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Polusi akibat tumpahan minyak di laut www.life.illinois.edu.

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Presentation on theme: "Polusi akibat tumpahan minyak di laut www.life.illinois.edu."— Presentation transcript:

1 Polusi akibat tumpahan minyak di laut

2 Exxon Valdez March 24, gallons (1 gallon sekitar 3,7 liter) 1100 miles of Alaskan coast Valdez was carrying 53 million gallons Impact on environment

3 Nowruz Oil Field Spill February 10- Semptember Persian Gulf, Iran 80 million gallons

4 Kolva River September 8, 1994 Kolva River, Russia Pipeline 84 million gallons

5 Atlantic Empress July 19, 1979 Off of Trinidad and Tobago 90 million gallons

6 Ixtoc 1 June 3, March 23, 1980 Bay of Campeche, Mexico 140 million gallons

7 1 st Gulf War January 19, 1991 Persian Gulf, Kuwait million gallons

8 Deep Water Horizon April 20 – July 15, 2010 Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana million gallons Effectively dead September 19, 2010

9 Dead Zone

10 Dead Zone

11 Dead Zone

12 Dead Zone

13 Dead Zone

14 Dead Zone Found worldwide, Gulf’s is one of the largest Hypoxic conditions occur because of runoff from farms in waters of the Mississippi-- promotes algal growth Leads to depletion of dissolved oxygen in water (kekurangan oksigen dalam air) Linked to fish kills in Gulf

15 If Containment Fails…. Formation of the Gulf Stream Entrance: Yucatan Strait Produces ‘Loop Current’ Exits: Florida Strait forming the Gulf Stream With the Gulf: Loop generates eddies

16 Containment Failure: the Global Scale “Conveyor Belt” Oil possibly limiting Gulf from receiving hot water from E. currents Lowers ability to warm N. hemisphere Eventually stop all currents???

17 Thus far…. Zone temperature changes Domino effect of continental climate change

18 Tumpahan minyak akan memperburuk kualitas air dan kehidupan biota

19 Water quality: Dissolved Oxygen Low dissolved oxygen (DO 2 ) levels have been detected in contaminated areas DO 2 depression have been observed more than 80 km from the well head DO 2 depression likely due to increased biochemical oxygen demand to metabolize oil hydrocarbons DO 2 levels have not approached hypoxic levels DO 2 depression does not seem to be worsening due to mixing of high and low DO 2 waters

20 Water quality: Chemical levels Above normal oil and chemical levels have been observed in waters and sediments many miles from well head No samples exceeded the EPA’s human health or dispersants benchmarks About 1% of samples exceeded aquatic life benchmark

21 Effects on Wildlife

22 Effects on Wildlife: Birds Seabirds can dive into oil slicks thinking they are calm water Oil makes birds unable to regulate body temperature Leads to hyperthermia

23 Marine Mammals Whales and dolphins can come up to breath in oil slicks Can cause respiratory problems or suffocation Dolphins have been known to follow clean up ships into slicks

24 Fish/Crustaceans/Mollusks Adult fish, shrimp, crabs, and oysters metabolize oil hydrocarbons (at different rates) Real threat is to shore line nursery areas Contamination can lead to death of future generations

25 /28/us/ spill-map.html

26 Food Concerns Many people are suspicious of seafood from the Gulf Tests show there is little hazard from oil in seafood Animals metabolize hydrocarbons and remove them from their systems

27 Hesco units Seven hours to build 1500 sandbag equivalent

28 Absorbent & Containment Booms

29 Oil Skimming boats don’t pick up 100% oil can harm environment themselves

30 Membersihkan minyak dengan Cara fisik (minyak langsung diambil) Cara kimia (dispersant) Cara biologi (mengaktifkan bakteri pemakan minyak)

31 Membersihkan minyak dengan OIL DISPERSANTS

32 Dispersant Use Breaks up oil before it reaches the beaches and marshes on land 1.8 million gallons were used on the surface and at source of oil leakage – more than has ever been used by the US before Dispersing the oil causes many marine animals to be subject to oil that would not have been without using dispersants, which have unknown effects

33 How Dispersant Works o Sprayed on surface of water, breaks oil down into tiny suspended droplets, over time broken down by oil-eating bacteria, sunlight, and wave action and dispersed throughout the ocean or sinks to the bottom o Toxic to marine animals that live/spawn/reproduce there, trades one ecosystem for another

34 Dispersant: campuran solvent (pelarut), surfactant dan senyawa tambahan lain): Melarutkan minyak dalam air, gelombang membantu memisahkan senyawa2 minyak, senyawa2 minyak terpisah (memudahkan bakteri memakannya)

35 Dispersal of Dispersants Most sprayed from airplanes, however in this specific instance was injected at the well’s leaking riser a mile below the surface, effects of which had previously never been tested No idea how oil, dispersants, and bacteria will react under such high pressure, low temps and O2, and no light If oil not degraded by bacteria, could linger for decades on bottom of ocean floor or carried to deep sea coral reefs

36

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38 Estimated Cost of Cleanup Former BP CEO Tony Hayward initially stated that BP would take full economic responsibility for all of those affected. On June 16, after meeting with President Obama, BP executives agreed to create a $20 billion spill response fund Attorney Kenneth Feinberg is in charge of this escrow account. By November, BP said it had sent $1.7 billion in checks. Estimates state that about $6 billion of the fund will be paid out in claims, including government aims and cleanup costs. Feinberg plans to return the remaining $14 billion to BP once all the settlements are paid out by August [ [

39 Companies Negatively Impacted Tourism in Florida is another industry that has been largely affected. The region’s tourism industry is expected to be impacted for an additional 2.5 years and suffer a total loss of $22.7 billion. Tourism in Florida is another industry that has been largely affected. The region’s tourism industry is expected to be impacted for an additional 2.5 years and suffer a total loss of $22.7 billion.

40 Companies Positively Impacted Clean Harbors, a company dedicated to coastal restoration, was employed to help in clean-up efforts. They saw an increase in market shares of at least 12%. Clean Harbors, a company dedicated to coastal restoration, was employed to help in clean-up efforts. They saw an increase in market shares of at least 12%. Nalco Holdings has benefited greatly from the oil spill. Production of Corexit has caused shares to increase dramatically, even as much as 6% in one day. Nalco Holdings has benefited greatly from the oil spill. Production of Corexit has caused shares to increase dramatically, even as much as 6% in one day.

41 Price Jumps/Supply and Demand There are 195 seafood processors across the Gulf Coast employing more than 9,000 workers and generating more than $1 billion in revenue a year. Seafood supply is down because fishermen who normally bring in the crabs, shrimp and fish have been employed with BP cleaning up the spill or have not been able to return to their fisheries because of the oil.

42 Price Jumps/Supply and Demand At the same time, demand is down because their longtime customers, such as restaurants and grocery chains, have turned to other sources or are skittish to buy Gulf seafood. This is a classic supply chain problem that is caused by tainted resources and a tainted reputation of where the product is coming from. oilspill08_ST_N.htm


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