2stimulants nicotine, caffeine, amphetamines the intention of these drugs is to have similar effects to adrenaline which is a natural stimulant.amphetamines can do this because they have similar structures to adrenaline.
3stimulantsaffect central nervous system; act on the level of neurotransmitters which are chemicals that act as messengers and stimulate pathways which ……increases activity of the brainRelax air passages and help facilitate breathing (treat bronchitis)Reduce appetitelargely opposite to depressants which decrease activity in the nervous system
4physiological effects short termlong termincreased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing ratedilation of pupilsconstriction of arteriessweatingdecreased appetitestimulating effectsincreased alertness and concentrationincreased risk of heart diseaseincreased blood pressurecoronary thrombosisstomach ulcerstoleranceincreasing amounts cause damage/death/overdose/lethal doseThe last one is psychological
5amphetaminesgroup of drugs which mimic the effect of epinephrine (adrenaline)classified as sympathomimetic drug as they mimic the effects of epinephrineadrenaline or epinephrine = hormone released in times of stress e.g. pain, cold, fear, … “fight or flight”response to increased adrenaline in the body:increased heart beat/blood pressureIncreased blood flow to brain and musclesIncreased air flow to lungsIncreased mental alertness
6compareCommon: both amphetamines and epinephrine have a phenyl-ethyl-amine chain which consists of a benzene ring linked to an amine group by a carbon chainDifferent: functional groupsamphetamines:primary amineepinephrine:3 hydroxyl groupssecondary amineChange theNH2 to CH3And you haveMeth.amineethylphenyl(benzeneWith oneLess H dueto side chain)
7nicotineA nicotine molecule contains the following functional groups: a tertiary amine, aromatic benzene ring structures with nitrogen atoms in them, and double bonds (alkene functional group).It is lipid soluble so it can cross the blood –brain barrier bringing rapid effects onbrain activity. Increases levels of adrenaline and alters concentrations of neurotransmitters.
8physiological effects nicotine short term effectslong term effectsincreased heart rateincreased blood pressurereduced urine outputStimulating effects (increase concentration, relieve tension, counter fatigue)Increase risk of heart diseasePeptic ulcers (esophagus or stomach)Coronary thrombosis (blood clot in coronary artery)increased risk of cancer or strokeemphysemabronchitisshortage of breathcoughingbad breathyellowing of teeth or fingersadverse effect on pregnancyaddiction to tobaccoreduction in capacity of blood to carry oxygen;withdrawal symptoms / weight gain (on quitting);
9caffeineCaffeine is a respiratory stimulant. When consumed in large amounts it can cause anxiety, irritability and sleeplessness. It is a weak diuretic i.e. causes the body to lose more water than it takes inIts structure is similar to nicotine.
10structure of caffeinearomatic rings containing both carbon and nitrogen – (like nicotine)tertiary amine grouptwo amide groups (- N – C = O)*don’t usemethyl groupsas similarityCaffeineNicotine
11consumption in small amounts caffeineconsumption in small amountslarge amountsBurn energy fasterincreased mental alertnessgreater ability to concentratediuretic; dehydrationcan cause anxiety, irritability, nauseaheadachesinsomniadependence