Presentation on theme: "THE GULF OIL SPILL. Exxon Valdez March 24, 1989 10.8 gallons 1100 miles of Alaskan coast Valdez was carrying 53 million gallons Impact on environment."— Presentation transcript:
THE GULF OIL SPILL
Exxon Valdez March 24, gallons 1100 miles of Alaskan coast Valdez was carrying 53 million gallons Impact on environment
Nowruz Oil Field Spill February 10- Semptember Persian Gulf, Iran 80 million gallons
Kolva River September 8, 1994 Kolva River, Russia Pipeline 84 million gallons
Atlantic Empress July 19, 1979 Off of Trinidad and Tobago 90 million gallons
Ixtoc 1 June 3, March 23, 1980 Bay of Campeche, Mexico 140 million gallons
1 st Gulf War January 19, 1991 Persian Gulf, Kuwait million gallons
Deep Water Horizon April 20 – July 15, 2010 Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana million gallons Effectively dead September 19, 2010
The Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill
Currents, Oil Movement, and the Gulf Dead Zone
Dead Zone Area of water near the mouth of the Mississippi with D.O. concentration of < 2 ppm Variable in size, can cover 6,000-7,000 sq. mi. Begins at Mississippi delta, extends westward to Texas
Dead Zone Found worldwide, Gulfs is one of the largest Hypoxic conditions occur because of runoff from farms in waters of the Mississippi-- promotes algal growth Leads to depletion of dissolved oxygen in water Linked to fish kills in Gulf
If Containment Fails…. Formation of the Gulf Stream Entrance: Yucatan Strait Produces Loop Current Exits: Florida Strait forming the Gulf Stream With the Gulf: Loop generates eddies
Containment Failure: the Global Scale Conveyor Belt Oil possibly limiting Gulf from receiving hot water from E. currents Lowers ability to warm N. hemisphere Eventually stop all currents???
Thus far…. Zone temperature changes Domino effect of continental climate change
Gulf oil spills affect on water quality and wildlife
Water quality: Dissolved Oxygen Low dissolved oxygen (DO 2 ) levels have been detected in contaminated areas DO 2 depression have been observed more than 80 km from the well head DO 2 depression likely due to increased biochemical oxygen demand to metabolize oil hydrocarbons DO 2 levels have not approached hypoxic levels DO 2 depression does not seem to be worsening due to mixing of high and low DO 2 waters
Water quality: Chemical levels Above normal oil and chemical levels have been observed in waters and sediments many miles from well head No samples exceeded the EPAs human health or dispersants benchmarks About 1% of samples exceeded aquatic life benchmark
Effects on Wildlife
Effects on Wildlife: Birds Seabirds can dive into oil slicks thinking they are calm water Oil makes birds unable to regulate body temperature Leads to hyperthermia
Marine Mammals Whales and dolphins can come up to breath in oil slicks Can cause respiratory problems or suffocation Dolphins have been known to follow clean up ships into slicks
Fish/Crustaceans/Mollusks Adult fish, shrimp, crabs, and oysters metabolize oil hydrocarbons (at different rates) Real threat is to shore line nursery areas Contamination can lead to death of future generations
Food Concerns Many people are suspicious of seafood from the Gulf Tests show there is little hazard from oil in seafood Animals metabolize hydrocarbons and remove them from their systems
Hesco units Seven hours to build 1500 sandbag equivalent
Absorbent & Containment Booms
Oil Skimming boats dont pick up 100% oil can harm environment themselves
CLEANING UP THE GULF OIL DISPERSANTS
Dispersant Use Breaks up oil before it reaches the beaches and marshes on land 1.8 million gallons were used on the surface and at source of oil leakage – more than has ever been used by the US before Dispersing the oil causes many marine animals to be subject to oil that would not have been without using dispersants, which have unknown effects
How Dispersant Works o Sprayed on surface of water, breaks oil down into tiny suspended droplets, over time broken down by oil-eating bacteria, sunlight, and wave action and dispersed throughout the ocean or sinks to the bottom o Toxic to marine animals that live/spawn/reproduce there, trades one ecosystem for another
Dispersal of Dispersants Most sprayed from airplanes, however in this specific instance was injected at the wells leaking riser a mile below the surface, effects of which had previously never been tested No idea how oil, dispersants, and bacteria will react under such high pressure, low temps and O2, and no light If oil not degraded by bacteria, could linger for decades on bottom of ocean floor or carried to deep sea coral reefs
Estimated Cost of Cleanup Former BP CEO Tony Hayward initially stated that BP would take full economic responsibility for all of those affected. On June 16, after meeting with President Obama, BP executives agreed to create a $20 billion spill response fund Attorney Kenneth Feinberg is in charge of this escrow account. By November, BP said it had sent $1.7 billion in checks. Estimates state that about $6 billion of the fund will be paid out in claims, including government aims and cleanup costs. Feinberg plans to return the remaining $14 billion to BP once all the settlements are paid out by August [ [
Companies Negatively Impacted Tourism in Florida is another industry that has been largely affected. The regions tourism industry is expected to be impacted for an additional 2.5 years and suffer a total loss of $22.7 billion. Tourism in Florida is another industry that has been largely affected. The regions tourism industry is expected to be impacted for an additional 2.5 years and suffer a total loss of $22.7 billion.
Companies Positively Impacted Clean Harbors, a company dedicated to coastal restoration, was employed to help in clean-up efforts. They saw an increase in market shares of at least 12%. Clean Harbors, a company dedicated to coastal restoration, was employed to help in clean-up efforts. They saw an increase in market shares of at least 12%. Nalco Holdings has benefited greatly from the oil spill. Production of Corexit has caused shares to increase dramatically, even as much as 6% in one day. Nalco Holdings has benefited greatly from the oil spill. Production of Corexit has caused shares to increase dramatically, even as much as 6% in one day.
Price Jumps/Supply and Demand There are 195 seafood processors across the Gulf Coast employing more than 9,000 workers and generating more than $1 billion in revenue a year. Seafood supply is down because fishermen who normally bring in the crabs, shrimp and fish have been employed with BP cleaning up the spill or have not been able to return to their fisheries because of the oil.
Price Jumps/Supply and Demand At the same time, demand is down because their longtime customers, such as restaurants and grocery chains, have turned to other sources or are skittish to buy Gulf seafood. This is a classic supply chain problem that is caused by tainted resources and a tainted reputation of where the product is coming from. oilspill08_ST_N.htm
Discussion Questions Should we continue to use oil dispersants as standard protocol for cleaning up oil spills considering what we now know and still dont know about their effects on other ecosystems?
Disregarding the dilution effects of the oceans, what is the potential distance that oil dispersants can be distributed? How?
Should we continue deep-sea fishing in the Gulf even with the oil contaminating the water?
Do you think it is right to allow companies to profit from the oil spill clean up especially when some of those companies were also involved in the failures that led to the spill?
Where should the finical aid come from? What majority should come from the government, BP, or tax payers. In the end how is the local economy and consumer affected?
Based off of the information that we have presented and that which you previously possessed, do you believe that the United States and the other Gulf Coast Nations should allow future offshore oil drilling?