Not measurements, but WORDS! Seeking rich data, nuances ◦ Avoids reductionism, generalizations ◦ Instead of asking how many times someone purchased an item, you ask "WHY...?" ◦ Typically the samples are small, and not "random" Marketing Research2
Case Studies Individual Interviews ◦ Experience Surveys ◦ Depth Interviews Structured or nonstructured ◦ Protocol Analysis ◦ Projective Techniques Group Interviews ◦ Focus Groups Marketing Research3
Assess experience for another in situation similar to you Provides rich data ◦ Can observe all variables interacting w/each other Idiosyncracies of their situation may mislead Marketing Research4
5 Individual Interview Methods Depth Interviews one-on-one interview Unstructured, semi-structured, or structured Protocol Analysis Verbalization of decision process Projective Techniques For penetrating a person’s defense mechanisms Intent: To gathering more revealing information
Techniques that encourage respondents to project (or transfer) their feelings ◦ To another person ◦ To another situation Facilitate deeper examination of feelings and motives Help to overcome embarrassment, shyness, minimize deception Marketing Research6
7 Projective Techniques: Rationale for use 1. Thoughts have emotional and subconscious content. 2. The emotional and subconscious content is important in buying and usage decisions. 3. This content is not well verbalized by the respondent through direct communication. 4. This content is better verbalized through indirect techniques.
Word Association Sentence Completion Thematic apperception: Elicits perceived themes. ◦ Explain picture ◦ Picture frustration: Cartoon/balloon Test ◦ Construction techniques: draw pictures, make collages, write stories, etc. Role-playing Activity Marketing Research8
Also called Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Subject writes a story describing picture (20 min). May report verbally instead. What’s happening? Why? What are the person’s feelings? Marketing Research9
10 Role-Playing Cartoon Test Sears ? Let’s see if we can pick up some housewares at Sears
Advantages ◦ Greater depth ◦ People's own words ◦ Immediate feedback ◦ Insights can come from participants Limitations ◦ Lots of data ◦ Hard to "code" ◦ Not enough people to generalize ◦ Idiosyncracies of a few people may mislead Marketing Research11
Marketing Research12 The Focus Group Method: ◦ Moderated discussion group ◦ 6 to 12 participants ◦ Approx. 90 minutes Goals: ◦ to understand what people have to say, get people to talk in detail, develop a synergistic discussion
Select a relatively homogenous group (relative to your topic) ◦ Hold several to hear from differing groups Develop protocol in advance ◦ Consider appropriate progression, probes, topic coverage, wording issues, length Assure comfort, appropriateness of selected location Offer refreshments, compensation Determine method of record keeping ◦ Gain agreement with participants Marketing Research13
State ground rules ◦ No side conversations, honest discussion, respect others’ opinions Establish rapport ◦ Make all comfortable ◦ Facilitate easy first interaction Approach broad topic area ◦ Use probes as needed Focus in on your specific question ◦ Use probes as needed Summarize and wrap-up Marketing Research14
Prepare in advance Develop rapport Remain flexible Seek equal opportunity Don’t judge/evaluate/correct Listen (don’t talk too much) Cover all your key topics Keep them on track Marketing Research15
Transcribe focus group session ◦ Word for word transcription (best approach) All that was said Significant facial expressions, gestures Long pauses, silences ◦ Summary (when resources/time is limited) Must listen/view group several times to assure appropriate emphasis on important issues May summarize some portions, transcribe others word for word Code findings ◦ Look for “themes” or topics that emerge. ◦ Apply a code each time the identified topics come up. Develop conclusions Marketing Research16
Marketing Research17 Buick division of General Motors used focus groups to help develop the Regal. Buick held 20 focus groups across the country to determine what features customers wanted in a car. The focus groups told GM they wanted a stylish car, legitimate back seat, at least 20 miles per gallon, and 0 to 60 miles per hour acceleration in 11 seconds or less. Use of Focus Groups
Marketing Research18 Based on the results, Buick engineers created clay models of the car and mock-ups of the interior. These were shown to other focus groups. The respondents did not like the oversized bumpers and the severe slope of the hood, but liked the four-disc brakes and independent suspension.
Marketing Research19 Focus groups also helped refine the advertising campaign for the Regal. Participants were asked which competing cars most resembled Buick in image and features. The answer was Oldsmobile, a sister GM division. In an effort to differentiate the two, Buick was repositioned above Oldsmobile by focusing on comfort and luxury features.
Marketing Research20 The tag line for the 1998 Regal, “official car of the Supercharged family,” was based on focus group findings.
Rests on reflective thinking Not representative or generalizable Subjective interpretations High cost per participant Potential demand effects Marketing Research21