Presentation on theme: "Medicines and drugs Stimulants. stimulants nicotine, caffeine, amphetamines the intention of these drugs is to have similar effects to adrenaline which."— Presentation transcript:
Medicines and drugs Stimulants
stimulants nicotine, caffeine, amphetamines the intention of these drugs is to have similar effects to adrenaline which is a natural stimulant. amphetamines can do this because they have similar structures to adrenaline.
stimulants affect central nervous system; act on the level of neurotransmitters which are chemicals that act as messengers and stimulate pathways which … …increases activity of the brain Relax air passages and help facilitate breathing (treat bronchitis) Reduce appetite largely opposite to depressants which decrease activity in the nervous system
physiological effects short termlong term increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate dilation of pupils constriction of arteries sweating decreased appetite stimulating effects increased alertness and concentration increased risk of heart disease increased blood pressure coronary thrombosis stomach ulcers tolerance increasing amounts cause damage/death/overdose/letha l dose The last one is psychological
amphetamines group of drugs which mimic the effect of epinephrine (adrenaline) classified as sympathomimetic drug as they mimic the effects of epinephrine adrenaline or epinephrine = hormone released in times of stress e.g. pain, cold, fear, … “fight or flight” response to increased adrenaline in the body: increased heart beat/blood pressure Increased blood flow to brain and muscles Increased air flow to lungs Increased mental alertness
compare Common: both amphetamines and epinephrine have a phenyl-ethyl-amine chain which consists of a benzene ring linked to an amine group by a carbon chain Different: functional groups amphetamines: primary amine epinephrine: 3 hydroxyl groups secondary amine amine ethyl phenyl (benzene With one Less H due to side chain) Change the NH2 to CH3 And you have Meth.
nicotine A nicotine molecule contains the following functional groups: a tertiary amine, aromatic benzene ring structures with nitrogen atoms in them, and double bonds (alkene functional group). It is lipid soluble so it can cross the blood –brain barrier bringing rapid effects on brain activity. Increases levels of adrenaline and alters concentrations of neurotransmitters.
physiological effects nicotine short term effectslong term effects increased heart rate increased blood pressure reduced urine output Stimulating effects (increase concentration, relieve tension, counter fatigue) Increase risk of heart disease Peptic ulcers (esophagus or stomach) Coronary thrombosis (blood clot in coronary artery) increased risk of cancer or stroke emphysema bronchitis shortage of breath coughing bad breath yellowing of teeth or fingers adverse effect on pregnancy addiction to tobacco reduction in capacity of blood to carry oxygen; withdrawal symptoms / weight gain (on quitting);
caffeine Caffeine is a respiratory stimulant. When consumed in large amounts it can cause anxiety, irritability and sleeplessness. It is a weak diuretic i.e. causes the body to lose more water than it takes in Its structure is similar to nicotine.
structure of caffeine aromatic rings containing both carbon and nitrogen – (like nicotine) tertiary amine group two amide groups (- N – C = O) Caffeine Nicotine *don’t use methyl groups as similarity
caffeine consumption in small amounts large amounts Burn energy faster increased mental alertness greater ability to concentrate diuretic; dehydration can cause anxiety, irritability, nausea headaches insomnia dependence