3Evolution What is Evolution? Living things have to adjust to their surroundings. For this some changes take place in the bodies of living things.These changes take place over very long periods of time and are permanent.
4What is adaptation ?The ability of living things to adjust to their surroundings in order to live is called their ability for adaptation.Adaptation on :LandWaterAir
7In the spring, leaf buds emerge at the joints and tips of tree branches and are coaxed open by warm sunlight. As the buds shed their protective covers the leaves unfurl. The leaves are arranged so that they each receive adequate sunlight.
9Cactus are able to store water in their stems Cactus are able to store water in their stems. These stems are thick and have very tough skins. Some can grow as big as tree trunks but inside they are soft and moist not hard and woody.A plant looses water through its leaves hence the Cactus has leaves shaped like needles. They are called prickles and no water is lost through them. The flowers on a Cactus can be large and very beautiful.
11Camel AdaptationThe hump of a camel is an important adaptation for desert survival. A percentage of the water drunk is chemically bound to the fat in the hump, and upon fat metabolism, the water is released.HumpDuring periods of prolonged drought, the camel depends on water stored in the blood cells, fat in the hump, and body tissues. In this way, a camel is able to produce and conserve water for extended periods of time.
12HeadA camel's head has built-in sun-visors to help keep the bright sunlight out of its eyes.There are broad ridges of bone above each eye. These stick out far enough to shield the eyes when the sun is overhead.The ears of camel are small to make it harder for sand to get in them.
13NostrilsTo keep sand from blowing into their noses, camels can shut their nostrils.When there is no sand blowing in the wind, a camel can open its nostrils (A) and breathe through its nose.When the wind starts to whip up the sand, the camel just closes its nose (B).
14The huge feet of camels help them to walk on sand without sinking into it. It has two toes on each foot. The camel walks on a broad pad that connects its two toes. This cushion like pad spreads when the camel places its foot on the ground.The pad supports the animal on loose sand.The pad enables the animal to firmly grasp the earth.Feet
15The camel has three eyelids and two layers of eyelashes to protect itself from dust and sun. To protect their eyes, camels have long eyelashes that catch most of the sand when desert winds blow sand on to their eyes.If sand gets into an eye a camel has a third eyelid to get it out. The extra eyelid moves from side to side and wipes the sand away.EyeLids
16Double Hump CamelThe Bactrian camels have two humps. They also have very tough feet for crossing the rocky deserts of Asia. Temperatures can range from a low of minus 20 degrees in the winter to more than 100 degrees in the summer months.
18I am a Pine Tree. I grow on Mountains and have:- Needle-shaped leaves to prevent water loss.Sloping branches to slide off the snowGrowing thin and tall due to lack of spaceBears cones and not flowers because the latter is unable to withstand the severe cold.
19Yak : The animal of cold region. Special adaptations of the Yak: The yak has a number of special adaptations that enable it to live in the extreme cold of the Himalayan mountains. Body: The yak has a short, compact body and thick, shaggy fur that keeps it warm in the severely cold climate. Legs: Short and powerful giving the yak balance and agility on the steep, icy mountain slopes. The yaks cleft or split hooves help it grip the often icy and rocky ground.
20Adaptation in Polar bear A polar bear lives in the cold, snowy Arctic lands. It is white. This helps it blend in with the snow and ice that are found there. It has a layer of fat under its skin. This helps it stay warm. It has very wide, large paws. Wide, large paws help it walk in the snow. These are three adaptations a polar bear has to its Arctic environment.
22The orbits surrounding a frog's eyes do not have bottoms The orbits surrounding a frog's eyes do not have bottoms. So when a frog swallows large prey, it can close its eyelids and drop its eyeballs down into its mouth. Then the eyeballs help push the prey down the throat of the frog.Most frogs have a sticky tongue. To catch an insect, the frog flips out its tongue rapidly, get the insect and retracts its tongue. Frogs will swallow their prey in one piece because they only have teeth in the upper jaw.
23Frogs have webbed feet for swimming. Some have suction disks on the tip of their toes to help them climb.The back feet of the frog has a special fur to make it easier for burrowing.Some have large webs to assist them in gliding in the air almost like flying.
26Lotus is an aquatic plant. Lotus has broad floating leaves.The upper surface of leaf has a thin layer of waxy covering so water does not spread on the leaf.The under surface of the leaf is slimy which prevents the lotus leaf from rotting away in water.The leaves and flowers float and have long stems that contain air spaces.
27Fish is an aquatic animal. A fish , too lives in water. It has fins to help it move. The fins enable the fish to swim .Its body tapers off towards both the ends, making it easier for the fish to swim .Its skin secretes a slimy substance which helps it to live in water .
28How do fish obtain oxygen for respiration in water? Fish have gills for this purpose .With the help of these gills , they take in the oxygen dissolved in the water. This is an adaptation in a fish’s body that enables it to live in water.
34Epiphyte or Air plant,any plant that does not normally root in the soil but grows upon another living plant while remaining independent of it except for support (thus differing from a parasite). An epiphyte manufactures its own food, but obtains its moisture from the air or from moisture-laden pockets of the host plant, rather than from the soil. Epiphytes may grow upon the trunk, branches, or leaves of the host plant. They are most abundant in the moist tropics.BromeliadsAsplenum nidus
36The ability to changeEach species of chameleon is capable of undergoing a particular range of colour change. Some chameleons can assume green, yellow, cream, or dark brown, frequently with lighter or darker spots on the background colour.
37In the light and shadow of the dense jungle and tall grass which it inhabits, the tiger’s camouflage is perfect. Its tawny to orange-red coat blends amazingly well with its surroundings, and the pattern of black stripes breaks and confuses its outline, making the animal all but invisible even from close range.
38Their colour helps them hide on leaves if the grasshopper is green, or on rocks or on the ground if the grasshopper is brown.