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Chapter8 Observation, Focus Groups, and Other Qualitative Measures.

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1 Chapter8 Observation, Focus Groups, and Other Qualitative Measures

2 Research Quantitative research: research involving the use of structured questions in which response options have been predetermined and a “large” number of respondents are involved Qualitative research: collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data based on what people do and say with smaller samples Pluralistic research: combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methods in order to gain the advantages of both

3 Observation Techniques Observation methods: techniques in which the researcher relies on his or her powers of observation rather than communicating with a person in order to obtain information Types of observation (will explain later): Direct versus indirect Disguised versus undisguised Structured versus unstructured Human versus mechanical

4 Observation Techniques…cont. Direct versus Indirect Direct observation: observing behavior as it occurs Indirect observation: observing the effects or results of the behavior rather than the behavior itself Archives (written records) Physical traces (erosion or accumulation/accretion)

5 Observation Techniques…cont. Disguised versus Undisguised Disguised observation: subject is unaware that he or she is being observed Undisguised observation: respondent is aware of observation

6 Observation Techniques…cont. Structured versus Unstructured Structured observation: researcher identifies beforehand which behaviors are to observed and recorded Unstructured observation: No restriction is placed on what the observer would note: all behavior in the episode under study is monitored

7 Observation Techniques…cont. Human versus Mechanical Human observation: person or persons observe behavior (person hired by the researcher, clients, or perhaps the observer is the researcher) Mechanical observation: human observer is replaced with some form of static observing device(audio and or visual recording)

8 Observation Techniques…cont. Appropriate Conditions for the Use of Observation Short duration Public Faulty recall (difficult for person to remember accurately what was done) conditions Person is unaware of behavior

9 Observation Techniques…cont. Advantages of Observational Data Insight into actual, not reported, behaviors No chance for recall error Better accuracy (versus self-reporting) Less cost

10 Observation Techniques…cont. Limitations of Observational Data Small number of subjects Can only observe short-duration, frequently occurring events Subjective interpretations (by observer) Inability to to pry beneath the behavior observed (why was the behavior carried out - motivations, attitudes, and other internal conditions are unobserved)

11 Focus Groups Focus groups: small group (6 – 12 people) discussions led by a trained moderator; homogeneous group; tightly bounded topic area Objectives: Generate ideas Understand consumer vocabulary Reveal consumer benefits sought, needs, motives, perceptions, and attitudes on products and services Understand findings from quantitative studies

12 Focus Groups Moderator’s Role and Responsibilities Focus group moderator: a person who conducts the session and guides the flow of group discussion across specific topics Moderator characteristics: Experienced Enthusiastic Prepared Involving Energetic Open-minded

13 Focus Groups Reporting and Use of Focus Group Results Factors to remember when analyzing data: Some sense must be made by translating the qualitative statements of participants into categories and then reporting the degree of consensus apparent in the focus groups Demographics and buyer behavior characteristics of focus group participants should be judged against the target market profile to assess what degree the group(s) represent(s) the target market A focus groups analysis should identify major themes as well as salient areas of disagreement among the participants

14 Focus Groups Online Focus Groups Online focus group: one in which the respondents and/or moderator (and sometimes clients) communicate and/or observe by use of the Internet; group members are at their own pc Advantages: No physical setup is necessary Transcripts are captured on file in real time Participants can be in widely separated geographical areas Participants are comfortable in their home or office environments The moderator can exchange private messages with individual participants

15 Focus Groups Online Focus Groups…cont. Disadvantages: Observation of participants’ body language is not possible Participants cannot physically inspect products or taste food items Participants can lose interest or become distracted

16 Focus Groups – In General Advantages: Generation of fresh ideas Client interaction Versatility (many topics, other research techniques may be used, product tests, etc.) May tap special respondents (drs., lawyers …) Disadvantages: Representative of the population? Interpretation is subjective High cost-per-participant ($150 - $200 each)

17 Other Qualitative Research Techniques Depth interview: a set of questions with probes, posed one-on-one to a subject by a trained interviewer to gain an idea of what the subject thinks about something or why he or she behaves a certain way Protocol analysis: involves placing a person in a decision-making situation and asking him or her to verbalize everything he or she considers when making a decision (step-by-step)

18 Other Qualitative Research Techniques…cont. Projective techniques: involve situations in which participants are “projected into” another person, an inanimate object, or a simulated activity, with the hope that they will divulge things about themselves that they might not reveal under direct questioning. Types include: Word association test Sentence completion Picture test (may include “headline” or statement) Cartoon or balloon test Role-playing activity

19 Physiological Measurements Physiological measurements: monitoring a respondent’s involuntary responses to marketing stimuli via the use of eye cameras, salinity detectors, blood pressure sensors, and other devices Pupilometer (iris dilation/contraction) Eye-tracking Galvanometer Voice Print Analysis (VOPAN)

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