# Chapter 9: Water Moving Underground More than 97 percent of all water on Earth is in the ocean as salt water. Glaciers – of the little amount of fresh.

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Chapter 9: Water Moving Underground More than 97 percent of all water on Earth is in the ocean as salt water. Glaciers – of the little amount of fresh water on Earth, most of it is locked up in frozen glaciers. Geode CD- Hydrologic Cycle

Groundwater- the majority of fresh water that isn’t frozen in glaciers, occurs as groundwater.

Topic 2: Water Table Hydrosphere- is the water on Earth’s surface. The hydrosphere includes groundwater, running water, lakes and oceans. The movement of water of water from one part of the hydrosphere to another = the water cycle

runoff HYDROLOGIC CYCLE infiltration Groundwater flow transpiration evaporation precipitation condensation Stream, spring, lake, or ocean

Sunlight provides the energy that evaporates water from the surface of the Earth.

Some of the rain returns to the oceans as rivers and streams runoff and some seeps into the ground to become groundwater.

Topic 5: Can Rocks Hold Water? The amount of water that soil or rock can hold depends upon- the amount of space, called pore space, that lies between the grains of the material

Porosity- the percentage of open space in a rock

Porosity of a material depends on several factors

Particle shape – round particles have a lot of space between them. Flat or angular particles fit more closely together, therefore having less total pore space.

Sorting- Pore space greatest in well sorted (particles all the same size) Pg. 153

Permeability- the rate at which water passes through the pore spaces of a rock Which will water travel through more quickly?

In general permeability increases with grain size, because large-grained materials have large pore spaces. Water moves easily through materials with large pore spaces, such as sand and gravel. Water passes slowly through finer materials, such as silt

GRAVEL Rapid drainage FINE SAND Moderate drainage CLAY Slow drainage PERMEABILITY

Impermeable – A material that water can’t pass through. Examples – clays and shales (very fined-grained) are usually impermeable http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigati ons/es1401/es1401page03.cfm

3 FACTORS AFFECT INFILTRATION PERMEABILITY – ABILITY OF WATER TO FLOW (IMPERMEABLE – NO WATER CAN FLOW THROUGH) POROSITY – PORE SPACES BETWEEN SEDIMENTS CAPILLARITY – THE ABILITY OF WATER TO MOVE UPWARD IN SOIL

Topic 7: Forming the Water Table As rain falls it enters the pores in the soil. The water continues downward until it reaches an impermeable material. The pore spaces of the soil begin to fill and the water level in the ground rises. The Zone of Saturation is the part of the ground where all pore spaces are filled with water Impermeable bedrock

Water Table- The surface of the zone of saturation

Zone of Aeration – From the water table to the surface, it can still hold more water if it rains.

WATER TABLE RISES AND FALLS ACCORDING TO RAINFALL AND SNOWMELT

Geode CD- Groundwater!!!

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