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Transfer of Training Instructor’s notes: This module consists of three 50-minute class sessions (which could be covered in two 75 minute class sessions.

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Presentation on theme: "Transfer of Training Instructor’s notes: This module consists of three 50-minute class sessions (which could be covered in two 75 minute class sessions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transfer of Training Instructor’s notes: This module consists of three 50-minute class sessions (which could be covered in two 75 minute class sessions or one evening session). Training transfer means that learners are able to “transfer” their knowledge and skills learned in a training session back to their jobs. The importance of training transfer cannot be overemphasized. Organizations spend billions of dollars each year on training, yet only a fraction of that investment results in improved performance if training transfer is not supported by the employer. This module reviews the major factors which influence training participants' ability to apply and maintain knowledge and skills learned in a formal training setting back to the workplace. Transfer of Training

2 Learning Objectives Define transfer of training and the primary theories of transfer. Discuss the role and importance of transfer in evaluating training outcomes. Instructor’s Notes: Review the course objectives with students. Objectives 1 and 2 will be covered in the first class. Objective 3 will be covered in the second class and objectives 4 and 5 will be covered in the third class. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

3 Learning Objectives (cont’d)
Discuss three factors that affect transfer and learner performance. Discuss how transfer can be supported before, during and after training. Identify key stakeholders to support transfer strategies. The term “stakeholders” means any individual or group that has a “stake” in the transfer of training. These include managers, peers, customers and the employer. Stakeholders also assume responsibility for supporting transfer. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

4 Think About It Why do employers offer training to their employees??
Take a few suggestions from the participants before revealing the answer: Question: Why do employers offer training to their employees? Answer: The primary reason employers offer training is to ensure that workers have the required knowledge and skills to do their jobs. Training is only one part of the solution though; other factors can affect worker performance on the job. For the purpose of this module, we will focus on those factors that can occur before, during, and after a training intervention. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

5 Key Terms and Definitions
Definition: Training transfer is effectively and continually applying on the job what the trainee learned during training. Goals of successful training transfer: Trainees generalize skills to the work setting. Trainees maintain skills in the work setting. Training transfer is measured after participation in a training program. Review definition of transfer with students. Focus on the goals of successful transfer as both the generalization and maintenance of knowledge and skills to the work setting. Question: What is an example of training transfer? Answer: An example of transfer is when you use the new skills learned in a computer software training course (for example, Microsoft Excel) on the job (after training). ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

6 Transfer-of-Training Theories
Theory Emphasis Appropriate Conditions Type of Transfer Identical Elements Training environment is identical to work environment. Work environment features are predictable and stable. Near Stimulus Generalization General principles are applicable to many different work situations. Work environment is unpredictable and highly variable. Far Cognitive Theory Meaningful material and coding schemes enhance storage and recall of training. All types of training and environments. Near and far There are different theories which explain training transfer. The identical elements theory assumes that the training and work environment are the same. The transfer of knowledge and skills should be fairly stable and straightforward. The transfer process is described as “near” since there are no significant differences between the training context and the work context. On-the-job training is an example of a training method that can achieve “near” transfer. Question: What might be another example of this theory? Answer: Learning a new software program on the same laptop used on the job. Training pilots in a flight simulator or on the actual airplane. The stimulus generalization theory assumes there are trained knowledge and skills that can be used in different work situations. For example, using leadership skills to influence colleagues, peers, your manager or customers might require modifying those trained skills, depending on the relationship and the other person’s behavior. This type of transfer is considered “far” since the exact steps to apply the trained skill might not be uniformly applied across situations, thereby requiring the trainee to generalize the training to other situations. Question: Can you think of another example of training that would fall under this theory? Answer: Conflict resolution skills, communication skills and time management skills. Finally, the cognitive theory focuses on the internal processes that help learners retain and recall knowledge learned and apply it in a work setting. Because it can be applied in different situations, it relevant to both near and far transfer. A good example of the application of the cognitive theory is to use goal setting at the end of a training program. Goal setting helps learners focus on a specific and challenging goal to apply their knowledge and skills in the work setting. Question: Can you think of another example? Answer: Action plans or learning contracts. Noe (2008) ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

7 Training Evaluation Process: Kirkpatrick’s Framework
Donald Kirkpatrick (1998) developed these evaluation levels as a framework to assess different training outcomes. According to the recent learning measurement report conducted by Bershin and Associates (2006), the majority of employers said they frequently measured learner satisfaction and cognitive gains (learning) after a training session; however only 14 percent of said they measured whether training transfer had occurred. Despite such a low percentage, 76 percent of these same employers also said that measuring training transfer is valuable. Only 10 percent of employers said they tracked the the actual contribution (results) the training knowledge and skills made to improved performance. Question: Why do you think employers focus on assessing learner reaction and learning rather than transfer and business results? Answer: Measuring transfer means assessing the use of the knowledge and skills learned through training to the job through observation, checklists, evaluation of action plans or another method after a significant period of time has passed. Common timeframes include 30, 60 or 90 day (or longer) intervals. Assessing transfer can be time consuming, requires multiple resources and stakeholder support. Suggest to students that training transfer is the “bridge” between learning and affecting business results. Without transfer of knowledge and skills, learning cannot influence business results. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

8 Class 1 Summary & Activity
Training transfer is critical to ensure that learning is used to enhance performance. Unfortunately, many employers do not measure training transfer. Activity 1 will measure your knowledge of the key terms and theories reviewed in this class. Our next class will focus on the three main factors of training transfer. Activity #1: Have students complete the “Knowledge Check” activity. Have them compare answers and then discuss answers as a class. Answers are provided in the activities document. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

9 Class 2 - Introduction Activity Quick Review
Identify three key learning points from our prior discussion of transfer; definitions, types and the role in evaluation. Pair up with a partner and share your ideas. We will discuss these as a class. Instructor’s Note: As a way to introduce this class, ask students to share what they learned from the first class. Clarify and extend student comments. Now that you understand the definition and goals of training transfer and why measuring transfer is important, we will now discuss the factors that influence training transfer. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

10 Think About It Recall a learning experience where you successfully transferred your knowledge and skills to another setting. What helped you transfer your knowledge and skills? Were there interventions or activities that were useful in supporting your transfer of training to your job? What worked against successfully transferring your knowledge and skills? Ask students to recall a learning experience (class, job training or other) where they transferred some or all of their knowledge or skills to another setting. Have students share characteristics or activities that were helpful in their transfer example. Identify common themes from student comments. Also ask them what did not work or worked against their use and application of knowledge. Possible comments: Students may say that interest in the course topic helped them transfer knowledge. Others may say that a direct application of course content helped them transfer knowledge. Some students will say they were asked to consider how they transfer class skills in other settings. For some, a class was part of an internship so they were held accountable to apply the content learned in class to the internship. Possible comments: Lack of interest in course content, no connection between training content and actual job. Student comments about “what worked” to help them transfer their knowledge and skills likely fall into three main categories, supported in research and by anecdotal evidence from training professionals. We now will discuss the three main factors that affect learning and transfer. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

11 Training Transfer Model
Learner Characteristics Intervention Design Work Environment -Cognitive Ability -Self-efficacy -Motivation (personality, job/career) Development of Learning Goals Adult Learning Principles Instructional Methods & Media Self-Management Strategies Strategic Link of Training Org Climate & Accountability Opportunity to Perform Technological Support Learning Transfer Individual & Organizational Performance Drawing from the seminal work of Baldwin and Ford (1988) who first proposed a three-factor model of transfer, Burke and Hutchins (2007) conducted an integrative review of literature that updated and extended the transfer model. In this model, you will see that several factors affect both learning and transfer of knowledge and skills from a training event. Notice that transfer is also not the end result; successful transfer ultimately leads to improved individual and organizational performance. Each factor will be reviewed in the next few slides. Question: Which factor do you believe has the greatest affect on successful transfer? Answer: Emerging research shows that the work environment has a strong influence on learners’ use and maintenance of learning in the work setting. Of course, learning must occur first, but the work environment plays a large role after that. Based in part on Salas, Cannon-Bowers, Rhodenizer, & Bowers, 1999 & Baldwin & Ford, 1988. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

12 Learner Characteristics
Includes a learner’s intellectual ability and self efficacy (perceived ability) to understand and use his or her knowledge and skills and certain motivational factors, such as personality and usefulness of learning to job and career enhancement. Learner characteristics influence both learning and transfer. Question: Why do these learner characteristics influence training transfer? Answer: Because each plays a major role in learning and subsequently, transfer. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

13 Training Design The development of specific learning goals, the use of adult learning principles in the design and facilitation of training and the use of instructional media that support both near and far transfer. Self management strategies—such as goal-setting—help learners think about how they will use their knowledge and skills in the work setting. Training design affects transfer only through learning. Question: How does training design influence training transfer? Answer: Good training design helps support learning and how that learning will extend to the work setting. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

14 Work Environment When training is strategically linked to organizational goals, learners can see how their training transfer can improve overall organizational performance. Other work environment influences include that employers: Encourage a supportive transfer climate. Hold learners accountable for their learning. Involve managers and peers to support training transfer and provides learners with opportunities to practice their new skills in the work setting. Emerging technologies such as learning management systems and employee performance support systems help support the application of learning in the work setting by helping learners access knowledge “on demand”. Learning management systems (LMS) are software tools which design, support and manage organizational learning interventions. Examples include WebCT and Blackboard. An electronic performance support system (EPSS) is an integrated online environment available to each employee which provides online access to performance support resources. Question: Why do these factors influence training transfer? Answer: A supportive work environment is one of the most important factors to influencing training transfer. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

15 Organizations in the Spotlight
In 2003, Multicare Health Systems (Tacoma, WA) faced patient care and staff motivation issues. To address these issues, Multicare introduced a clinical education program to increase nurses’ knowledge and patient care skills. Multicare made sure learners used and maintained their learning on the job by aligning the performance management system with training goals. The education program also incorporated action plans, formal coaching, job aids and learning sessions that included roleplay activities and opportunities for reflection. Multicare Health Systems is a good example of an employer who used some of the transfer practices reviewed in the previous slides. Multicare Health Systems was identified as a top training organization (BEST organization) by the American Society of Training and Development [Salopek, J. (2005). 29 organizations that leverage learning to achieve amazing results. T+D, 26-69]. BEST organizations are selected based on their strategic alignment of learning to business outcomes. Note: Other examples as listed in the Exemplar Companies document and can be used to extend discussion on this topic. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

16 Continuous Support of Transfer
Supporting transfer at the learner, design and work environment levels requires developing interventions that occur throughout (before, during, after) the training experience. Are there different transfer strategies that might better if used before, during or after training? Mary Broad conducted extensive research to identify strategies that support transfer before, during and after the training experience. Her early work with Newstrom (Broad & Newstrom, 1992) resulted in a matrix that identified specific strategies that could be used to support transfer at each time period. She has since updated this list in her most recent work (Broad, 2005). Some of these strategies are listed on the next few slides. Question: Are there different transfer strategies that might be better if used before, during or after training? Ask students to consider their own learning experiences in school or on the job. Answer: Yes. It has been only recently that research has considered how transfer strategies might be distributed throughout the training process. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

17 Transfer Strategies Used Before Training
Review training goals with manager and understand how learning will contribute to improved performance. Review training content before the training session. Use actual work issues or examples during training to support the “identical elements theory” of transfer. Question: What are some examples of transfer strategies that could be used before training? Possible answers: Come to training with an open attitude for learning; discuss how the trainees will be held accountable for transfer. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

18 Transfer Strategies Used During Training
Create a mnemonic device to help trainees remember key concepts (i.e., abbreviations or metaphors). Have managers participate in training to show support for training program. Have trainees complete action plans as a part of training program. A mnemonic device is a combination of symbols, words, pictures or numbers that help people remember a concept. Having managers present and actively participating during training motivates fellow trainees to focus on the training; if it’s important enough to have managers participate, it must be “must know” information for all trainees. Having trainees complete action plans (how they will apply the training to their jobs) during the actual training helps them “fit” the training into the context of their work environment, facilitating training transfer. Question: What are some examples of transfer strategies that could be used during training? Possible answers: Stick to “must-know” content; keep trainees involved and engaged in training with activities; provide reflection time; and include frequent learning assessments via quizzes and feedback. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

19 Transfer Strategies Used After Training
Provide trainees with opportunities to apply their new knowledge and skills on the job. Talk with other trainees about how they are applying the training at work. Discuss transfer behaviors during performance reviews. Question: What are some examples of transfer strategies that could be used after training? Possible answers: Ask trainee what they learned and for examples; distribute posters or job aids to remind employees of key training concepts. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

20 Activity #2 Review the mini-case study and answer the following questions: How was transfer supported or not supported in this organization before, during and after training? What was the ultimate affect of training? What changes would you suggest to enhance transfer of training? Activity #2: Review case and discussion points listed in the Activity handout. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

21 Summary Supporting transfer is a multifaceted process that involves activities and interventions throughout a training experience. In the final session, you will learn about some of the obstacles to transfer and how stakeholders play a fundamental role in removing obstacles to support transfer. Tell students they will also have an opportunity to apply their new learning in an actual training situation where they are in charge of how transfer will be supported. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

22 Class 3: Stakeholder Support of Transfer
In addition to understanding when and how transfer can be supported (as we did in the second class), we now will consider who plays a critical role to ensure that transfer takes place through the training experience. As organizations become more technologically and culturally complex, stakeholders become important to help employees achieve effective performance. So far, we’ve discussed the definition and theories of training transfer and how strategies can be applied at different intervals (before, during, and after) a training session to support transfer. We now introduce the role of the stakeholder in supporting transfer. Remember that we are using the term “stakeholder” to mean any person with a “stake” in the trainee transferring new knowledge and skills to the work setting. They also assume to responsibility to support transfer. Stakeholders include managers, peers, colleagues, clients and customers, and the organization as a whole. Question: During your last learning experience, who played a pivotal role in supporting your use and application of learning? Ask students to discuss how this stakeholder(s) helped support the transfer. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

23 Obstacles to Transfer Lack of motivation for learning or transfer.
Lack of reinforcement of new knowledge of skills. Interference from the work environment. Non-supportive culture. Impractical, irrelevant training. Poor training design and facilitation. Lack of accountability. Before we discuss specific stakeholder roles, let’s discuss some of the obstacles that can prevent or block training transfer. Notice these are the opposite of what we discussed in the transfer model (Slide #11). Question: Consider when you’ve found it difficult to use or to apply new knowledge on the job. What obstacles prevented successful transfer? Did some of them include those listed or were there others? Answer: Suggest that transfer strategies—even when known by an organization—often go overlooked unless stakeholders are held accountable for supporting learners. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

24 Role of Stakeholders Consider how the following stakeholders might play a role in supporting transfer: Learners/Trainees Peers/Co-workers Trainers Supervisors Executives Some examples of how each stakeholder supports training transfer (Broad, 2005): Learners: Complete any pre- or post-training assignments, provide real work examples, discuss action plan (or plan for transfer) with manager. Peers/Co-workers: Ask learner about knowledge and skills learned in training, offer to assist learner in work tasks that were missed while in training. Trainers: Involve managers in performance analysis and intervention; work with supervisor on how to support learner transfer, provide realistic job aids. Supervisors: Lead or introduce training sessions, hold learner accountable for transfer. Executives: Show support for transfer, approve resources that encourage and reward transfer. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

25 Think About It Identify the stakeholders who would be the most responsible for supporting the transfer strategies listed below: Create mnemonic devices to help trainees remember key concepts (i.e., abbreviations or metaphors). Have managers participate in training to show support for training program. Have trainees complete action plans as a part of training program. Transfer strategies support the application of knowledge and skills; however, it is essential that we also know who (as in stakeholders) should be in charge of using these strategies through the training experience. Answers: Trainers can create mnemonic devices to help trainees remember key concepts (i.e., abbreviations or metaphors). Managers can participate in training to show support for training program. Trainees can complete action plans as a part of training program. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

26 Stakeholders’ Support of Transfer
Broad’s (2005) transfer matrix provides a framework to understand how transfer can be continuously supported throughout the training experience: Role of Stakeholders Temporal Dimension (Before, During and After) Broad has worked extensively with organizations to help them identify, use and assess strategies to support transfer. Her biggest contribution to improve transfer is in integrating the use of stakeholder support at the different temporal intervals during a training experience. That is, stakeholders must assume responsibility for supporting transfer throughout the training experience and there are suggested strategies and activities that can occur at different phases or times during the training experience. The table on the next slide is an example of Broad’s (2005) transfer matrix and has been used extensively to help employers understand how to align transfer interventions with key stakeholders. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

27 Transfer Matrix This is the matrix developed by Broad.
Before During After Trainers Trainees Supervisors This is the matrix developed by Broad. Explain to students they will use this matrix in an upcoming application activity. Also, the matrix is available online at: If time permits, the instructor might access this URL and show it to the students. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

28 Activity #3 Read the training scenario and generate at least two ideas to support transfer. Record your ideas in the 3 x 3 grid provided in your activity handout. Discuss your ideas to support transfer. Activity #3: Provide a copy of Activity #3 for students to complete. Discussion notes are included in the document to help guide the discussion. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

29 Review and Summary Reflect on what we’ve discussed over the past few sessions about transfer of training. Consider the following: What I now know: What did you learn about training transfer? What I will now do: How will you use this new knowledge in your work setting or when you engage in new learning in the future? Ask students to review learning points that were most important to them and how they plan to use it. If time permits, this can be a “Think-Pair-Share” activity where students reflect on the questions and then share their ideas with a peer(s). *Note: If time permits, the instructor can use the Transfer Research Quiz to promote discussion of training professional’ beliefs concerning transfer research. **See also Solem and Pike (1997) for effective session closers. ©SHRM 2008 Transfer of Training

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