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Transfer of Training
© SHRM Learning Objectives 1. Define transfer of training and the primary theories of transfer. 2. Discuss the role and importance of transfer in evaluating training outcomes.
© SHRM Learning Objectives (cont’d) 3. Discuss three factors that affect transfer and learner performance. 4. Discuss how transfer can be supported before, during and after training. 5. Identify key stakeholders to support transfer strategies.
© SHRM Think About It Why do employers offer training to their employees??
© SHRM Key Terms and Definitions isDefinition: Training transfer is effectively and continually applying on the job what the trainee learned during training. Goals of successful training transfer: > Trainees generalize skills to the work setting. > Trainees maintain skills in the work setting. Training transfer is measured after participation in a training program.
© SHRM Transfer-of-Training Theories TheoryEmphasisAppropriate ConditionsType of Transfer Identical Elements Training environment is identical to work environment. Work environment features are predictable and stable. Near Stimulus Generalization General principles are applicable to many different work situations. Work environment is unpredictable and highly variable. Far Cognitive Theory Meaningful material and coding schemes enhance storage and recall of training. All types of training and environments. Near and far Noe (2008)
© SHRM Training Evaluation Process: Kirkpatrick’s Framework
© SHRM Class 1 Summary & Activity Training transfer is critical to ensure that learning is used to enhance performance. Unfortunately, many employers do not measure training transfer. Activity 1 will measure your knowledge of the key terms and theories reviewed in this class. Our next class will focus on the three main factors of training transfer.
© SHRM Class 2 - Introduction Activity Quick Review Identify three key learning points from our prior discussion of transfer; definitions, types and the role in evaluation. Pair up with a partner and share your ideas. We will discuss these as a class.
© SHRM Think About It Recall a learning experience where you successfully transferred your knowledge and skills to another setting. What helped you transfer your knowledge and skills? Were there interventions or activities that were useful in supporting your transfer of training to your job? What worked against successfully transferring your knowledge and skills?
© SHRM Training Transfer Model Based in part on Salas, Cannon-Bowers, Rhodenizer, & Bowers, 1999 & Baldwin & Ford, Learner Characteristics Intervention Design Work Environment -Cognitive Ability -Self-efficacy -Motivation (personality, job/career) Development of Learning Goals Adult Learning Principles Instructional Methods & Media Self-Management Strategies Strategic Link of Training Org Climate & Accountability Opportunity to Perform Technological Support Learning Transfer Individual & Organizational Performance Individual & Organizational Performance
© SHRM Learner Characteristics Includes a learner’s intellectual ability and self efficacy (perceived ability) to understand and use his or her knowledge and skills and certain motivational factors, such as personality and usefulness of learning to job and career enhancement. Learner characteristics influence both learning and transfer.
© SHRM Training Design The development of specific learning goals, the use of adult learning principles in the design and facilitation of training and the use of instructional media that support both near and far transfer. Self management strategies—such as goal-setting—help learners think about how they will use their knowledge and skills in the work setting. Training design affects transfer only through learning.
© SHRM Work Environment When training is strategically linked to organizational goals, learners can see how their training transfer can improve overall organizational performance. Other work environment influences include that employers: > Encourage a supportive transfer climate. > Hold learners accountable for their learning. > Involve managers and peers to support training transfer and provides learners with opportunities to practice their new skills in the work setting. Emerging technologies such as learning management systems and employee performance support systems help support the application of learning in the work setting by helping learners access knowledge “on demand”.
© SHRM Organizations in the Spotlight In 2003, Multicare Health Systems (Tacoma, WA) faced patient care and staff motivation issues. To address these issues, Multicare introduced a clinical education program to increase nurses’ knowledge and patient care skills. Multicare made sure learners used and maintained their learning on the job by aligning the performance management system with training goals. The education program also incorporated action plans, formal coaching, job aids and learning sessions that included roleplay activities and opportunities for reflection.
© SHRM Continuous Support of Transfer Supporting transfer at the learner, design and work environment levels requires developing interventions that occur throughout (before, during, after) the training experience. Are there different transfer strategies that might better if used before, during or after training?
© SHRM Transfer Strategies Used Before Training Review training goals with manager and understand how learning will contribute to improved performance. Review training content before the training session. Use actual work issues or examples during training to support the “identical elements theory” of transfer.
© SHRM Transfer Strategies Used During Training Create a mnemonic device to help trainees remember key concepts (i.e., abbreviations or metaphors). Have managers participate in training to show support for training program. Have trainees complete action plans as a part of training program.
© SHRM Transfer Strategies Used After Training Provide trainees with opportunities to apply their new knowledge and skills on the job. Talk with other trainees about how they are applying the training at work. Discuss transfer behaviors during performance reviews.
© SHRM Activity #2 Review the mini-case study and answer the following questions: > How was transfer supported or not supported in this organization before, during and after training? > What was the ultimate affect of training? > What changes would you suggest to enhance transfer of training?
© SHRM Summary Supporting transfer is a multifaceted process that involves activities and interventions throughout a training experience. In the final session, you will learn about some of the obstacles to transfer and how stakeholders play a fundamental role in removing obstacles to support transfer.
© SHRM Class 3: Stakeholder Support of Transfer In addition to understanding when and how transfer can be supported (as we did in the second class), we now will consider who plays a critical role to ensure that transfer takes place through the training experience. As organizations become more technologically and culturally complex, stakeholders become important to help employees achieve effective performance.
© SHRM Obstacles to Transfer Lack of motivation for learning or transfer. Lack of reinforcement of new knowledge of skills. Interference from the work environment. Non-supportive culture. Impractical, irrelevant training. Poor training design and facilitation. Lack of accountability.
© SHRM Role of Stakeholders Consider how the following stakeholders might play a role in supporting transfer: > Learners/Trainees > Peers/Co-workers > Trainers > Supervisors > Executives
© SHRM Think About It Identify the stakeholders who would be the most responsible for supporting the transfer strategies listed below: Create mnemonic devices to help trainees remember key concepts (i.e., abbreviations or metaphors). Have managers participate in training to show support for training program. Have trainees complete action plans as a part of training program.
© SHRM Stakeholders’ Support of Transfer Broad’s (2005) transfer matrix provides a framework to understand how transfer can be continuously supported throughout the training experience: > Role of Stakeholders > Temporal Dimension (Before, During and After)
© SHRM Transfer Matrix BeforeDuringAfter Trainers Trainees Supervisors
© SHRM Activity #3 Read the training scenario and generate at least two ideas to support transfer. Record your ideas in the 3 x 3 grid provided in your activity handout. Discuss your ideas to support transfer.
© SHRM Review and Summary Reflect on what we’ve discussed over the past few sessions about transfer of training. Consider the following: > What I now know: What did you learn about training transfer? > What I will now do: How will you use this new knowledge in your work setting or when you engage in new learning in the future?
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