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Essential Question: What is the water cycle and how does it influence living things? Warm-up: How does the majority of water get into the atmosphere?

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: What is the water cycle and how does it influence living things? Warm-up: How does the majority of water get into the atmosphere?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Essential Question: What is the water cycle and how does it influence living things? Warm-up: How does the majority of water get into the atmosphere? How does it get out of the atmosphere? HW: No Homework

3 Energy in the Water Cycle About _____ Joules/gram are needed to change liquid water into vapor SOLAR ENERGYFueled by SOLAR ENERGY through evaporation

4 Water Cycle (Hydrologic Cycle) Model used to show the movement & phase changes of water

5 Animated Water Cycle

6 Water Retention Precipitation can be stored or retained on land as ice & snow or on plants & trees

7 Infiltration (seep) Gravity pulls water into the upper parts of the Earths lithosphere – Subsurface Water Poor Infiltration

8 Runoff Water that flows over the land 1/3 of water is returned to the water cycle

9 Water Table Interface between the zone of saturation (filled with water) & the zone of aeration (partially filled with water)

10 Time in MonthsMillimeters of WaterTime in MonthsMillimeters of Water Key = Need = Supply Wet ClimateDry Climate

11 Practice Questions 4 7Runoff Evaporation 6 Transpiration 5 Condensation 1 Precipitation 2 Runoff 3 Infiltration 8 Ground Water Discharge 9Evaporation 10Evaporation

12 Essential Question: How does water move into and through the ground? Warm-up: In general, the probability of flooding decreases when there is an increase in the amount of 1) Runoff 2) Snow melt 3) Infiltration 4) Precipitation

13 Factors Affecting Infiltration SLOPE of the LAND - STEEPER the slope, the LESS the Infiltration Less time to SEEP into GROUND DEGREE of SATURATION -More SATURATED the ground, the LESS infiltration

14 POROSITY –Amount of open space between particles -GREATER the porosity the GREATER infiltration 3 factors that effect porosity are: SHAPE Well-rounded particles have GREATER porosity

15 PACKING More closely packed the particles, the lower the porosity SORTING -Material with well-sorted particles has high Porosity

16 PERMEABILITY -Ability of a material to allow fluid to pass through it - Permeability = Greater Infiltration CORKSPONGE SHALE

17 CAPILLARITY -Ability of water to RISE in small openings -SMALLER the particle size, the GREATER the capillarity - Capillarity = Infiltration

18 VEGETATION VEGETATION Ground with grasses, trees, & other plant types have HIGH infiltration LAND-USE Impermeable surface like roads, parking lots, & buildings decrease infiltration

19 Factors Affecting Runoff Rate of precipitation > Rate of Infiltration Ground is 100% saturated Slope of surface to GREAT to allow infiltration Water is not evaporating fast enough

20 Which graph best describes the relationship between the slope of the land and the amount of surface runoff during a period of heavy rainfall?

21 Each tube was placed in a shallow pan of water. In which tube did the water rise the highest? 1)A 3) C 2) B4) D

22 When rain falls on a soil surface, flooding at that location would most likely occur if the 1) soil surface is permeable 2) soil surface is covered with vegetation 3) soil pore spaces are filled to capacity 4) infiltration rate exceeds the precipitation rate


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