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ROLE PLAYING Terry Angel Bobbi Atkinson Randi Johnson Wilmington University.

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Presentation on theme: "ROLE PLAYING Terry Angel Bobbi Atkinson Randi Johnson Wilmington University."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROLE PLAYING Terry Angel Bobbi Atkinson Randi Johnson Wilmington University

2 Description/Definition The Dictionary of Education explains role-playing as an instructional technique involving a spontaneous portrayal (acting out) of a situation, condition, or circumstances by selected members of a learning group. The situation to which the person responds may be either structured or unstructured. (http://www.neiu.edu/~sdundis/hrd310/roleplaying.doc. pdf) The Dictionary of Education explains role-playing as an instructional technique involving a spontaneous portrayal (acting out) of a situation, condition, or circumstances by selected members of a learning group. The situation to which the person responds may be either structured or unstructured. (http://www.neiu.edu/~sdundis/hrd310/roleplaying.doc. pdf)http://www.neiu.edu/~sdundis/hrd310/roleplaying.doc. pdfhttp://www.neiu.edu/~sdundis/hrd310/roleplaying.doc. pdf A dramatic approach in which individuals assume the roles of others; usually unscripted, spontaneous interactions (may be semistructured) that are observed by others for analysis and interpretation. (Billings and Halstead, 2005) A dramatic approach in which individuals assume the roles of others; usually unscripted, spontaneous interactions (may be semistructured) that are observed by others for analysis and interpretation. (Billings and Halstead, 2005) Different than simulation where learners rehearse behaviors or roles they will need to master and apply to real life Different than simulation where learners rehearse behaviors or roles they will need to master and apply to real life

3 3 stages: 3 stages: 1. Briefing- explaining the objectives and setting up scenario 2. Running- the actual acting of scenario 3. Debriefing- the discussion, analysis, and evaluation of the experience 3 designs: 3 designs: 1. Informal- general situation with little or no preparation time 2. Formal- instructions provided which outline the scope and sequence 3. Clinical demonstration- similar to formal, typically uses anatomic model and often done as part of coaching session

4 Application of Educational Theory Cognitive Learning Theory- stresses the importance of what goes on inside the learner; in order to learn, individuals must change their cognition (perception, thought, memory, and ways of processing and structuring information). Cognitive Learning Theory- stresses the importance of what goes on inside the learner; in order to learn, individuals must change their cognition (perception, thought, memory, and ways of processing and structuring information). Constructivism- new knowledge built on internal representation of existing knowledge through personal interpretation of experience Constructivism- new knowledge built on internal representation of existing knowledge through personal interpretation of experience

5 Application of Educational Theory (cont.) Constructivists assume learners construct knowledge in an attempt to make sense of their experiences and those learners are active in seeking meaning. Constructivists assume learners construct knowledge in an attempt to make sense of their experiences and those learners are active in seeking meaning. Role playing is a technique to arouse feelings and elicit emotional responses in the learner; primarily to achieve behavioral objectives in the affective domain; used to develop an understanding of other people; the only strategy that gets the learner into another identity- allowing him/her an opportunity to perceive how others might feel, think and act. Role playing is a technique to arouse feelings and elicit emotional responses in the learner; primarily to achieve behavioral objectives in the affective domain; used to develop an understanding of other people; the only strategy that gets the learner into another identity- allowing him/her an opportunity to perceive how others might feel, think and act.

6 Application to Teaching Situation Cultural competence- can experience how individuals from other cultures may react in specific settings; allows practice of nursing interventions for appropriate response to culturally diverse patients Cultural competence- can experience how individuals from other cultures may react in specific settings; allows practice of nursing interventions for appropriate response to culturally diverse patients Counseling- allows practice of communication skills in the provision of information (health care provider to patient, family, other) and between individuals (relationship issues, work related issues) Counseling- allows practice of communication skills in the provision of information (health care provider to patient, family, other) and between individuals (relationship issues, work related issues) Educational- allows nursing/medical students to Educational- allows nursing/medical students to practice empathy for others (patients receiving bad news, family members having to make end of life decisions) practice empathy for others (patients receiving bad news, family members having to make end of life decisions)

7 Appropriate Settings Business/Work environment Business/Work environment Medical facility- office, ambulatory care, medical/nursing school, hospital Medical facility- office, ambulatory care, medical/nursing school, hospital Educational- other academic setting (primary/secondary education, college) Educational- other academic setting (primary/secondary education, college) Online education Online education Other- social service (police officers, fire fighters, social workers, child/adult protective services) Other- social service (police officers, fire fighters, social workers, child/adult protective services)

8 Pros/Advantages Learner can express feelings and attitudes Learner can express feelings and attitudes Encourages creativity Encourages creativity Learner can feel the situation rather than just intellectualize it Learner can feel the situation rather than just intellectualize it Learner is motivated and active Learner is motivated and active Focuses on problems real in nature Focuses on problems real in nature Affective learning can be taught and/or effectively evaluated Affective learning can be taught and/or effectively evaluated Learners learn to remain calm in face of adversity or pressures Learners learn to remain calm in face of adversity or pressures Simple and low cost Simple and low cost Does not need material or advance preparation Does not need material or advance preparation Provides opportunity to practice skills Provides opportunity to practice skills

9 Cons/Disadvantages Learners can emphasize performance over the intended lesson Learners can emphasize performance over the intended lesson Time consuming Time consuming Learners with talent can monopolize the situation Learners with talent can monopolize the situation Hot topics and controversial issues can get out of hand Hot topics and controversial issues can get out of hand Demands some imagination from learners Demands some imagination from learners Not appropriate for large groups Not appropriate for large groups Learners may be self conscious or feel threatened Learners may be self conscious or feel threatened Learners may not identify with character or situation Learners may not identify with character or situation Can be ineffective if fails to relate to learner or intended lesson Can be ineffective if fails to relate to learner or intended lesson

10 Adaptation of Strategy Business- increase cultural competence, conflict resolution between individuals Business- increase cultural competence, conflict resolution between individuals Health care- increase cultural competence, nursing/medical student education Health care- increase cultural competence, nursing/medical student education Other- psychotherapy, human relations and sensitivity training, counseling, education Other- psychotherapy, human relations and sensitivity training, counseling, education

11 Evaluation of Effectiveness The focus of role play is a problem/conflict and the resolution of the problem/conflict is what the participants should gain from participating in or observing the role play. The focus of role play is a problem/conflict and the resolution of the problem/conflict is what the participants should gain from participating in or observing the role play. Debriefing/Evaluation includes: Debriefing/Evaluation includes: 1. Allowing further discussion of topic- clarify any questions 2. Participants can clarify roles and feelings related to interaction 3. Questioning what participants/observers learned 4. Questioning likes/dislikes of interaction 5. Learners summarize the interaction and relate to the initial problem/conflict 6. Allowing exploration and suggestion of new behaviors before actual intervention

12 Summary Role-playing is a nontraditional instructional method utilizing acting as a means of providing insight into others thoughts, emotions, and actions for the purpose of better understanding.

13 References Ahsen, N.F., Batul, S.A., Ahmed, A.N., Imam, S.Z., Iqbal, H., and Shamshair, K. (2010) Developing counseling skills through pre-recorded videos and role play: a pre- and post-intervention study in Pakistani medical school. BMC Medical Education: 10(7); Ahsen, N.F., Batul, S.A., Ahmed, A.N., Imam, S.Z., Iqbal, H., and Shamshair, K. (2010) Developing counseling skills through pre-recorded videos and role play: a pre- and post-intervention study in Pakistani medical school. BMC Medical Education: 10(7); Bastable, S. B. (2008). Nurse as educator (3 ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Bastable, S. B. (2008). Nurse as educator (3 ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Billings, D.M. and Halstead, J.A. (2005) Teaching in Nursing- A Guide for Faculty 2 nd ed. Elsevier Saunders St. Louis, Missouri Billings, D.M. and Halstead, J.A. (2005) Teaching in Nursing- A Guide for Faculty 2 nd ed. Elsevier Saunders St. Louis, Missouri Comer, S.K. (2005) Role Playing to Enhance Clinical Understanding. Nursing Education Perspectives: 26(6) Comer, S.K. (2005) Role Playing to Enhance Clinical Understanding. Nursing Education Perspectives: 26(6)

14 References (cont.) Instructional Methods Information Instructional Methods Information Teaching Techniques Teaching_Techniques.pdf Teaching Techniques Teaching_Techniques.pdf Teaching_Techniques.pdf Teaching_Techniques.pdf Role Playing from excerpts from The Expert Educator (Jones, et. al., 1994) Role Playing from excerpts from The Expert Educator (Jones, et. al., 1994) Levitt, C. and Adelman, D.S. (2010) Role-Playing in Nursing Theory: Engaging Online Students. Journal of Nursing Education: 49(4); Levitt, C. and Adelman, D.S. (2010) Role-Playing in Nursing Theory: Engaging Online Students. Journal of Nursing Education: 49(4); Shearer, R. and Davidhizar, R. (2003) Using Role Play to Develop Cultural Competence. Journal of Nursing Education: 42(6); Shearer, R. and Davidhizar, R. (2003) Using Role Play to Develop Cultural Competence. Journal of Nursing Education: 42(6);


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