# Essential Question: What is the water cycle and how does it influence living things? Warm-up: How does the majority of water get into the atmosphere?

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Essential Question: What is the water cycle and how does it influence living things?
Warm-up: How does the majority of water get into the atmosphere? How does it get out of the atmosphere? HW: No Homework

Energy in the Water Cycle
Fueled by SOLAR ENERGY through evaporation 2260 About _____ Joules/gram are needed to change liquid water into vapor.

Water Cycle (Hydrologic Cycle)
Model used to show the movement & phase changes of water

Animated Water Cycle

Water Retention Precipitation can be stored or retained on land as ice & snow or on plants & trees

Infiltration (seep) Gravity pulls water into the upper parts of the Earth’s lithosphere – Subsurface Water Poor Infiltration 

Runoff Water that flows over the land
1/3 of water is returned to the water cycle

Water Table Interface between the zone of saturation (filled with water) & the zone of aeration (partially filled with water)

Wet Climate Dry Climate Key = Need = Supply Time in Months
Millimeters of Water Time in Months Millimeters of Water Wet Climate Dry Climate

Ground Water Discharge
Practice Questions Precipitation 1 Condensation 5 Runoff 2 10 Evaporation Transpiration 6 Infiltration 3 Evaporation 4 7 Runoff Evaporation 9 Ground Water Discharge 8

Essential Question: How does water move into and through the ground?
Warm-up: In general, the probability of flooding decreases when there is an increase in the amount of 1) Runoff ) Snow melt 3) Infiltration ) Precipitation

Factors Affecting Infiltration
SLOPE of the LAND - STEEPER the slope, the LESS the Infiltration Less time to SEEP into GROUND DEGREE of SATURATION -More SATURATED the ground, the LESS infiltration

Well-rounded particles have GREATER porosity
–Amount of open space between particles -GREATER the porosity the GREATER infiltration 3 factors that effect porosity are: SHAPE Well-rounded particles have GREATER porosity

More closely packed the particles, the lower the porosity
PACKING More closely packed the particles, the lower the porosity SORTING -Material with well-sorted particles has high Porosity

Permeability = Greater Infiltration
-Ability of a material to allow fluid to pass through it Permeability = Greater Infiltration CORK SPONGE SHALE

-SMALLER the particle size, the GREATER the capillarity
-Ability of water to RISE in small openings -SMALLER the particle size, the GREATER the capillarity Capillarity = Infiltration

VEGETATION Ground with grasses, trees, & other plant types have HIGH infiltration
LAND-USE Impermeable surface like roads, parking lots, & buildings decrease infiltration

Factors Affecting Runoff
Rate of precipitation > Rate of Infiltration Ground is 100% saturated Slope of surface to GREAT to allow infiltration Water is not evaporating fast enough

Which graph best describes the relationship between the slope of the land and the amount of surface runoff during a period of heavy rainfall?

Each tube was placed in a shallow pan of water
Each tube was placed in a shallow pan of water. In which tube did the water rise the highest? A ) C 2) B 4) D

When rain falls on a soil surface, flooding at that location would most likely occur if the
1) soil surface is permeable 2) soil surface is covered with vegetation 3) soil pore spaces are filled to capacity 4) infiltration rate exceeds the precipitation rate

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