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Drugs and Sport. History of Performance Enhancing Drugs First reported use of drugs in sport took place in 1879 in the sport of cycling Riders were suspected.

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Presentation on theme: "Drugs and Sport. History of Performance Enhancing Drugs First reported use of drugs in sport took place in 1879 in the sport of cycling Riders were suspected."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drugs and Sport

2 History of Performance Enhancing Drugs First reported use of drugs in sport took place in 1879 in the sport of cycling Riders were suspected of taking caffeine, ether, cocaine and heroin to keep themselves going during the first 6 day race First doping fatality was 1890 when a british cyclist died under the influence of ephedrine

3 Ben Johnson 1988 Olympic 100m final Ben Johnson wins in a world record 9.79s Stripped of gold 3 days later following positive drugs test

4 What are drugs? Chemical substances which, when introduced to the body alter its biochemical systems Drugs are designed to improve physiological imbalances within a specific system

5 The development of dope testing at the Olympic Games The IOC (international Olympic committee) Medical Commission was formed in st official dope controls took place in the 1968 Olympics The presence of one of the banned substances constitutes an offence

6 How are athletes tested Normally the 3 medallists are chosen from an event and then other random athletes Out of competition testing also occurs increasingly frequently. Why??? Athlete is to sign a form accepting the procedure (to not sign is an admission of guilt)

7 The competitor goes to the control station (and can be accompanied by a team manager or other official) to provide a urine sample. Sufficient urine is collected to allow for two tests

8 Result of Analysis If a negative result then the governing body is informed and the samples destroyed If positive, the athlete is suspended until further tests are carried out on the 2 nd sample

9 Types of performance enhancing drugs

10 Stimulants These have a direct, stimulating effect on the central nervous and cardiovascular system. This increases the work rate of the athlete and reduces the feelings of fatigue Many stimulants occur naturally – caffeine, nicotine

11 Caffeine Occurs naturally in tea, coffee Found in chocolate, fizzy drinks, paracetamol, flu remedies etc etc Accelerates the respiratory and heart rates and improves reaction time

12 Amphetamines First used in Germany in 1887 to treat nervous diseases Amphetamines allow people to work at high levels for prolonged periods of time They also have the effect of reducing performance in activities that require a high degree of coordination and rapid decision making

13 Ephedrine Often used in low doses in hay fever and cold remedies In high doses these compounds produce mental stimulation and increased blood flow

14 Narcotic Analgesics Drugs of this type include – morphine, heroin, methodone and codeine Narcotics put people to sleep and the analgesics kill pain Cyclists used these towards the end of a race, it gives a sudden rush followed by a longer sedating effect (useful in recovery)

15 Anabolic Steroids Main use is during training sessions prior to competition. Anabolic steroids promote growth and healing They are used to build up their power and recovery rate after training Steroids (which are male hormones) have 2 side effects on the human body

16 1. Androgenic Effects Impotency Infertility Prostate cancer Acne Deep voice (in females) Loss of sexual urges

17 2. Anabolic Effects Increases risk of coronary heart disease Increased retention of salt and water (thereby gaining weight) Formation of tumours on Liver and Kidneys Increase in aggression (..roid rage)

18 Testosterone Male hormone produced naturally in the body by both males and females Greater amounts in men increase sexual potency, aggression and competitive urge Long term effects on women unknown

19 Benzodiazepines Reduces anxiety without effecting judgement or coordination Gives you a hang over effect following use

20 Beta Blockers Group of drugs which act on the sympathetic nervous system and prevent adrenalin being distributed in the body Reduces heart rate and cardiac output Used in highly stressful sports or sport situations They cause nightmares, insomnia and depression

21 Diuretics Are used to eliminate fluid from the body Helps to lose weight in a very short period of time (what sports would that be useful for?)

22 Blood Doping Athletes train at altitude and the body produces more red blood cells to cope with the thinner air They remove a sample of blood (with the increased blood cell count) At sea level they reinject the blood and their aerobic performance improves

23 CBBC Newsround 2004 CBBC Newsround 2004 US kids 'taking drugs for sport' Updated 15 July 2004, More than half a million US high school kids are taking drugs to improve their athletic performance, according to the country's anti-doping agency. The pressure on kids to succeed in sport means many of them are turning to drugs like steroids to improve both their performance and their appearance. Officials estimate that 175,000 high school girls and 350,000 boys are using performance-enhancing drugs each year. The government has been asked to warn kids of the dangers involved. An anti-doping agency spokesman said there was a health crisis affecting "every American teenager who dreams of becoming a professional or Olympic athlete". He called for improved standards in testing amateur and professional athletes in the country.


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