Invention Convention Necessity is the mother of invention. Using only the provided newspaper, scissors, and tape invent each of the following items. 1.Something to save your life. 2.A wasp trap. 3.A way to measure a two story building. 4.A foolproof clue to your identity. 5.A container to hold a 10lb rock. 6.A hearing aid. 7.A teaching aid to teach children subtraction. 8.An object to help someone communicate. 9.Something a pet owner may need. 10.Something to help prepare food.
Theories of Creativity 1.Threshold Theory 2.Psychoanalytic Theorists – Unconscious drive 3.Behaviorists – Reinforced behavior 4.Cognitivists- A way of thinking 5.Humanists – a state of being A.Maslow B.Rogers
Theories of Creativity 1.Threshold Theory 2.Psychoanalytic Theorists – Unconscious drive 3.Behaviorists – Reinforced behavior 4.Cognitivists- A way of thinking 5.Humanists – a state of being 6.Contemporary Theorists- a systems and developmental approach A.AmabileSimonton B.GruberCsikszentmihalyi C.Gardner
Gruber Studied traits of creative individuals Task commitment – Through working hard you transform yourself and what would be hard for others becomes easy for you. – The greatest fun is the work. – Creative people combine a zest for work with a capacity to play
Sense of purpose – Strong, robust energetic – A feeling of who they are and where they are going Risk taking – Challenged by the unknown – Courage can come at time depending on lifes circumstances
Network of Enterprises – Multiple ongoing interests thread through the intellectual life of a creative individual. – Complete and enduring sets of purposes – Juggling projects
Bracketing Technique creative people use to handle problem that they cant solve yet. Tolerance for ambiguity Sometimes intuitive ideas cant be explained for lack of knowledge must make assumptions
Images of a wide scope – Metaphor that holds the key to a creative breakthrough. –
Creative people must use their skills to devise environments that foster their work – They must invent new peer groups appropriate to their projects – Being creative means striking out in new directions and making new friends – Being creative means a willingness to be alone for awhile.
A Systems Perspective on Creativity Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Happiness, Creativity, and Flow
Figure 1.1 A systems model of creativity
Domain Area in which a person is working (art, physics, etc.) Dependent on culture (eg. computer science in San Francisco in 60s and 70s Different domains are valued in different ethnic groups
Field Experts/Gatekeepers in a given domain who judge creativity (eg. museum curators and modern art) Is affected by current social values
Attributes of Creative Students – Buy low and sell high – Excel in art but not as often in writing – Persists through resistance – Learn better when information is applicable – Can be hard to identify
Evaluating Creativity as a Teacher Identifying Creativity in Students – Quality of work – Sophistication of work – Originality of work Creativity is as much an attitude toward life as it is an ability – This attitude CAN be taught and nurtured in our students
INTELLIGENCE The ability to adapt to the environment. Acquire skills to adapt to their existing environment. CREATIVITY The ability to produce products that novel and high quality. But not necessarily what people expect or desire. WISDOM Balance the need for change (creativity) and stability (intelligence) The ideas of today's intelligence will be questioned by the ideas of tomorrow's creativity, only to be synthesized by the ideas of post tomorrow's wisdom. What Is the Common Thread of Creativity? Its Dialectical Relation to Intelligence and Wisdom By Robert Sternberg Sent June 19
The ability to adapt to the environment. Intelligent people are those who somehow acquire the skills that lead to their fitting into existing environments. Intelligence Individuals that balance a need for change (creativity) with the need for stability and continuity (intelligence) in human affairs. A wise person is both intelligent and creative. Wisdom The ability to produce products that are not only high in quality, but novel. They create ideas the defy the crowd by intelligently screening their own ideas. Creativity is meaningful only in the context of the system that judges it, what is creative in one context may not be creative in another. Creativity Sent June 19
Environment/Society Money in a given domain will affect creativity (eg. art in Italy during the Renaissance) On an individual level, the ability to be creative is a luxury and often not possible for those living in poor circumstances Someone who is too comfortable will not be motivated to be creative
Simonton Studied creativity over the life span. – Personality – Circumstances of their training – Properties of their most highly esteemed work.
Findings Maximal creativity Tend to produce more bad than good Drop out of college Smart but not too brainy
Developmental or early influences: – Higher incidence of parental loss – First born – Environment replete with intellectually and culturally stimulating materials – Role models: essential tension
Formal education – It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry for this delicate little plant aside from stimulation stands mostly in need of freedom; without this it goes to wreck and ruin without fail (Einstein)
As educational level increases the probability of achieving eminence in a creative endeavor also increases up to a certain optimum and thereafter declines so that further formal training diminishes the odds of achieving the highest eminence.
Theories of Creativity 1.Threshold Theory 2.Psychoanalytic Theorists – Unconscious drive 3.Behaviorists – Reinforced behavior 4.Cognitivists- A way of thinking 5.Humanists – a state of being 6.Contemporary Theorists- a systems and developmental approach
Creativity Review There seems to be a continuum of creative abilities C………………….c There is a relationship between intelligence and creativity. This is called the threshold effect. Depending on the psychological paradigm, creativity is viewed as a subconscious drive, a conditioned response, a way of thinking, or a drive to fulfill potential.