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Introduction to Computers. An electronic, programmable device that: Input Accepts data in the form of Input Processing Manipulates that data by Processing.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Computers. An electronic, programmable device that: Input Accepts data in the form of Input Processing Manipulates that data by Processing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Computers

2 An electronic, programmable device that: Input Accepts data in the form of Input Processing Manipulates that data by Processing Output Produces results in the form of Output Storage Stores for future use through Storage devices 2 Slide

3 Four basic operations : 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Output 4. Storage 3 Slide

4 Computers perform operations comprising the information processing cycle to manipulate data into information and store for future use. Data Data is a collection of facts, or unprocessed items. Information Information is the portion of those facts that conveys meaning and is useful to the user. 4 Slide

5 Hardware Hardware-the physical components that make up a computer system. Six primary components include: Software- Software- detailed set of instructions that tells a computer exactly what to do. {aka Computer Program} Booting Booting is the process that loads the operating system into RAM (Random Access Memory). Input DevicesOutput Devices ProcessorStorage devices MemoryCommunication 5 Slide

6 Allow you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer. Keyboard Keyboard-contains keys you press to enter data. Mouse Mouse-pointing device that controls the pointer. Microphone Microphone-a device that converts sound waves into electrical energy to be broadcast, recorded or amplified. Scanner Scanner-light-sensing device that reads printed text and graphics and translates the results into digital form. Digital Camera Digital Camera -records photographic images, sound and/or video in digital form. 6 Slide

7 Graphics/Digitizing Tablet- Graphics/Digitizing Tablet-uses a stylus to sketch drawings or images on surface. Stylus Stylus-resembling a pen, uses pressure to input data. Touchpad Touchpad-controls pointer movements by sliding your fingertip on the pad. Touch Screens – Touch Screens –LCD display capable of sensing multiple points of contact. GameControllers Game Controllers-consist of game pads, joysticks, gloves, steering wheels, trackballs, etc. 7 Slide

8 Motherboard Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data. The Motherboard is the main circuit board and includes the processor, memory and expansion slots. 8 Slide

9 ProcessorCentralProcessingUnit CPU Processor, aka Central Processing Unit ( CPU )-is the brain of the computer that interprets and executes the instructions that operate a computer. Control Unit-interprets the instructions Arithmetic/Logic Unit-performs the logical and arithmetic processes. MemoryRandomAccessMemoryRAM Memory, aka Random Access Memory(RAM )- consists of the electronic components that temporarily store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor. 9 Slide

10 The amount of memory in computers is measured in bytes. TerabyteTB Terabyte (TB)- one trillion memory locations GigabyteGB Gigabyte (GB)-one billion memory locations MegabyteMB Megabyte (MB)-one million memory locations KilobyteK Kilobyte (K)-one thousand memory locations Byte Byte-one memory location 10 Slide

11 Make information resulting from processing available for use. Printers hard copy Impact Nonimpact Printers -produce a hard copy also called a printout and classified as either Impact or Nonimpact. Monitors soft copy Monitors -produce a soft copy that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information. Speakers Speakers -converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance. Projectors Projectors - an optical instrument that projects an enlarged image onto a screen. 11 Slide

12 ImpactPrinters Impact Printers -print by striking an inked ribbon against the paper. Dot-MatrixPrinter Dot-Matrix Printer -produces printed images when tiny pins strike an inked ribbon on continuous form paper. 12 Slide

13 Ink-jetPrinters Ink-jet Printers (DeskJet or Photo Printers)-produce images by using a nozzle that sprays tiny drops of ink onto a page. LaserPrinters Laser Printers -high-speed, highest- quality printers that form images to be printed from a beam of light focused on a photoconductor drum similar to a copying machine. NonimpactPrinters Nonimpact Printers -form characters by means other than striking a ribbon against paper. 13 Slide

14 Monitors Pixels Monitors are composed of individual picture elements called Pixels that form parts of a character or graphic shape on the screen. FlatPanelMonitors Flat Panel Monitors -take up much less desk space. LiquidCrystalDisplayLCD Liquid Crystal Display ( LCD )-Monitors use a liquid display crystal, similar to a digital watch, to produce images on the screen. CathodeRayTubeCRT Cathode Ray Tube ( CRT )-display graphics through technology used in most televisions. 14 Slide

15 Used to store instructions, data, and information when they are not being used in memory. Four basic types of storage media include: MagneticDisks Magnetic Disks OpticalDiscs Optical Discs Tape Tape MiniatureMobileStorageMedia Miniature Mobile Storage Media 15 Slide

16 HardDisk Hard Disk -contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that magnetically store data, instructions, and information. FloppyDisksDiskette Floppy Disks ( Diskette )- inexpensive portable storage medium. 3.5 only stores 1.44 MB Use magnetic particles to store items such as data, instructions, and information on a disks surface. 16 Slide

17 Track Track-a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of a disk. Sector Sector -pie-shaped storage section, which breaks the tracks into small arcs storing up to 512 bytes of data. Process of preparing a disk to be read from or written on by dividing the disk into tracks and sectors. 17 Slide

18 Flat, round, portable storage medium that reads and records data using laser technology. CD-ROMDVDROM CD-ROM & DVD - ROM (Read-Only Memory)-can read but not write on (record) or erase. CD-RDVD-R CD-R & DVD-R (Recordable)-record on each part only one time but cannot erase. CD-RW DVD-RW CD-RW & DVD-RW (Rewritable)-erasable optical discs you can write on multiple times. DVDsDigitalVersatileDiscs DVDs ( Digital Versatile Discs ) are the highest capacity optical discs capable of storing 4.7-17 GB. 18 Slide

19 Optical DiscReadWriteErase CD-ROM CD-R CD-RW DVD-ROM DVD-R DVD-RW 19 Slide

20 Backup Magnetically coated ribbon of plastic housed in a tape cartridge capable of storing large amounts of data at a low cost. Primarily used for long- term storage and Backup. Backup A Backup is a duplicate of a file, program, or disk that you can use in case the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed. 20 Slide

21 FlashMemoryCards Flash Memory Cards- solid-state media that consist entirely of electronics and contain no moving parts. USBFlashDrive USB Flash Drive - flash memory storage device that plugs into a USB port on a computer or mobile device. SmartCard Smart Card - stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in the card. 21 Slide

22 Your Introduction to Computers… Your Introduction to Computers…

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