12Winging ScapulaCan occur because of weakness of the periscapula muscles (especially the serratus anterior and middle/lower trapezius) and occurs secondary to long thoracic nerve traumaScapula stabilization is necessary for normal arm movement
13Forward/Rounded Shoulder Posture Caused by a slouched posture, shortened anterior chest muscles, elongation of the posterior interscapula muscles (lower/middle trapezius and rhomboids), and abnormal cervical and thoracic spine curvaturesConsequences of FSP: degeneration of AC joint, bicipital or rotator cuff tendinitis or impingment, muscle weakness, myofascial pain and trigger points, posterior capsular tightness, excessive back flexion, and thoracic outlet syndrome
14Shoulder Injuries Sternoclavicular Sprain MOI: Indirect force transmitted through the humerus by a blow that strikes the poorly padded clavicle by twisting of a posteriorly extended arm.
15Shoulder Injuries Acromioclavicular Sprain MOI: Direct impact to the tip of the shoulder that forces the acromion process downward, backward, and inward while the clavicle is pushed down against the rib cageFall on an outstretched armStep-Off Deformity
16Shoulder Injuries Glenohumeral Joint Sprain MOI: Anterior: Arm is forced into abduction, external rotation, or direct blow.Posterior: A forceful movement of the humerus posteriorly when the arm is flexed.
17Shoulder Injuries Anterior Glenohumeral Dislocation MOI: Direct impact to the posterior or posterolateral aspect of the shoulder.Forced abduction, external rotation, and extension
18Shoulder Injuries Posterior Glenohumeral Dislocation MOI: Forced adduction and internal rotation or a fall on an extended and internally rotated arm
19Shoulder Injuries Superior Labrum Anteroposterior (SLAP) Lesion MOI: Compression and inferior traction
20Shoulder Injuries Shoulder Impingement Syndrome MOI: Mechanical compression of the supraspinatus tendon, the subacromial bursa, and the biceps brachii (long head) tendon causing a decrease in space in the coracoacromial archPostural alignments: Forward head, rounded shoulders, increased kyphotic curve
21Shoulder Injuries Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis) Contracted and thickened joint capsule that is tight around the humeral head with little synovial fluid.The individual progressively resists any movement to the shoulder making it stiff or “frozen” because of the pain
22Shoulder Injuries Thoracic Outlet Compression Syndrome Compression on the brachial plexus, subclavian artery, and subclavian vein in the neck and shoulder.MOI:Compression of the neurovascular bundle between the first rib and clavicleCompression between the anterior and middle scalene musclesCompression by pec minor as the bundle passes beneath the corocoid process or between the clavicle and first ribPresence of a cervical rib (an abnormal rib originating from a cervical vertebra and the thoracic rib)
24Shoulder Injuries Bicipital Tenosynovitis MOI: Repeated stretching of the biceps in highly ballistic activities (pitchers, tennis players, volleyball players, and javelin throwers) may cause an irritation of the tendon and the synovial sheath
26Shoulder Pad Fitting Cantilever Non-Cantilever Width of shoulders is measured to determine proper size of padsThe inside shoulder pad should cover the tip of the shoulder in a direct line with the lateral aspect of the shoulderDeltoid should be covered, and all motion required by athlete’s positions hould be permittedNeck opening must allow athlete to raise their arms overhead but not allow the pad to slide back and forthStraps underneath the arm must hold pads firmly in place but must not constrict soft- tissueCantileverNon-Cantilever