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Hazing in Sports PED 4761 By: Jamie Gower July 16, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Hazing in Sports PED 4761 By: Jamie Gower July 16, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hazing in Sports PED 4761 By: Jamie Gower July 16, 2006

2 Hazing – still a concern? Hazing has been around in sports since the beginning and has resurfaced as a problem during the 1980s. Hazing has been a part of sport traditions and has been seen by many as a rite of passage. For many athletes this is an acceptable way to join a team and is considered an initiation. For others it can be a reason not to try out for sports and can affect their self-esteem and self-worth for their entire life. Either way, hazing rituals are still evident in todays society and is a concern in the various levels of sport. According to researchers at N.Y. University, about 1.5 million High School students are hazed each year and about half of those victims are athletes. Further, it was estimated that 79 percent of NCAA athletes were subjected to hazing during the school year, with 1 in 5 involved in unacceptable and potentially illegal activities.

3 Hazing Defined HAZING…many definitions because it is such a broad topic. The following are two definitions that summarize the majority. Hazing refers to any activity expected of someone joining a group (or to maintain full status in a group) that humiliates, degrades or risks emotional and/or physical harm, regardless of the persons willingness to participate. In years past, hazing practices were typically considered harmless pranks or comical antics associated with young men in college fraternities Hazing is a broad term encompassing any action or activity which does not contribute to the positive development of a person; which inflicts or intends to cause physical or mental harm or anxieties; which may demean, degrade or disgrace any person regardless of location, intent, or consent of participants…any action or situation which intentionally or unintentionally endangers a student for admission into or affiliation with any student organization

4 3 categories of Hazing Subtle – Actions that are against accepted and organization standards of conduct, behavior and good taste. An activity or attitude directed toward a student or an act which ridicules, humiliates, and/or embarrasses Subtle – Actions that are against accepted and organization standards of conduct, behavior and good taste. An activity or attitude directed toward a student or an act which ridicules, humiliates, and/or embarrasses –Ex. Deception, assigning demerits, implied threats, deprivation of privileges, line-ups and drills Harassment - Anything that causes anguish or physical discomfort to a student…any activity or activity directed toward a student or activity which confuses, frustrates or causes undue stress. Harassment - Anything that causes anguish or physical discomfort to a student…any activity or activity directed toward a student or activity which confuses, frustrates or causes undue stress. –Ex. Verbal abuse, threats, wearing embarrassing attire, sleep deprivation, sexual simulations Violent – Any form of action that may cause physical punishment, or any action that may cause bodily harm and/or touching in private places and/or de-clothing of a student. Violent – Any form of action that may cause physical punishment, or any action that may cause bodily harm and/or touching in private places and/or de-clothing of a student. –Ex. Forced alcohol/drug consumption, beating/paddling or assault, branding, burning, public nudity, bondage

5 Why People Haze? Most dont think they are hazing, rather initiating, having fun Most dont think they are hazing, rather initiating, having fun Reassures senior members that new people value membership in the group Reassures senior members that new people value membership in the group Seeking retaliation because of what they endured during hazing Seeking retaliation because of what they endured during hazing Feel accepted by others Feel accepted by others

6 Characteristics of people who Haze? Struggle with power relationships Struggle with power relationships Aggressive disposition Aggressive disposition Uses violence as an outlet Uses violence as an outlet Lacks self-esteem Lacks self-esteem Searching for meaning in their own life Searching for meaning in their own life

7 Cases of Hazing (high school) Wayne County, Pa. – Freshman member of High School football team was at a football camp and three older players sodomized him with a broomstick, golf balls and pine cones while teammates watched. Wayne County, Pa. – Freshman member of High School football team was at a football camp and three older players sodomized him with a broomstick, golf balls and pine cones while teammates watched. Baltimore, Md. – High School boys varsity soccer players drag several freshman across muddy field and force them to stand against a wall, then kick soccer balls at them from close range. One of the victims suffered a concussion. Baltimore, Md. – High School boys varsity soccer players drag several freshman across muddy field and force them to stand against a wall, then kick soccer balls at them from close range. One of the victims suffered a concussion. Essex Junction, Vt. – Member of girls gymnastics team was forced to eat bananas out of boys pants. Essex Junction, Vt. – Member of girls gymnastics team was forced to eat bananas out of boys pants. Kalaheo, Hawaii – Two coaches of the girls soccer team were suspended after team members were made to run around a field in undergarments. Kalaheo, Hawaii – Two coaches of the girls soccer team were suspended after team members were made to run around a field in undergarments.

8 Cases of Hazing (college) West Virginia University – Seventeen members of the swimming/diving team were suspended for two meets after underclassmen were required to drink alcohol and perform calisthenics within time limits. West Virginia University – Seventeen members of the swimming/diving team were suspended for two meets after underclassmen were required to drink alcohol and perform calisthenics within time limits. University of North Carolina – A freshman was hospitalized after drinking an excessive amount of alcohol at a Mens soccer team co-captains house. University of North Carolina – A freshman was hospitalized after drinking an excessive amount of alcohol at a Mens soccer team co-captains house. University of Vermont – Allegations of improper sexual touching, alcohol consumption and other hazing practices were confirmed by a state investigation against the hockey team. University of Vermont – Allegations of improper sexual touching, alcohol consumption and other hazing practices were confirmed by a state investigation against the hockey team. More Hazing incidents More Hazing incidents More Hazing incidents More Hazing incidents

9 Sports hazing incidents Although many hazing incidents go unreported, the following graph illustrates cases that have gained media attention and are seen in the public eye. (Graph focuses on cases from ). Year of incidents # of incidents

10 Penalties for Hazing Legal and school based penalties Legal and school based penalties Criminal and civil possibilities Criminal and civil possibilities A lot settled out of court so difficult to set a precedent A lot settled out of court so difficult to set a precedent Usually based on a case by case situation and depends on the school and evidence against the accused Usually based on a case by case situation and depends on the school and evidence against the accused Detentions, fines, monetary payment of punitive damages, suspension, community service Detentions, fines, monetary payment of punitive damages, suspension, community service Although hazing is sometimes difficult to prove there have been some cases that were successful at the judicial level. Many times penalties are dependent on severity, policies set forth by schools, and where the incident takes place (state level).

11 Potential Solutions Education (coaches, parents, children) – Must make more of a statement of importance Education (coaches, parents, children) – Must make more of a statement of importance Harsher penalties Harsher penalties Better defined laws Better defined laws Anti-hazing policies at school Anti-hazing policies at school Better supervision in facilities Better supervision in facilities Administrators and coaches accountable Administrators and coaches accountable Parents involved Parents involved Counseling Counseling StopHazing.org StopHazing.org StopHazing.org Illinois Hazing Law Illinois Hazing Law Illinois Hazing Law Illinois Hazing Law

12 How would H.S. students prevent hazing? Prevention Strategy % Strong discipline for hazing 61 Police investigation & prosecution of hazing 50 Positive, bonding activities 43 Education about positive initiation and hazing 37 Adults who support positive initiation activities 34 Physically challenging activities 30 Adults who say hazing is not acceptable 27 Good behavior required to join the group 29 A no hazing agreement would be signed by students 23 Other10 **Click here for other prevention strategies**Click here for other prevention strategies

13 Conclusion At first glance, hazing may seem like harmless pranks and ways to draw members of a team closer together, but innocent initiations can lead to potentially lethal outcomes. Hazing will not be eliminated from sports due to the nature of belonging and socialization, however parents, administrators and coaches can help by educating players, setting harsher penalties and getting more involved. If you have to ask the question, is what we are doing to these athletes considered hazing? Then it probably is!!

14 References Alfred University (2006). High School hazing, How do we stop hazing? Retrieved July 5, 2006, from Alfred University (2006). High School hazing, How do we stop hazing? Retrieved July 5, 2006, from ESPN (2002). Athletes abusing athletes. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from ESPN (2002). Athletes abusing athletes. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from ESPN (2002). Sports hazing incidents. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from ESPN (2002). Sports hazing incidents. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from Fields-Meyer, Thomas; Herbst, Diane; Bresnahan, Angi I.; Grisby, Lorna; Et al (2003). Too cruel for school. People, 60 (18), p Fields-Meyer, Thomas; Herbst, Diane; Bresnahan, Angi I.; Grisby, Lorna; Et al (2003). Too cruel for school. People, 60 (18), p Jacobs, Andrew (2000). Violent rites. New York Times Upfront, 132 (17), p Jacobs, Andrew (2000). Violent rites. New York Times Upfront, 132 (17), p Peluso, Alyson R. (2006). Hazing in sports: The effects and legal ramifications. The Sports Business Journal, 9 (1), p 1-9. Peluso, Alyson R. (2006). Hazing in sports: The effects and legal ramifications. The Sports Business Journal, 9 (1), p 1-9. Rosellini, Lynn (2000). The sordid side of college sports, many young athletes are subjected to hazing. U.S. News & World Report, p Rosellini, Lynn (2000). The sordid side of college sports, many young athletes are subjected to hazing. U.S. News & World Report, p Stop Hazing (2006). Anit-hazing workshop ideas. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from Stop Hazing (2006). Anit-hazing workshop ideas. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from Stop Hazing (2006). Hazing Defined. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from Stop Hazing (2006). Hazing Defined. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from Weir, Tom (2003). Hazing issues lasting impact rears ugly head across USA. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from hazing_x.htm Weir, Tom (2003). Hazing issues lasting impact rears ugly head across USA. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from hazing_x.htmhttp://www.usatoday.com/sports/preps/ hazing_x.htmhttp://www.usatoday.com/sports/preps/ hazing_x.htm

15 Questions What would you consider hazing in sports? What would you consider hazing in sports? In your opinion, what is the best solution to help prevent hazing in sports (education, penalties, etc.)? In your opinion, what is the best solution to help prevent hazing in sports (education, penalties, etc.)? Why do you think people haze others? Why do you think people haze others?


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