2IntroductionWhen the First Fleet arrived in Australia, the living conditions were totally different from those in England. The climate was hot and dry and the environment was harsh. Unfortunately, the people still wore the same clothes as they did in England. It took over 200 years for the more practical clothing to develop. Women’s clothing has had drastic changes during this time. Men’s fashion has also changed, however not so greatly. They have had modifications on shirts and pants.
31788-1800 Fashion was that of England and France Convict men and women were poorly dressed and wore the same clothes for many daysConvicts were issued with uniforms, but it was difficult to clothe all convicts in the uniform as it was hard to get supplies from England.Female convicts – brown serge jacket, petticoat, neckerchief, cap, linen shift, stockings and shoesMale convicts – blue jacket and waistcoat, heavy duty trousers, linen shirt, long socks, woollen capJust before the turn of the century, the pannier was abolished and the dress became much more simple – women gave up some of their underskirts to create a more sensible and comfortable clothing style.
4WomenMenPannier skirts – high, wide and voluminous skirtsUnderskirts – decorated with ribbons and frillsLow neck bodicePlain for working class – also wore an apron and mop hatUpper class – wore fine fabrics with scarves and parasolsHats were high-crowned and decorated with lace and ribbonsCabbage tree hat first appeared in 1799Upper class – skirted coats, close-fitting breaches, richly embroidered waistcoats, white silk stockings and wigs, also powdered their hair
6Fashion was still based on those of England and France, however they began to suit the Australian environmentWomenMenLong flowing empire line for the fashion-conscious womenBodices had low neck line and short sleevesSkirts were long and flowing with much less volumePantaloons or tights replaced petticoatsShawls and parasols were as a fashion statement and sun protectionWorking class – smocks and aprons (skirts were still long flowing)Upper class – fashion remained unchangedFree settler men – trousers, loose-sleeved shirts, leather aprons, long socks, leather boots, cabbage tree hats
7French fashion influences continued, with a more romantic look for femalesFemalesMalesEmpire line was still popularSkirt became narrower and straighterHemlines became flared with flouncesSkirt length was raised to the ankleRound-toed shoes, boots or sandals with pink stockingsPuffed sleeves and decorative trimmingsVery high hatsTrousers became popularConvicts were issued with loose trousers and jackets made from coarse woollen cloth
8Fashion started to turn back in time and was influenced by the 16th century, regardless of the harsh Australian climate.FemalesMalesTight corsets were wornSkirts became full and wide – hourglass figureBustles were worn at the backHemlines reached the ground and decorated with frills and laceLeg-of-mutton sleeves – tight between wrist and elbow and full at the shoulderMuffs were carried, fans essentialHats were very large and highly decorated with feathers, flowers and ribbonShoes – square-toed, half boots, buttoned or laced just above the ankleWhite trousersKnee-length jackets tightened at the waistTop hats, same colour as jacketsCravats replaced collarsStocks carried by upper classWorking class – same as previous
91830 - 1840 Females Males Wide skirts, covering layers of petticoats Hemlines raised just above the groundWaistlines tight and pointedBodices wide and low for evening wearDuring the day – necklines were covered with ruffs and frillsWide flat collars worn over the shouldersCapes worn outdoorsMuffs, fans, flowers and leg-of-mutton sleeves still popularLower class – reflected the fashions of the upper class but simplified styles, duller colours, practical fabricsTrousers – tight fitting or worn loose over bootsDouble-breasted frock-coatDark colours
101840 - 1850 Females Males Longer, wider skirts Horsehair crinoline Low-pointed waistlines, low pointed bodicesSleeves were tight-fitting all the way from the shoulderShawls were popular and fringedBonnets worn as sun protection and tied under the chinOff-the-shoulder evening wearFrock coat still fashionable but worn over the top of a contrasting waistcoatTrousers varied in shape
11The discovery of gold led to the gold rush in Australia. People came from all over the world, bringing their own ideas and ways of life, greatly influencing women’s fashion. Petticoats and horsehair crinolines could not create the widths that women wanted from their skirts. Cage-like crinolines were made of steel and whalebone and were sewn into petticoats to provide support for skirts. Some skirts reached ridiculous widths and became a problem for women to wear. In Paris and Europe, brighter colours became fashionable, so brighter clothing was introduced into Australian fashion.
121850 - 1860 Females Males Very wide skirts Steel and whalebone crinolinesLong pantaloons with lace and frillsSleeves varied in shapeBonnets decreased in sizeBright coloursRemained much the sameGold diggers – dark blue shirt, trousers, boots, neck scarf, wide-brimmed hat. Loose fitting sleeves that were rolled at the sleeves, trousers tucked into books.
131860 – 1870Steel crinolines were still popular with skirts of enormous sizes. Brighter colours continued to grow in popularity. The ‘Sydney Sac’ was introduced in male fashion and was acceptable for town wear. In the bush, men wore sensible clothes to protect them from the environment. Bushranging was big in this era and they wore similar clothes to bushmen.
141860 – 1870FemalesMalesSkirts became enormous – they were flatter at the front but fuller at the backSkirts often had long trains of fabric at the backSteel and whalebone crinolines still usedFitted bodice and tight waistlinesNecklines – low for evening, high for daytimeBright coloursHats – tall with small brimsHigh-heeled boots with bright coloured stockingsFull frock-coatsShort jackets that buttoned only at the neckMatching colours for trousers and coats‘Sydney Sac’ - loose fitting coat and baggy trousersBushmen –Loose fitting shirt, buckskin trousers, boots and wide-brimmed cabbage tree hat
15This decade was the beginning of fashion being designed to meet people’s needs.FemalesMalesWidth of skirt disappeared – skirts were still flat at front and full at the backA bustle was worn under the skirt to create fullnessTight fitting bodice – narrow waistsPolonaise – long buttoned coat-gown which was buttoned to the waist then falling into a skirt. The skirt was split and each front was pulled back so you could see the underskirtHats and bonnets smaller but highly decoratedBright coloursStockings colours matched dress colours.Narrower trousersJackets and trousers contrasted in colourBreeches were introduced for bicycle ridingWorking men - anything was acceptable as long as it was comfortable
161880 – 1890 Female Male Bustles became more extreme ‘Langtry’ bustle – made of metal bands that rose when a woman sat down and dropped back into place when she stood up, making sitting easier. It made dresses look very full at the back.Evening wear – highly decoratedDay wear – more masculineLong plain buttoned coats completely covered outfitsHats and bonnets were highBlack stockings replaced bright ones.Much the same as previous decadesSporting clothes became more popular
171890 - 1900 A complete change in fashion occurred Female Male Bustle disappearedCorselette appeared – simple, ankle length petticoat without frillsCloser fitting dressesFloor length skirtDaytime – high necked and long-sleevedNight – elaborate, low necklines, short sleeves, off the shoulderEmbroidered and coloured stockingsDark coloursDark suit with waistcoatBowler hatfob watchLarrikins – people who would not conform to dress codes (male and female)