2 What is a Focus Group?Group of people jointly participate in the interview8-12 people (5-7 becoming more popular size)Unstructured/Structured interviewModeratorUsed to define problems, provide background, form hypotheses
3 Why Use A Focus Group? New Product Development Studies Positioning StudiesHabits and UsagePackaging AssessmentAttitude StudiesAdvertising/Copy EvaluationPromotion EvaluationIdea GenerationEmployee Attitude/Motivation Studies
4 Advantages of Focus Groups Group “Think”Uncover “True” FeelingsDepth of FeelingsFastEasyRelatively Low Cost
5 Disadvantages of Focus Groups Non-Representative of Overall PopulationAdditional Data Probably NeededErrors Due to ModeratorSensitive Issues
6 Responsibilities of the Moderator Success of focus group.Experience, Enthusiasm, Prepared, Involved, Energetic, and Open-Minded.Must Have a Discussion Guide (Written outline of topics to be covered).Discussion Guide Leads Discussion Through (1) Establishment of rapport and rules for group interactions, (2) Provocation of intensive discussion, and (3) Summarization of significant conclusions and testing the limits of belief and commitment.
7 Activities Before the Focus Group Determine Research ObjectiveSelect ModeratorParticipantsNumber - TimeScreen - Geographic LocationHomogeneousDevelop Moderator GuideIntroduction - Key Content SectionWarm-up - SummaryDetails - DebriefSelect Facility
8 Activities at the Focus Group Facility Supervise the re-screening of participantsUse of “Pre” and/or “Post” SurveyProvide food for participantsManage noise levelProvide name cards for participantsRoom Set-upDebrief the participants
9 Issues Concerning Focus Groups SizeStructureCompositionVideo Taping (Digital Capture)Payment
10 Pricing Issues Related to Focus Groups Development of the Discussion GuideField Supervision (Facility mgt)Meals - TravelPayment of Subjects - VideotapingCosts for Facilities - ParkingModeratingTranscriptionData AnalysisReport WritingReport Presentation
11 Other Qualitative Techniques Depth Interviews (1 on 1 Interviews) with consumers may reveal what they are thinking or why they have acted a certain way.A depth interview uncovers conscious reasons that interviewees may not disclose without probing questions.Griffin and Hauser (Marketing Science 1993) report: (1) 1-to-1 interviews may be more cost-effective than focus groups, (2) that interviews are necessary to get 90%-95% of the customer needs, and (3) multiple analysts or team members should read and interpret raw transcripts.
12 Other Qualitative Techniques (May be Useful for Focus Groups) Protocol Analysis: Requires subjects to “think aloud.”Projective Techniques: Here people often divulge something about themselves they would not divulge with direct questioning. Examples include word association, sentence completion, picture, cartoon, or role-playing tests.
13 Other Qualitative Techniques Word AssociationSentence and StoryCompletion Tests:Source: McDaniels & Gates(2002, p. 150)
14 Other Projective Techniques Picture Tests: Participants are provided with pictures and then instructed to describe their reactions by writing a short story about the picture. This is a good ways to test potential ads.Cartoon orBalloon Tests:Role-Playing Activity: Here participants are asked to pretend that they are a “third person,” such as a friend or neighbor, and to describe how they would act in a certain situation or to a specific statement.Chevy Volt