2OBJECTIVES Explore the evolution of the Tyler Curriculum Model Describe the model and its major componentsDefine the primary terms that are usedDiscuss the primary strengths and drawbacks of the modelDescribe how this model can be applied in (nursing) education
3EVOLUTION OF THE MODELClick the link below for a brief history of the evolution of the Tyler model:
4MAJOR COMPONENTSThe Tyler Model is often referred to as the ‘objective model’ because of it’s objective or unbiased approach to educational evaluationIt emphasizes consistency among objectives, learning experiences, and outcomesCurriculum objectives indicate both behavior to be developed and area of content to be applied (Keating, 2006)
5MAJOR COMPONENTSTyler stated his curriculum logic in terms of four questions which must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction:I. E, What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
6MAJOR COMPONENTS (CONT.) What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?How can we determine whether these purposes are being achieved?
7MAJOR COMPONENTSThese questions can be turned into a four step processStating ObjectivesSelecting Learning ExperiencesOrganizing Learning ExperiencesEvaluating the Curriculum
8Tyler’s Four Principles of Teaching Principle 1: Defining Appropriate Learning Objectives
10Tyler’s Teaching Principles cont’d Principle 3: Organizing Learning Experiences to Have a Maximum Cumulative Effect
11Tyler’s Teaching Principles cont’d Principle 4: Evaluating the Curriculum and Revising Those Aspects That Do Not Prove to be Effective (Keating, 2006)The four step can be defined as 1) stating the objectives, 2) selecting learning experiences, 3) organizing learning experiences and 4) evaluating the curriculum.11
12Synopsis of Principles Through the development of these four principles, Tyler introduced educational ideas leading to new considerations regarding the measurement of viable outcomes. These outcomes occur by developing a list of programs or curriculum objectives that indicates both the kind of behavior to be developed in the student and the area of content or life in which the behavior is to be applied (Keating 2006).
13What do we mean by evaluation? Evaluation encompasses the idea of aligning measurement and testing with educational objectives
14PRIMARY TERMS OF THE THEORY Stating Objectives (Denham, 2002)This progressive design emphasizes the importance of studying the student to find out what kinds of interests he has, what problems he encounters, what purposes he has in mind. The progressive sees this information as providing the basic source for selecting objectives
15PRIMARY TERMS OF THE THEORY Selecting Learning Experiences (Denham, 2002)Tyler believes that students learn through explorationLike his mentor, John Dewey, Tyler believes teachers should encourage students to appreciate how their learning can be applied to the real world.
16PRIMARY TERMS OF THE THEORY Organizing Learning Experiences (Denham, 2002)Central to Tyler’s Model is effectively organizing the learning activitiesStudents need concrete experiences in which the lessons are meaningfully connectedThree major criteria are required in building organized learning experiences: continuity, sequence and integration
17PRIMARY TERMS OF THE THEORY Evaluating the Curriculum (Denham, 2002)The process of assessment is critical to Tyler’s Model and begins with the objectives of the educational programThe process of evaluation is essentially the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are actually being realized by the program of curriculum and instruction
18STRENGTHS OF MODELThe active participation of the learner (Prideaux, 2003)Class objectives are clearly defined in the purposes. These purposes are then translated into educational objectives.The simple linear approach to development of behavioral objectives is applied (Billings & Halstead, 2009)
19CRITICISMS OF THE TYLER MODEL Narrowly interpreted objectives (acceptable verbs)Difficult and time consuming in the construction of behavioral objectivesCurriculum is restricted to a restricted range of student skills and knowledge
20CRITICISMS OF THE TYLER MODEL (CONT.)Critical thinking, problem solving and value acquiring processes cannot be plainly stated in behavioral objectives (Prideaux, 2003)
21CRITICISMS OF THE TYLER MODEL (CONT.)Learning experiences are individual and are not totally within the power of the teacher to selectThe teacher can control the learning experience through the manipulation of the environment, which results in stimulating situations sufficient to induce the kind of learning outcomes desired
22IMPLICATIONS FOR (NURSING) CURRICULUM Behavioral objectives are no longer the “gold standard”. Other prescriptive models, (rule based) have emerged since the 1980s.Outcome or results based education focuses on student behavior instead of the teacher and defines outcomes obtained by the student only
23REFERENCESDenham, T.J. (2002). Comparison of two curriculum/Instructional Design Models: Ralph W. Tyler and Siena College Accounting Class, ACCT205. Retrieved from ERIC Database. (ED )Northeastern Illinois University. (n.d.). Classical Model. Ralph Tyler, 1949, Book Summary. Retrieved fromUniversity of South Florida College of Education. (n.d.). Ralph Tyler’s little book. Retrieved from
24REFERENCES(CONT.)Billings, D. M. & Halstead, J.A. (2009).Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty. St. Louis, Missouri: Saunder ElsevierKeating, S. (2006). Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Prideaux, D. (2003). Curriculum design: ABC of learning and teaching in medicine. British Medical Journal, 326(7383), Retrieved from