4 Qualitative Research...Is any research conducted using an observational technique or unstructured questioning.Conducted:when structured research is not possible,when true response may not be available [embarrassing “touchy questions”]to explain quantitative research results.
8 Classification of Observation Qualitative research Observation techniquesClassification of ObservationDirect vs indirect:Direct = observing behavior as it occursIndirect = observing the effects of behaviorDisguised vs nondisguisedNondisguised =DirectDisguised = IndirectStructured vs unstructuredStructured = predetermine what to observeUnstructured=monitor all behaviorHuman vs MechanicalHuman=observation done by human beingsMechanical=observation by machine
10 Observation Appropriate Conditions The event must occur in a short time interval,Avoid lag affectMust occur in a setting where the researcher can observe the behaviorPraying, cooking are not suitable things to observeNecessary under situations of faulty recallFaulty recall - remembering things such as how many times one looked at his wristwatch.
11 Observation: Advantages and Limitations Greater data accuracy than direct questioning, in natural settings people behave naturally,Problems of refusal, not at home, false response, non- cooperation etc. are absent,No recall error,In some situations, only wayNumber of customers visiting a storeStudying children’s behaviorLimitationsTime consuming, too many things to observe,may not be representative,difficulty in determining root cause of the behavior.
12 Focus Group An interview conducted by a trained moderator in a non-structured and natural manner with asmall group of respondents.Group sizeGroup composition Homogenous, respondents prescreenedPhysical setting Relaxed, informal settingTime duration hoursRecording Use of audio and video cassettesModerator Observational, interpersonal, good communication skills needed.12
13 Focus Groups Objectives: - Generate new product or service ideas Understand consumer vocabularyUseful for ad campaignsReveal consumer needs, motives,perceptions and attitudes,Generating future research objectivesFacilitate understanding ofquantitative studies13
14 Major Advantages: Major Disadvantages: Focus Group: Advantages and DisadvantagesMajor Advantages:Synergism, Snowballing, Stimulation, Security, Spontaneity, Speed and Cost savings.Major Disadvantages:Lack of representativeness, Misuse, Misjudge, Moderation problem, and Difficulty of analysis14
18 Other Qualitative Techniques Depth Interview: An unstructured interview that seeks opinions of respondents on a one-to-one basis. Useful for sensitive issues, politics etc.Protocol Analysis: Involves placing a person in a decision making situation and asking him/her to state everything he/she considers in making a decision. Useful in 1. Purchasing involving a long time frame (car, house) and 2. Where the decision process is too short (greeting card).Projective technique: Involve situations in which participants are placed in simulated activities hoping that they will divulge information about themselves that are unlikely to be revealed under direct questing.18
20 Projective Techniques These are indirect interviewing methods which enable sampled respondents to project their views, beliefs and feelings onto a third-party or into some task situation.The researcher sets up a situation for the respondents asking them to express their own views, or to complete/ interpret some ambiguous stimulus presented to them.Various types. More common ones are:Free Word AssociationSentence CompletionUnfinished scenario/story completionCartoon completion test20
21 FREE WORD ASSOCIATIONIn this technique, a list of carefully selected stimulus words or phrases related to the topic of research are read out, one at a time, to a respondent. The respondent is asked to respond with the first word or phrase that comes to his/her mind. The list of words should contain a mixture of test words and neutral words.
22 CARTOON COMPLETION TEST In the cartoon technique, the respondent is shown a comic-strip like cartoon with two characters in a conversation. While the speech of one character is shown in his/her balloon,the other balloon is empty.The respondent is asked to assume the role of the other person and fill the empty balloon with a speech.Where can I get a watch of this quality?
23 SUMMARY Qualitative research can be used alone or as part of mixed researchMain advantage is that is capablegenerating rich data on WHY?Useful when looking at NEW thingsRich data may be difficult to analyse