Presentation on theme: "OMM and the Athlete Upper Body Workshop"— Presentation transcript:
1OMM and the Athlete Upper Body Workshop Jake Rowan DODept of OMMMSUCOM
2Goals/Objectives Review OPP and how they apply to sports medicine Discuss functional biomechanicsReview palpatory dxDiscuss OMM tx approach
3An Osteopathic Approach to Treatment The role of the physician is to facilitate the healing processThe focus of treatment is the patientThe patient is treated in the context of the disease process they are experiencing.The patient has the primary responsibility for his or her health.There is a somatic component of disease and manipulative therapy can restore the body’s function, enhance wellness, and assist in recovery from disease and injury.
4OPP - Manual Medicine Approach Somatic DysfunctionImpaired or altered function of related components of the somatic system (skeletal, arthrodial and myofascial structures) and the related vascular, lymphatic, and neural elements
5Diagnostic Triad of Somatic Dysfunction Asymmetry of positionComparing left to right and superior to inferiorRange of motion restrictionsStanding Flexion TestStork TestSeated Flexion TestTissue texture abnormalitiesChange in soft tissue texture
6MANUAL MEDICINE APPROACH Physician needs to identify the problem, make the Dx, and Rx the appropriate TXTx – surgery, drugs, manipulation, therapeutic exerciseGoal for Manipulation To improve mobility of tissues (bone, joint, muscle, ligament, fascia, fluid) and restore to normal physiological motion if possible.Restore the maximal pain free movement of the musculoskeletal system in postural balance
7MODELS OF MANUAL MEDICINE Biomechanical model.Neurologic model.Respiratory-circulatory model.Bioenergy model.Organ system model.
8Models, Mechanisms & Activating Forces Model relates to the therapeutic objective of the intervention.Method relates to the approach to the restrictive barrier. ( Direct, Indirect, Combined).Depends on the clinician, patient and environment/settingActivating Forces - intrinsic and extrinsic.
9JOINT PLAYDefinition: Movement within a synovial joint that is independent of, and cannot be reproduced by, voluntary muscle contraction, but essential for maximal pain free movement of the joint.Joint examination: Examination is made for the precise joint play movements of that joint.Joint treatment/manipulation: Movements that restore joint play.Occurs in all synovial joints.
10John McM. Mennell, M.D. Physiatrist trained at Cambridge England. His father James also a manual medicine physician.They introduced Joint Play examination & treatment.One of founders of NAAMM.
13JOINT DYSFUNCTION A specific type of somatic dysfunction The loss of joint play movement that cannot be recovered by voluntary muscle.Normal voluntary movements are restricted and frequently painful.
14JOINT PLAY EVALUATION & THERAPEUTIC MANIPULATION Evaluate each play movement and compare with contralateral side.Therapeutic manipulation is the use of a high velocity, low amplitude thrust to restore the play movement.
15THE “NEVERS” IN JOINT PLAY EVALUATION Normal ligaments are NEVER tender to palpation.You can NEVER palpate a normal joint capsule.You can NEVER palpate fluid in a normal joint.NEVER manipulate a swollen, warm, or inflamed joint.
1610 RULES OF JOINT PLAY EXAM & TREATMENT Patient must be relaxed.Therapist must be relaxed. Therapeutic grasp must be painless, firm, and protective.One joint mobilized at a time.One movement in a joint restored at a time.One aspect of the joint is stabilized and the other aspect moved.Extent of movement is same as assessed in the same joint on the opposite side.No forceful or abnormal movement must ever be used.The manipulative movement is a sharp thrust, with velocity, to result in a 1/8th “ gapping or sliding at the joint being treated.Therapeutic movements occur when all of the “slack” has been taken up in the joint.No therapeutic maneuver is done in the presence of joint or bone inflammation or disease (Heat, redness, swelling, etc.).
22Anatomy of the Scapula and Posterior Shoulder The Quadrangular Space
23SCAPULAR ROTATION ON THE THORAX Athlete’s arm on your shoulderFingers under medial edge of bladeBoth hands move scapula medially, laterally, superiorly and inferiorlyAthlete breathes through maneuvers
25Shoulder/Arm CirclesThe patient is side lying and the arm is taken around in a circle overhead with the elbow straight and the hand in contact with the floor.The patient is instructed to keep the knees together, but encouraged to rotate through the thoracic spine and rib cage.Notice the restriction for thoracic rotation to the left.
28Sternoclavicular Joint Diagnosis Test for Restricted Abduction Patient supine on table with arms resting easily at the side.Operator stands at side or head of table with paired fingers over the superior aspect of the medial end of the clavicle.The patient is asked to actively ‘shrug the shoulders’ by bringing the shoulder tip to the ear bilaterally.The operators palpating fingers follow the movement at the medial end of the clavicle.
29Sternoclavicular Joint Diagnosis Test for Restricted Abduction The normal finding is equal movement of the medial end of both clavicles in a downward direction.A positive finding is the failure of one clavicle to move downward when compared to the opposite. It appears to be held in the original starting position.Note: This test can also be done with patient sitting.
30Sternoclavicular Joint Muscle Energy Technique Supine Operator internally rotates the dysfunctional upper extremity and carries it into extension off the edge of the table to the resistant barrier while monitoring with the opposite hand at the sternoclavicular regionPatient performs a 3-to 5-second muscle contraction to lift the arm toward the ceiling against operator resistance for 3 to 5 repetitions.Following each relaxation, the operator increases the extension of the upper extremity to a new resistant barrier and patient again repeats the effort of lifting the arm toward the ceiling.
31Sternoclavicular Joint Muscle Energy Technique Sitting Patient sitting on table or stool.Operator standing behind patient with the thenar eminence of one hand in contact with the superior aspect of the medial end of the dysfunctional clavicle and the other hand controlling the dysfunctional upper extremity at the elbowWith the elbow at 90 degrees, the upper extremity is externally rotated and abducted to approximately 90 degrees with additional abduction until the resistant barrier is engaged
32Sternoclavicular Joint Muscle Energy Technique Sitting Patient performs muscle contraction to adduct the upper extremity three to five times for 3 to 5 second against resistance offered at the elbow by the operator.After relaxation, operator engages new barrier.
33RESTRICTED ABDUCTION OF SC JOINT caudal pressure on claviclesweep arm to opposite knee
34Sternoclavicular Joint Diagnosis Test for Restricted Horizontal Flexion Patient supine on table.Operator stands at side or head of table with fingers symmetrically placed on the anterior aspect of the medial end of each claviclePatient extends the upper extremities in front of the body by reaching toward the ceilingOperator evaluates movement of the medial end of each clavicleThe normal finding is for each clavicle to move symmetrically in a posterior direction as the lateral end of the clavicle moves anteriorlyA positive finding is for one clavicle not to move in a posterior direction during the reaching effort
35Sternoclavicular Joint Muscle Energy Technique Supine Patient supine on table.Operator stands on side of table opposite the dysfunctional sternoclavicular joint.Operator places one hand over the medial end of the dysfunctional clavicle and the caudad hand grasps the patient’s shoulder girdle over the posterior aspect of the scapulaPatient’s hand grasps back of operator’s neck with an extended arm
36Sternoclavicular Joint Muscle Energy Technique Supine Operator engages the horizontal flexion barrier by standing more erect and lifting the dysfunctional scapulaPatient pulls down upon the operator’s neck with 3 to 5 second muscle effort for 3 to 5 repetitions while operator maintains posterior compression on the anterior aspect of the medial end of the dysfunctional clavicle.Operator engages new barrier after each of patient’s muscular contraction
37RESTRICTED HORIZONTAL FLEXION OF SC JOINT arm sweeps from horizontal extension to flexionposterior pressure on clavicle
39ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT Superior acromioclavicular ligament.Inferior acromioclavicular ligament.Coracoclavicular ligament.
40Acromioclavicular Joint Test for Restricted Abduction and Adduction Patient sitting with operator standing behind.Operator’s medial hand palpates the superior aspect of the ac joint monitoring a gapping movement at the ac joint and the lateral hand controls the pt’s proximal forearm and takes pt’s upper extremity to horizontal flexion of 30 degrees then adds ADduction and ABduction.Absence of the gapping movement is evidence of restriction of adduction or abduction movement.Comparison is made with the opposite side.
41Muscle Energy Technique Sitting Tx: Restricted Abduction Patient sitting on table or stool with operator standing behind.Operator maintains compressive force on lateral end of the clavicle, medial to the ac joint.Operator’s lateral hand takes patient’s upper extremity to horizontal flexion of 30 degrees and abducts to the barrierPatient pulls elbow to the side against resistance offered by the operator for 3 to 5 seconds and repetitions.Operator engages new abduction barrier after each muscle effort
42Acromioclavicular Joint Diagnosis: Test for Restricted Internal and External Rotation Patient sitting on table or stool with operator standing behind.Operator’s medial hand palpates the superior aspect of the ac joint.Operator’s lateral hand moves the upper extremity into horizontal flexion to 30 degrees and abduction to the first barrier
43Acromioclavicular Joint Diagnosis: Test for Restricted Internal and External Rotation Operator introduces internal rotation and external rotation while monitoring mobility of the ac joint.Comparison is made with the opposite side
44Muscle Energy Technique Tx: Restricted External Rotation Operator’s medial hand stabilizes the lateral aspect of the clavicle and monitors the ac joint.Operator takes upper extremity to 30 degrees of horizontal flexion and abduction to 90 degrees.External rotational barrier is engaged with the operator’s lateral hand grasping the patient’s wrist and places forearm to patient’s forearm
45Muscle Energy Technique Tx: Restricted External Rotation Patient provides muscle contraction for 3 to 5 seconds and repetitions against resistance of external rotation.Operator engages new barrier after each muscle contraction.
46Muscle Energy Technique Tx: Restricted Internal Rotation Operator’s medial hand stabilizes the lateral aspect of the clavicle and monitors the ac joint.Operator takes upper extremity to 30 degrees of horizontal flexion and abduction to 90 degrees.Operator engages internal rotation barrier by threading lateral forearm under patient’s elbow and grasping distal forearm
47Muscle Energy Technique Tx: Restricted Internal Rotation Patient provides muscle contraction for 3 to 5 seconds and repetitions against resistance of internal rotation.Operator engages new barrier after each muscle contraction.
79Dx RESTRICTED HEAD OF RADIUS Supinated forearms together.Extend elbows.Observe symmetry of reaction at elbows.
80Dx RESTRICTED HEAD OF RADIUS Palpate for symmetry.Pronate/supinate radius.Position: posterior radial head > Motion Restriction: supinationPosition: anterior radial head > Motion Restriction: pronation
81Dx ELBOW REGION SUPINATION/PRONATION Elbow flexed, thumb vertical.
82Dx ELBOW REGION SUPINATION/PRONATION Forearm supination (external rotation).
83Dx ELBOW REGION SUPINATION/PRONATION Forearm pronation (internal rotation)
84Rx ELBOW REGION SUPINATION/PRONATION Restricted supination.Restricted pronation.
85MET Rx RESTRICTED HEAD OF RADIUS Resist pronation.Resist elbow flexion.
86HUMEROULNAR JOINTMobilization without impulse (articulatory) technique.Stabilize hand against chest wall.Grasp ulna and provide caudal distraction.Mobilize medially and laterally as the elbow is taken into extension.
89DISTAL RADIOULNAR JOINT Pivots with the proximal radioulnar joint in forearm supination and pronation.Joint stabilization:Articular cartilage.Articular capsule.Not a synovial joint.
90RADIOCARPAL JOINTA condyloid synovial joint between distal radius and the proximal row of the carpal bones, scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones.
91INTRACARPAL JOINTSProximal row: Scaphoid, lunate & triquetrum. The pisiform articulates with the triquetrum.Distal row: Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate & hamate.Midcarpal Joint: Between the proximal and distal rows of the carpal bones. (Line A)
92CARPOMETACARPAL JOINTS Saddle type synovial joint between first metacarpal and trapezium.Gliding synovial joints between second, third, fourth,and fifth metacarpals and distal row of carpals.Intermetacarpal joints are gliding synovial joints between metacarpal bases.