Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS Using Light to Make Food. Photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on earth because: It provides food for virtually all organisms.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PHOTOSYNTHESIS Using Light to Make Food. Photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on earth because: It provides food for virtually all organisms."— Presentation transcript:

1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Using Light to Make Food

2 Photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on earth because: It provides food for virtually all organisms SWEET!!!!

3 BIG PICTURE: Photosynthesis Light energy is used to make sugar and other food molecules from carbon dioxide and water

4 Chemical Reaction 6 H 2 O + 6 CO > C 6 H 12 O O 2 sunlight How does this equation compare to the cell respiration one? Photosynthesis: An Overview of PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis: An Overview of Photosynthesis (click)

5 7.1 AUTOTROPH Autotrophs Self- feeders Make their own food Also referred to as: Producers = produce the biospheres food supply

6 Photosynthetic Plants Diatoms (microscopic) Kelp (ocean) Forests (land)

7 Leaf Structure

8 1. Stoma (sing.) in leaf lower epidermis Is the opening carbon dioxide, oxygen. And water in/out Stomata (pl.)

9 Leaf CS 2. Upper Epidermis 4. Mesophyll- cells containing chloroplasts 3. Lower epidermis Covers and protects see stoma –in lower epidermis only

10 4. Mesophyll = Palisade Layer + Spongy Layer

11 5. Cuticle Waxy, waterproof coating (to retain H 2 O)

12 6. Palisade Layer cylindrical cells, vertically oriented, closely packed

13 7. Spongy Layer cells are irregular in shape and loosely packed O 2,CO 2, H 2 0 vapor go in/out

14 8. Guard Cells Control Stomata Full guard cells (turgid) opens the stoma. Flaccid (lost water) guard cells, the stoma closes. ANIMATION: StomaStoma What causes them to open? What goes into the stomata?

15 9. Plant Vein: Xylem + Phloem Xylem-( blue ) carries water Phloem (thicker cell wall )- ( yellow ) carries food

16 10: Air Space Gas Flow Through Leaf

17 Guard Cells Animations LabBench (guard cell animation)LabBench Another animation of opening and closing of guard cells nc/bio111/animations/0021.swfhttp://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandso nc/bio111/animations/0021.swf (really nice)

18 Water Movement LINK: show/transpiration.swf show/transpiration.swf

19 Draw the Elodea Cell 400X

20 Leaf CS (cross section)

21 Photosynthesis in Elodea Lab See oxygen bubbles coming from the Elodea What conditions are best?

22 Elodea Bubbles Movie sLowlife Exhibit

23 7.2

24 Chloroplast

25 Chloroplast Diagram Stroma = thick fluid between the thylakoids thylakoids = disks within the chloroplasts granum=stack of thylakoids (grana pl.)

26 GRANA What is the difference between grana and granum?

27 STROMA So whats the difference between the stoma and the stroma? STOMA = opening in lower epidermis STROMA = area around thylakoid disks in the chloroplast

28 Chloroplast Diagram Stromal lamella = connect grana D. Outer Membrane Thylakoid membrane Thylakoid space Intermembrane Space Inner Membrane

29 Chloroplasts TEM Note the stacks of thylakoid disks = grana Note area between = stroma

30 THYLAKOIDS

31 Photosynthesis

32 Summary IN

33 Summary OUT

34 Nice Little Photosynthesis Movies VCAC: Cellular Processes: Photosynthesis: The MovieVCAC: Cellular Processes: Photosynthesis: The Movie VCAC: Cellular Processes: Photosystem II: The MovieVCAC: Cellular Processes: Photosystem II: The Movie

35 7.5 Overview of Photosynthesis

36 What happens here? Light Dependent Reaction (LDR) Converts light energy to chemical energy + O 2 Light Independent Reaction (LIR) Assembles sugar molecules using CO 2

37 Where does energy come from? Light Dependent Reaction LDR Uses light energy Light Independent Reaction LIR (Calvin Cycle) uses ATP and NADPH (from LDR)

38 PSI and PSII PSI and PSII animation Another PSI and PSII animation

39 Where is it located in the cell? LDR occurs in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts grana LIR (aka Calvin cycle) occurs in stroma of chloroplast

40 Final Products of Each? LDR ATP and NADPH Also O 2 LIR sugar

41 NEW VOCAB. WORD Carbon fixation = incorporation of carbon into an organic molecule (useable) EXAMPLE: CO 2 into C 6 H 12 O 6 FIXATION = make in a usable form

42 LIGHT CHLOROPHYLL

43 Pigments in Plants Pigments are light-absorbing molecules Different pigments absorb or reflect different colors

44 Chlorophyll a wavelengths absorbed: blue-violet and red Reflects: grass green Wavelength

45 Chlorophyll b Absorbs: blue and orange Reflects: yellow-green An accessory chlorophyll in plants

46 Other pigments in plants Absorb: blue-green Reflect: yellow- orange Carotenoids- orange

47 FYI Why do leaves change color? As fall comes there are shorter days of sunlight Less photosynthesis means less food for plants. Chlorophyll breaks down and exposes the other colors that were there all along, but were masked by the green chlorophyll.

48 DO WORKSHEET Absorption of Chlorophyll Photosynthesis: The Action Spectrum for Photosynthesis (experiment link)Photosynthesis: The Action Spectrum for Photosynthesis

49 Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b

50 7.7 Electromagnetic Photosynthesis: Electromagnetic Energy (move the arrow)

51 #1 What are… Fixed quantity (packet) of energy PHOTONS

52 WAVES Distance between crests of two waves Λ = symbol for wavelength

53 Light travels as waves and as photons Wave-particle theory

54 PHOTONS Smallest unit of light emitted when an electron jumps to a more excited state named by Einstein light

55 Shorter the wavelength... The greater the energy

56 #2 When an e- in a pigment absorbs a photon... Electron goes from ground state to excited state

57 Energy from the sun ANIMATION: Atomic absorption diagram (how energy causes an electron to jump levels) Atomic absorption diagram

58 #3 Excited State is Very Unstable As e- falls back to the ground state it might: lose energy as heat emit light gives off a photon IN A CHLOROPHYLL MOLECULE IT WILL …

59 PHOTOSYSTEM

60 Now for photosynthesis

61 #3 + #4 Chlorophyll passes its photon to: A neighboring molecule called the primary electron acceptor

62 Reaction Center of Chlorophyll Chlorophyll a is the only one that donates to the primary acceptor CENTER

63 Pigments in a Photosystem (Light RXN) reaction center Figure 7.11 Page 122

64 Light capturing Antenna Transfer light energy to the reaction center

65

66 #4 Photosystem = PS Antenna molecules + reaction center + primary electron acceptor

67 Cyclic Electron Flow (Light RXN) electron acceptor electron transfer chain e–e– e–e– e–e– e–e– ATP Electron flow through transfer chain sets up conditions for ATP formation at other membrane sites. Figure 7.12 Page 122

68 #5 TWO photosystems: PS I and PS II: absorbs λ (λ = wavelength) PS I -P 700 nm PS II -P 680 nm

69 Animations P700 and P680 Animation Making ATP and NADPH (Light Dependent Reaction)Making ATP and NADPH (Light Dependent Reaction)

70

71 7.8 In light reaction: ETC generates ATP, NADPH, O 2 1. Light energy is absorbed 2. Electrons excited 3. Energy from ETC used to make ATP and NADPH

72 WATER

73 #2 PS II: Breaking up water The P680 requires an electron, which is taken from a water molecule, breaking the water into H+ ions and O -2 ions. These form the O 2 that is released. 2 H 2 O e- + 4H+

74 What process drives each? NADPH forming ATP forming O 2 formation Redox and ETC Chemiosmosis Redox and ETC

75 NOTE: Final Electron Acceptor is NADPH Not Oxygen (Oxygen is given off) in Light Reaction of Photosynthesis

76 Animation Making Oxygen (Youll love the noises)Making Oxygen (I hate em)

77 Chemiosmosis Again #1 Remember chemiosmosis in cellular respiration, well, here it is again.

78 7.9 Question #2 PS I: Forming H+ ions to form ATP By chemiosmosis

79 7.9 #3 There would now be more H+ ions located: Came from the stroma and went to the thylakoid interior

80 7.9 #4 The H+ ions move through what port to move back into the stroma? ATP synthase

81 #5 Photophosphorylation is the process of converting energy from a light-excited electron into the phosphate bond of an ADP molecule into ATP. This occurs when the electrons from water are excited by the light in the presence of P680.

82 CALVIN CYCLE Or the LIR

83

84 Can the Calvin Cycle also be called the dark reaction? PEANUT: It does not need light to run, but it can also run during light. So…the dark cycle term is not used anymore.

85 Animation Noncyclic photophosphorylationNoncyclic photophosphorylation (THIS ONE IS MY FAVORITE) Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation (first one is very detailed, second one is better for HS)Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Photosynthetic ETC and ATP SynthesisPhotosynthetic ETC and ATP Synthesis

86 View Me Photosynthetic Electron Transport and ATP SynthesisPhotosynthetic Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis

87

88 7.10 #1 Calvin Cycle Uses the CO 2 (from the atmosphere) and ATP and NADPH (from light reactions) to run the sugar factory

89 Step 1: Carbon Fixation RUBISCO ENZYME combines 3 molecules of CO 2 with ribulose bisphosphate (5-C) RuBP makes 6-C

90 #2 G3P Glyceraldehyde- 3 phosphate the energy-rich molecule made in the Calvin cycle it can be used to make glucose or other organic molecules

91 #3 The enzyme rubisco combines with CO 2 to form 3-C molecule, 3PGA

92 #4 It takes 6 turns to make one glucose molecle

93 Regeneration of RuBP Energy from ATP is used to reform RuBP molecules (hey, its recyclable!)

94 Calvin Cycle Occurs in stroma of chloroplasts

95 7.11 Review of Photosynthesis

96 Summary: Calvin Cycle

97 Overall Equation

98 QUIZ TIME: structures The light reactions (LDR) of photosynthesis occur in the __________, and the Calvin cycle (LIR) occus in the __________ of the chloroplast.

99 ANSWER The light reaction occurs in the thylakoid membranes and the dark reaction occurs in the stroma.

100 Which equation summarizes photosynthesis? A. water + starch ---> glucose + glucose + glucose B. water + carbon dioxide ---> oxygen + glucose + water C. glucose + oxygen ---> water + carbon dioxide + ATP D. glucose + glucose ---> maltose + water

101 ANSWER B. water + carbon dioxide ---> oxygen + glucose + water

102 In what organelle does photosynthesis occur? A. the nucleus B. chloroplasts C. the vacuole D. the cell wall

103 ANSWER B. Chloroplast

104 QUESTION: Four identical plants are grown under different colored light bulbs. Under which color will the release of oxygen gas be slowest? A. Green B. blue C. orange D. red

105 ANSWER: A. Green

106 QUIZ TIME The reason why ADP + P form ATP in thylakoid membranes is… A movement of electrons between photosystem II and photosystem I. B oxidation of water C oxidation of NADPH D absorption of photons by chloroplast pigments E higher concentration of H+ inside versus outside the thylakoid membranes

107 ANSWER E. a higher concentration of H+ ions inside vs. outside the thylakoid membranes

108 QUIZ TIME Water is broken down and the electrons from water pass through photosystem II and photosystem I before adding e- to: A carbon dioxide B NADP+ C plastoquinones D FAD E rubisco

109 ANSWER NADP+ to make higher energy NADPH

110 QUIZ TIME Which of the following would have the smallest effect on the rate of photosynthesis in a green plant? A. carbon dioxide concentration B. light intensity C. oxygen concentration D. water available

111 ANSWER: C. oxygen concentration

112 QUIZ TIME During photosynthetic electron transport, the interior compartment of the thylakoid membranes becomes: A. more concentrated with ATP B. more concentrated with H+ ions C. less concentrated with H+ ions

113 HINT: Distribution of H+ ions Light Rx more inside Dark Rx Even in and out

114 ANSWER More concentrated with H+ ions

115 QUIZ TIME Which of the following is produced during photosynthesis? A. carbon dioxide B. lactic acid C. DNA D. PGAL

116 ANSWER D. PGAL

117 QUIZ TIME Atmospheric oxygen that is inhaled by animals comes from: A. carbon dioxide molecules split during the light reactions B. carbon dioxide split during the dark reactions C. water molecules split during the light reactions D. water molecules split during the dark reactions

118 ANSWER C. water molecules split during the light reactions

119 QUIZ TIME What change occurs during photosynthesis? A. solar energy is converted to chemical energy B. kinetic energy is converted to chemical energy C. chemical energy is converted to radiant energy D. water is converted to chemical energy

120 ANSWER A. solar energy is converted to chemical energy

121 Cuticle Epidermis Guard cells Palisade Phloem Xylem Spongy Mesophyll Stomata Bundle Sheath

122 A=cuticle B=Upper epidermis C=Vein D=Phloem E=xylem F=Palisade layer G=spongy layer H=guard cell I=stomata

123 QUIZ TIME The overall source of energy for photosynthesis is: A. energy from the sun B. energy from ATP C. energy when oxygen is produced

124 ANSWER A. energy from the sun

125 QUIZ TIME What three events occur during the light reactions of photosynthesis? –Forming ATP –NADP+ to NADPH –Fixing CO 2 –Releasing O 2

126 ANSWER –Forming ATP –NADP+ to NADPH –Releasing O 2

127 QUIZ TIME Which of the following does not happen in photosystem I? –ATP is produced –electron transport in the thylakoid membranes –light energy is used –NADPH is formed

128 HINT

129 ANSWER (which is NOT) NADPH is formed

130 QUIZ TIME Where does the Calvin Cycle take place? –Thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts –Stroma of chloroplasts –Matrix of mitochondria –Inner membrane of mitochondria

131 ANSWER Stroma of chloroplasts

132 QUIZ TIME What is the name of the enzyme that causes CO 2 to form glucose? –ATPase –glucosease –rubisco

133 ANSWER rubisco

134 QUIZ TIME What two high energy compounds are required for this reaction? –ATP –NADH –NADPH –ADP –FADH

135 ANSWER ATP and NADPH

136 QUIZ TIME What is the name of the process in which carbon dioxide is made into glucose? –Krebs cycle –Calvin cycle –Einstein cycle

137 ANSWER CALVIN CYCLE (or sometimes the Calvin-Bensen Cycle)

138 QUIZ TIME Which does NOT happen in the Dark Reaction: –using ATP –using NADPH –using Carbon Dioxide –making water

139 ANSWER MAKING WATER

140 QUIZ TIME What are the products of the dark reaction? –ATP –ADP –glucose –CO 2 –NADP+

141 ANSWER ADP NADP+ glucose

142 QUIZ TIME The reason why ADP + P form ATP in thylakoid membranes is… A movement of electrons between photosystem II and photosystem I. B oxidation of water C oxidation of NADPH D absorption of photons by chloroplast pigments E higher concentration of H+ inside versus outside the thylakoid membranes

143 ANSWER a higher concentration of H+ ions inside vs. outside the thylakoid membranes

144 QUIZ TIME During photosynthetic electron transport, the interior compartment of the thylakoid membranes becomes: A. more concentrated with ATP B. more concentrated with H+ ions C. less concentrated with H+ ions

145 ANSWER More concentrated with H+ ions

146 QUIZ TIME The overall source of energy for photosynthesis is: A. energy from the sun B. energy from ATP C. energy when oxygen is produced

147 ANSWER A. energy from the sun

148 QUIZ TIME What three events occur during the light reactions of photosynthesis? –Forming ATP –NADP+ to NADPH –Fixing CO 2 –Releasing O 2

149 ANSWER –Forming ATP –NADP+ to NADPH –Releasing O 2

150 QUIZ TIME What is the name of the process in which carbon dioxide is made into glucose? –Krebs cycle –Calvin cycle –Einstein cycle

151 ANSWER CALVIN CYCLE (or sometimes the Calvin-Bensen Cycle)


Download ppt "PHOTOSYNTHESIS Using Light to Make Food. Photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on earth because: It provides food for virtually all organisms."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google