 50 and 70% max; oxygen uptake and reactions of subjects was recorded Results showed MT subjects reported lower perceived exertion, even at 70% suggesting MT helps withstand stress/burnout

21 Self Determination Theory (Raedeke, 1997) Burnout results from lack of intrinsic motivation or control over participation; have to rather than get to attitude Factors include: identity = sport, entrapment, social support/demands

22 Preventing Burnout – Cognitive Affective Stress Management (Smith, 1980) Mental/physical coping strategies designed to prevent burnout in 4 steps – Pre-treatment Assessment: interviews to assess the athletes stress response and appraisal – Treatment Rationale: athlete analyzes and gains understanding of personal stress reactions – Skill Acquisition: athlete learns relaxation, cognitive restructuring and self talk – Skill Rehearsal: stress is induced to allow athlete to practice new stress reducing skills

23 – Stress Inoculation Theory (SIT) Meichenbaum, 1985 Athlete is exposed to increasing levels of stress in 3 stages, thereby enhancing his/her immunity Learned Resourcefulness – Stage 1: Conceptualization: athlete becomes aware of +/-- thoughts, self talk, imagery – Stage 2: Rehearsal: practice – Stage 3: Application: athlete encounters low stress and then moves up to moderate then high and applies what was rehearsed in stage 2 – Prepare--control--cope--evaluate--overcome


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