2Carbon CyclePhotosynthesis is a major part of the Carbon Cycle – the tracking of carbon through the BiosphereDuring photosynthesis plants and other autotrophs use carbon dioxide, solar energy and water to produce carbohydratesAutotrophs and Heterotrophs use oxygen to break down carbohydrates during cellular respiration releasing CO2 and H2ODecomposers release CO2 during the breakdown of organic compounds
3AUTOTROPHS = organisms that manufacture their own food from inorganic substances and energy (plants, algae, bacteria)Photoautotrophs – use lightChemoautotrophs- use inorganic substances such as sulfur or ammonia as an energy source“producers”Chemical energy usually stored as carbohydratesHeterotrophs = organisms that cannot make their own energy and have to consume autotrophs or other heterotrophsConsumersIndirectly all life depends upon autotrophsChemoautotroph = autotrophs that get their energy from chemicals
4Biochemical PathwaysSeries of chemical reactions in which the products of one reaction are used up in the next reaction.Photosynthesis is a biochemical reaction using CO2 and H2O leading to the release of Oxygen O2
5Cellular Respiration is another biochemical pathway in which both autotrophs and heterotrophs convert organic compounds and O2 into ATP, CO2 and H2OO2 + C6H12O6 → CO2 + H2O + ATPChemosynthesis is a third biochemical pathway which uses heat energy in place of light energy.CO2 + H2SO4 + Heat → C6H12O6 +S
6Cross section of a leaf Epidermis – Protective layer Mesophyll – Thick layer of leaf where most photosynthesis takes placeStomata – Cells which open and close to regulate gas exchange.
8Anatomy of a Chloroplast Light reactions-the initial reactions in photosynthesisChloroplast – organelle found in plants or algae surrounded by two membranesThylakoid – Flattened membrane diskGrana – Stack of thylakoids within the chloroplastStroma – solution that surrounds the thylakoids
10Light Absorption in Chloroplasts Most Chloroplasts are in the Mesophyll
11Visible SpectrumVisible spectrum - light is detectable by the human eye ROYGBIV ( nm)Light travels in a series of waves, and can be measured in terms of wavelength. Different colors have different wavelengths.Light behaves as if it consists of particles called photons.Sun radiates the full spectrum of electromagnetic energy
12Reflected (how you see things) Transmitted (passed through) Light can beReflected (how you see things)Transmitted (passed through)Absorbed (changed from light energy to another form)Pigments – substances that absorb visible light.They absorb different wavelengths.An object is given color when it absorbs all other colors of light.* Each pigment has a characteristic absorption spectrum which can be determined by a spectrophotometer.
13Absorption SpectrumChlorophyll – found in thylakoid and used for photosynthesischlorophyll a – absorbs less blue and more red than bchlorophyll b – absorbs more blue and less red
14Chlorophyll b – Accessory pigment (green-yellow pigment _ PIGMENTS IN PLANTSChlorophyll a molecules can participate directly in the light reaction (photosynthesis); accessory pigments help by transferring energy to chlorophyll aChlorophyll b – Accessory pigment (green-yellow pigment _Carotenoids – Other pigments found in thylakoids acting as accessory pigments (yellow, orange, and/or pink )Accessory pigments allow plants to captureMore energy from lightAnthocyanin – Reds, purples and bluesXanthophyll's - yellows
15Photosynthesis has 2 stages LIGHT REACTION (light dependent reaction): convert light energy to chemical bond energy in ATP and NADPHOccurs on the thylakoidsNADP+ NADPHOxygen is a byproductGenerates ATPCALVIN CYCLE (light independent reaction) – take carbon dioxide and REDUCE it to carbs/organic compoundsOccurs in the stromaCarbon fixationDoes not require light directlyNADPH provides the reducing powerATP provides the chemical energy
16Electron TransportPhotosystem – a cluster of chlorophyll and carotenoids within a thylakoid membrane.Two types- Photosystem I and photosystem II.
17Light Reaction Occur in the thylakoid membrane Both photosystems accessory pigments absorb light, acquiring energy.This energy is passed on until it reaches a specific pair of chlorophyll a molecules.1. Light energy forces electrons to enter a higher level in the two chlorophyll a molecules of photosystem II.
18Light Reactions2.The excited electrons have enough energy to leave the chlorophyll a molecule and go to the primary electron acceptor.3. The primary electron acceptor donates the electrons to the first molecule of a series known as the electron transport chain. The electrons lose energy as they are passed through this chain. The energy they loose is used to move protons into the thylakoid.
19Light Reactions4. At the same time photosystem I is also putting energy into electrons from a chlorophyll a molecule and passing them to another primary electron acceptor. These electrons are replaced by the electrons that have come through the electron chain from photosystem II.5. The primary electron acceptor from photosystem I donates electrons to a different electron chain bringing them toThe side of the thylakoid membrane that
20faces the stroma. Where they combine with a proton (H+) and a NADP+ molecule. This reduces NADP+ to NADPH.
21Restoring Photosystem II The electrons in photosystem II are replaced by the splitting of water into 02, 4e-, and 4H+.2H20 = 4H+ + 4e- + 02The protons are left in the thylakoid while 02 diffuses out of the plant.
22Chemiosmosis Chemiosmosis- the synthesis of ATP. Relies on the concentration gradient of protons across the thylakoid membrane. High concentration inside thylakoid, low in the stroma.ATP synthase- a protein located in the thylakoid membrane that make ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP.The energy for this reaction is supplied by the movement of protons through the protein.
23NADPH and ATP supply the energy for the second set of reactions of photosynthesis.