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Focus Groups. What is a Focus Group? Group of people jointly participate in the interview –8-12 people (5-7 becoming more popular size) –Unstructured/Structured.

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Presentation on theme: "Focus Groups. What is a Focus Group? Group of people jointly participate in the interview –8-12 people (5-7 becoming more popular size) –Unstructured/Structured."— Presentation transcript:

1 Focus Groups

2 What is a Focus Group? Group of people jointly participate in the interview –8-12 people (5-7 becoming more popular size) –Unstructured/Structured interview –Moderator –Used to define problems, provide background, form hypotheses

3 Why Use A Focus Group? New Product Development Studies Positioning Studies Habits and Usage Packaging Assessment Attitude Studies Advertising/Copy Evaluation Promotion Evaluation Idea Generation Employee Attitude/Motivation Studies

4 Advantages of Focus Groups Group “Think” Uncover “True” Feelings Depth of Feelings Fast Easy Relatively Low Cost

5 Disadvantages of Focus Groups Non-Representative of Overall Population Additional Data Probably Needed Errors Due to Moderator Sensitive Issues

6 Responsibilities of the Moderator Success of focus group. Experience, Enthusiasm, Prepared, Involved, Energetic, and Open-Minded. Must Have a Discussion Guide (Written outline of topics to be covered). Discussion Guide Leads Discussion Through (1) Establishment of rapport and rules for group interactions, (2) Provocation of intensive discussion, and (3) Summarization of significant conclusions and testing the limits of belief and commitment.

7 Activities Before the Focus Group Determine Research Objective Select Moderator Participants – Number- Time – Screen- Geographic Location – Homogeneous Develop Moderator Guide – Introduction- Key Content Section – Warm-up- Summary – Details- Debrief Select Facility

8 Activities at the Focus Group Facility Supervise the re-screening of participants Use of “Pre” and/or “Post” Survey Provide food for participants Manage noise level Provide name cards for participants Room Set-up Debrief the participants

9 Issues Concerning Focus Groups Size Structure Composition Video Taping (Digital Capture) Payment

10 Pricing Issues Related to Focus Groups Development of the Discussion Guide Field Supervision (Facility mgt) –Meals- Travel –Payment of Subjects- Videotaping –Costs for Facilities- Parking Moderating Transcription Data Analysis Report Writing Report Presentation

11 Other Qualitative Techniques Depth Interviews (1 on 1 Interviews) with consumers may reveal what they are thinking or why they have acted a certain way. A depth interview uncovers conscious reasons that interviewees may not disclose without probing questions. Griffin and Hauser (Marketing Science 1993) report: (1) 1-to-1 interviews may be more cost- effective than focus groups, (2) that interviews are necessary to get 90%-95% of the customer needs, and (3) multiple analysts or team members should read and interpret raw transcripts.

12 Protocol Analysis: Requires subjects to “think aloud.” Projective Techniques: Here people often divulge something about themselves they would not divulge with direct questioning. Examples include word association, sentence completion, picture, cartoon, or role- playing tests. Other Qualitative Techniques (May be Useful for Focus Groups)

13 Word Association Sentence and Story Completion Tests: Source: McDaniels & Gates (2002, p. 150) Other Qualitative Techniques

14 Picture Tests: Participants are provided with pictures and then instructed to describe their reactions by writing a short story about the picture. This is a good ways to test potential ads. Cartoon or Balloon Tests: Role-Playing Activity: Here participants are asked to pretend that they are a “third person,” such as a friend or neighbor, and to describe how they would act in a certain situation or to a specific statement. Other Projective Techniques Chevy Volt


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