Broad Overview Method: Lecture Derived from the Latin word “lectura” which means “to read”. “Highly structured method by which the teacher verbally transmits information directly to groups of learners for the purpose of instruction” (Fitzgerald, 2006, p. 321). One of the oldest and most often used methods. Efficient and cost-effective method for relaying large amounts of information to large amounts of people at the same time. Fitzgerald, 2006
Broad Overview Lecture includes an introduction, body, and conclusion. Introduction: Learners are presented with an overview of the objectives and an explanation of why those objectives are significant. Body: Actual delivery of content. May use audiovisual material (i.e. video, overhead, power point). Conclusion Review the major concepts presented in the lecture. Fitzgerald, 2006
Educational Theory Cognitive Learning Theory Focuses on what goes on “inside the learner such as their perceptions, thoughts, memory, and ways of processing and structuring information” (Braungart & Braungart, 2006, p. 43). Jean Piaget is the best-known cognitive development theorist. Piaget stages of cognitive development include: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations. Braungart & Braungart, 2006
Uses Ways to apply the strategy: To provide background information, summarizing data, and presenting the latest research findings on a particular topic. To help students understand complicated or theoretical material. To adapt to the individual learners cognitive needs and levels (translating words, using clarifying examples, and analogies). Motivate students by showing personal interest in the topic and presenting personal viewpoints. Fitzgerald, 2008
Uses Settings: Classroom, Conferences, Distance learning, Addressing colleagues, Courtroom, Television Most settings Ways to adapt Engaging combinations of lecture, group discussions, or virtual environment to appeal to the students desires for excitement, motivation and inspiration in learning. Jones, 2007
Pros & Cons Pros Highly structured Efficient Cost-Effective Can be easily supplemented Effective in lower-level cognitive domain Allows a large amount of information to be relayed to a large amount of people at the same time Cons Ineffective in teaching affective and psychomotor behaviors No stimulation of learners Limited opportunity for learner involvement Learners are passive Not individualized Fitzgerald, 2006
Pros & Cons Pros Quantitatively efficient and flexible Lecturer has control over content and delivery of material Demonstrates patterns, main ideas, and present unique way of viewing information Cons Produces surface rather than deep learning Learner boredom and inattention Teacher is unable to compensate for learners individual preferred style of learning Fitzgerald, 2008 & Jones, 2007
Evaluation Formative evaluation Evaluation is ongoing throughout the education process. Content evaluation Determine if learners have acquired the knowledge or skills taught. Takes place immediately after the learning experience. Summative evaluation Determine effects or outcomes of teaching efforts. Worral, 2006
Evaluation Impact evaluation Determine the relative effects of education on the institution or the community. Program Evaluation Determine the extent to which all activities for an entire department or program over a period of time to meet or exceed goals originally established. Post-test, Self-evaluation, Observer Likert Scale with written feedback Discussion with learners Worral, 2006
Summary Lecture is one of the oldest and most often used teaching methods. Efficient and cost-effective method for relaying large amounts of information to large amounts of people at the same time. Lecture includes an introduction, body, and conclusion. Lecture can be used to provide background information, summarizing data, and presenting the latest research findings on a particular topic. Can be used in a variety of settings.
Summary Pros: Highly structured, efficient, cost-effective, easily supplemented with audiovisual material, and flexible. Cons: Not individualized, learner boredom, ineffective for affective and psychomotor learners, and produces surface learning. Evaluation methods include: formative, content, summative, impact, program, post-test, self- evaluation, discussion, Likert scale, and use of an observer.
References Braungart, M.M., & Braungart, R.G. (2006). Applying learning theories to health care. In S.B. Bastable (Ed.), Essentials of patient education (pp. 37-62). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Fitzgerald, K. (2008). Instructional methods and settings. In S. B. Bastable (Ed.), Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice (3rd ed., pp. 429-471.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Fitzgerald, K. (2006). Teaching methods and instructional settings. In S.B. Bastable (Ed.), Essentials of patient education (pp. 319-347). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
References Jones, S., (2007). Reflections on the lecture: Outmoded medium or instrument of inspiration? Journal of Further and Higher Education, 31(4) 397-406. doi: 10.1080/03098770701656816 Worral, P.S. (2006). Evaluation in healthcare education. In S.B. Bastable (Ed.), Essentials of patient education (pp. 409-434). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.